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Primary ciliary dyskinesia 20(CILD20)

MedGen UID:
761920
Concept ID:
C3540844
Disease or Syndrome
Synonym: CILIARY DYSKINESIA, PRIMARY, 20, WITH OR WITHOUT SITUS INVERSUS
 
Gene (location): ODAD1 (19q13.33)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0014030
OMIM®: 615067

Definition

CILD20 is an autosomal recessive ciliopathy characterized by infantile onset of chronic sinopulmonary infections resulting from immotile cilia and defective clearance. Patients may also have situs inversus or cardiac anomalies. Electron microscopy of respiratory epithelial cells shows absence of the outer dynein arms. Unlike other forms of CILD, patients with CILD20 do not appear to be infertile. For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of primary ciliary dyskinesia, see 244400. [from OMIM]

Clinical features

From HPO
Decreased fertility
MedGen UID:
452706
Concept ID:
C0729353
Finding
Aortic valve stenosis
MedGen UID:
1621
Concept ID:
C0003507
Pathologic Function
The presence of a stenosis (narrowing) of the aortic valve.
Dextrocardia
MedGen UID:
4255
Concept ID:
C0011813
Congenital Abnormality
The heart is located in the right hand sided hemithorax. That is, there is a left-right reversal (or "mirror reflection") of the anatomical location of the heart in which the heart is locate on the right side instead of the left.
Double outlet right ventricle
MedGen UID:
41649
Concept ID:
C0013069
Congenital Abnormality
Double outlet right ventricle (DORV) is a type of ventriculoarterial connection in which both great vessels arise entirely or predominantly from the right ventricle.
Ventricular septal defect
MedGen UID:
42366
Concept ID:
C0018818
Congenital Abnormality
A hole between the two bottom chambers (ventricles) of the heart. The defect is centered around the most superior aspect of the ventricular septum.
Pulmonary artery stenosis
MedGen UID:
65965
Concept ID:
C0238397
Anatomical Abnormality
An abnormal narrowing or constriction of the pulmonary artery, in the main pulmonary artery and/or in the left or right pulmonary artery branches.
Persistent left superior vena cava
MedGen UID:
75586
Concept ID:
C0265931
Congenital Abnormality
A rare congenital vascular anomaly that results when the left superior cardinal vein caudal to the innominate vein fails to regress.
Pulmonary arterial hypertension
MedGen UID:
425404
Concept ID:
C2973725
Disease or Syndrome
Pulmonary hypertension is defined mean pulmonary artery pressure of 25mmHg or more and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure of 15mmHg or less when measured by right heart catheterisation at rest and in a supine position.
Atrial situs inversus
MedGen UID:
868901
Concept ID:
C4023312
Congenital Abnormality
Mirror image atrial arrangement, with morphologic right atrium on the left hand side and morphologic left atrium on the right hand side.
Situs inversus
MedGen UID:
1642262
Concept ID:
C4551493
Congenital Abnormality
A left-right reversal (or "mirror reflection") of the anatomical location of the major thoracic and abdominal organs.
Atelectasis
MedGen UID:
13946
Concept ID:
C0004144
Pathologic Function
Collapse of part of a lung associated with absence of inflation (air) of that part.
Bronchiectasis
MedGen UID:
14234
Concept ID:
C0006267
Disease or Syndrome
Persistent abnormal dilatation of the bronchi owing to localized and irreversible destruction and widening of the large airways.
Primary ciliary dyskinesia
MedGen UID:
3467
Concept ID:
C0008780
Disease or Syndrome
Primary ciliary dyskinesia is a disorder characterized by chronic respiratory tract infections, abnormally positioned internal organs, and the inability to have children (infertility). The signs and symptoms of this condition are caused by abnormal cilia and flagella. Cilia are microscopic, finger-like projections that stick out from the surface of cells. They are found in the linings of the airway, the reproductive system, and other organs and tissues. Flagella are tail-like structures, similar to cilia, that propel sperm cells forward.\n\nIn the respiratory tract, cilia move back and forth in a coordinated way to move mucus towards the throat. This movement of mucus helps to eliminate fluid, bacteria, and particles from the lungs. Most babies with primary ciliary dyskinesia experience breathing problems at birth, which suggests that cilia play an important role in clearing fetal fluid from the lungs. Beginning in early childhood, affected individuals develop frequent respiratory tract infections. Without properly functioning cilia in the airway, bacteria remain in the respiratory tract and cause infection. People with primary ciliary dyskinesia also have year-round nasal congestion and a chronic cough. Chronic respiratory tract infections can result in a condition called bronchiectasis, which damages the passages, called bronchi, leading from the windpipe to the lungs and can cause life-threatening breathing problems.\n\nApproximately 12 percent of people with primary ciliary dyskinesia have a condition known as heterotaxy syndrome or situs ambiguus, which is characterized by abnormalities of the heart, liver, intestines, or spleen. These organs may be structurally abnormal or improperly positioned. In addition, affected individuals may lack a spleen (asplenia) or have multiple spleens (polysplenia). Heterotaxy syndrome results from problems establishing the left and right sides of the body during embryonic development. The severity of heterotaxy varies widely among affected individuals.\n\nSome individuals with primary ciliary dyskinesia have abnormally placed organs within their chest and abdomen. These abnormalities arise early in embryonic development when the differences between the left and right sides of the body are established. About 50 percent of people with primary ciliary dyskinesia have a mirror-image reversal of their internal organs (situs inversus totalis). For example, in these individuals the heart is on the right side of the body instead of on the left. Situs inversus totalis does not cause any apparent health problems. When someone with primary ciliary dyskinesia has situs inversus totalis, they are often said to have Kartagener syndrome.\n\nPrimary ciliary dyskinesia can also lead to infertility. Vigorous movements of the flagella are necessary to propel the sperm cells forward to the female egg cell. Because their sperm do not move properly, males with primary ciliary dyskinesia are usually unable to father children. Infertility occurs in some affected females and is likely due to abnormal cilia in the fallopian tubes.\n\nAnother feature of primary ciliary dyskinesia is recurrent ear infections (otitis media), especially in young children. Otitis media can lead to permanent hearing loss if untreated. The ear infections are likely related to abnormal cilia within the inner ear.\n\nRarely, individuals with primary ciliary dyskinesia have an accumulation of fluid in the brain (hydrocephalus), likely due to abnormal cilia in the brain.
Hemoptysis
MedGen UID:
5502
Concept ID:
C0019079
Sign or Symptom
Coughing up (expectoration) of blood or blood-streaked sputum from the larynx, trachea, bronchi, or lungs.
Productive cough
MedGen UID:
66781
Concept ID:
C0239134
Finding
A cough that produces phlegm or mucus.
Recurrent sinusitis
MedGen UID:
107919
Concept ID:
C0581354
Disease or Syndrome
A recurrent form of sinusitis.
Recurrent pneumonia
MedGen UID:
195802
Concept ID:
C0694550
Disease or Syndrome
An increased susceptibility to pneumonia as manifested by a history of recurrent episodes of pneumonia.
Rhinorrhea
MedGen UID:
226777
Concept ID:
C1260880
Sign or Symptom
Increased discharge of mucus from the nose.
Respiratory insufficiency due to defective ciliary clearance
MedGen UID:
765013
Concept ID:
C3552099
Finding
Recurrent respiratory infections
MedGen UID:
812812
Concept ID:
C3806482
Finding
An increased susceptibility to respiratory infections as manifested by a history of recurrent respiratory infections.
Absent outer dynein arms
MedGen UID:
868590
Concept ID:
C4022989
Finding
Absence of the outer dynein arms of respiratory motile cilia, which normally are situated outside of the peripheral microtubules of motile cilia. This feature is usually appreciated by electron microscopy.
Recurrent otitis media
MedGen UID:
155436
Concept ID:
C0747085
Disease or Syndrome
Increased susceptibility to otitis media, as manifested by recurrent episodes of otitis media.

Term Hierarchy

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Takeuchi K, Abo M, Date H, Gotoh S, Kamijo A, Kaneko T, Keicho N, Kodama S, Koinuma G, Kondo M, Masuda S, Mori E, Morimoto K, Nagao M, Nakano A, Nakatani K, Nishida N, Nishikido T, Ohara H, Okinaka Y, Sakaida H, Shiraishi K, Suzaki I, Tojima I, Tsunemi Y, Kainuma K, Ota N, Takeno S, Fujieda S
Auris Nasus Larynx 2024 Jun;51(3):553-568. Epub 2024 Mar 27 doi: 10.1016/j.anl.2024.02.001. PMID: 38537559
Goutaki M, Lam YT, Alexandru M, Anagiotos A, Armengot M, Boon M, Burgess A, Caversaccio N, Crowley S, Dheyauldeen SAD, Emiralioglu N, Erdem E, van Gogh C, Gunaydin O, Haarman EG, Harris A, Hayn I, Ismail-Koch H, Karadag B, Kempeneers C, Kim S, Lorent N, Ozcelik U, Pioch C, Poirrier AML, Reula A, Roehmel J, Yiallouros P, Yumusakhuylu AC, Papon JF
JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2023 Jul 1;149(7):587-596. doi: 10.1001/jamaoto.2023.0841. PMID: 37166807Free PMC Article
Ullmann N, Santamaria F, Allegorico A, Fainardi V, Borrelli M, Ferraro VA, Proietti E, Parisi GF, Romagnoli V, Lucca F, Gallucci M, Mappa L, Lelli M, Amato D, Petrarca L, Cimino G, Sacco O, Calogero C, Patria MF, Acquafredda A, Ferlisi A, Maschio M, Kantar A, Cutrera R
Pediatr Pulmonol 2023 Apr;58(4):1127-1135. Epub 2023 Jan 9 doi: 10.1002/ppul.26303. PMID: 36588099

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Goutaki M, Lam YT, Alexandru M, Anagiotos A, Armengot M, Boon M, Burgess A, Caversaccio N, Crowley S, Dheyauldeen SAD, Emiralioglu N, Erdem E, van Gogh C, Gunaydin O, Haarman EG, Harris A, Hayn I, Ismail-Koch H, Karadag B, Kempeneers C, Kim S, Lorent N, Ozcelik U, Pioch C, Poirrier AML, Reula A, Roehmel J, Yiallouros P, Yumusakhuylu AC, Papon JF
JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2023 Jul 1;149(7):587-596. doi: 10.1001/jamaoto.2023.0841. PMID: 37166807Free PMC Article
Kinghorn B, Rosenfeld M, Sullivan E, Onchiri F, Ferkol TW, Sagel SD, Dell SD, Milla C, Shapiro AJ, Sullivan KM, Zariwala MA, Pittman JE, Mollica F, Tiddens HAWM, Kemner-van de Corput M, Knowles MR, Davis SD, Leigh MW
Ann Am Thorac Soc 2023 Apr;20(4):539-547. doi: 10.1513/AnnalsATS.202206-524OC. PMID: 36442147Free PMC Article
Barber AT, Shapiro AJ, Davis SD, Ferkol TW, Atkinson JJ, Sagel SD, Dell SD, Olivier KN, Milla CE, Rosenfeld M, Li L, Lin FC, Sullivan KM, Capps NA, Zariwala MA, Knowles MR, Leigh MW
Ann Am Thorac Soc 2023 Mar;20(3):397-405. doi: 10.1513/AnnalsATS.202206-487OC. PMID: 36342963Free PMC Article
Spencer S, Donovan T, Chalmers JD, Mathioudakis AG, McDonnell MJ, Tsang A, Leadbetter P
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2022 Jan 5;1(1):CD013254. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD013254.pub2. PMID: 34985761Free PMC Article
Jiao SY, Yang YH, Chen SR
Hum Reprod Update 2021 Jan 4;27(1):154-189. doi: 10.1093/humupd/dmaa034. PMID: 33118031

Diagnosis

Ringshausen FC, Shapiro AJ, Nielsen KG, Mazurek H, Pifferi M, Donn KH, van der Eerden MM, Loebinger MR, Zariwala MA, Leigh MW, Knowles MR, Ferkol TW; CLEAN-PCD investigators and study team
Lancet Respir Med 2024 Jan;12(1):21-33. Epub 2023 Aug 31 doi: 10.1016/S2213-2600(23)00226-6. PMID: 37660715
Ullmann N, Santamaria F, Allegorico A, Fainardi V, Borrelli M, Ferraro VA, Proietti E, Parisi GF, Romagnoli V, Lucca F, Gallucci M, Mappa L, Lelli M, Amato D, Petrarca L, Cimino G, Sacco O, Calogero C, Patria MF, Acquafredda A, Ferlisi A, Maschio M, Kantar A, Cutrera R
Pediatr Pulmonol 2023 Apr;58(4):1127-1135. Epub 2023 Jan 9 doi: 10.1002/ppul.26303. PMID: 36588099
Legendre M, Zaragosi LE, Mitchison HM
Semin Cell Dev Biol 2021 Feb;110:19-33. Epub 2020 Dec 2 doi: 10.1016/j.semcdb.2020.11.007. PMID: 33279404
Jiao SY, Yang YH, Chen SR
Hum Reprod Update 2021 Jan 4;27(1):154-189. doi: 10.1093/humupd/dmaa034. PMID: 33118031
Takeuchi K, Kitano M, Ishinaga H, Kobayashi M, Ogawa S, Nakatani K, Masuda S, Nagao M, Fujisawa T
Auris Nasus Larynx 2016 Jun;43(3):229-36. Epub 2015 Oct 31 doi: 10.1016/j.anl.2015.09.012. PMID: 26527516

Therapy

Cardinale F, La Torre F, Tricarico LG, Verriello G, Mastrorilli C
Curr Pediatr Rev 2024;20(3):203-215. doi: 10.2174/1573396320666230912103056. PMID: 37702165
Ringshausen FC, Shapiro AJ, Nielsen KG, Mazurek H, Pifferi M, Donn KH, van der Eerden MM, Loebinger MR, Zariwala MA, Leigh MW, Knowles MR, Ferkol TW; CLEAN-PCD investigators and study team
Lancet Respir Med 2024 Jan;12(1):21-33. Epub 2023 Aug 31 doi: 10.1016/S2213-2600(23)00226-6. PMID: 37660715
Ullmann N, Santamaria F, Allegorico A, Fainardi V, Borrelli M, Ferraro VA, Proietti E, Parisi GF, Romagnoli V, Lucca F, Gallucci M, Mappa L, Lelli M, Amato D, Petrarca L, Cimino G, Sacco O, Calogero C, Patria MF, Acquafredda A, Ferlisi A, Maschio M, Kantar A, Cutrera R
Pediatr Pulmonol 2023 Apr;58(4):1127-1135. Epub 2023 Jan 9 doi: 10.1002/ppul.26303. PMID: 36588099
Spencer S, Donovan T, Chalmers JD, Mathioudakis AG, McDonnell MJ, Tsang A, Leadbetter P
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2022 Jan 5;1(1):CD013254. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD013254.pub2. PMID: 34985761Free PMC Article
Dhar DK, Ganguly KC, Alam S, Hossain A, Sarker UK, Das BK, Haque MJ
Mymensingh Med J 2009 Jan;18(1):75-9. PMID: 19182755

Prognosis

Ringshausen FC, Shapiro AJ, Nielsen KG, Mazurek H, Pifferi M, Donn KH, van der Eerden MM, Loebinger MR, Zariwala MA, Leigh MW, Knowles MR, Ferkol TW; CLEAN-PCD investigators and study team
Lancet Respir Med 2024 Jan;12(1):21-33. Epub 2023 Aug 31 doi: 10.1016/S2213-2600(23)00226-6. PMID: 37660715
Nielsen KG, Holgersen MG, Crowley S, Marthin JK
Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet 2022 Mar;190(1):20-35. Epub 2022 Mar 29 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.c.31967. PMID: 35352480Free PMC Article
Spencer S, Donovan T, Chalmers JD, Mathioudakis AG, McDonnell MJ, Tsang A, Leadbetter P
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2022 Jan 5;1(1):CD013254. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD013254.pub2. PMID: 34985761Free PMC Article
Legendre M, Zaragosi LE, Mitchison HM
Semin Cell Dev Biol 2021 Feb;110:19-33. Epub 2020 Dec 2 doi: 10.1016/j.semcdb.2020.11.007. PMID: 33279404
Jiao SY, Yang YH, Chen SR
Hum Reprod Update 2021 Jan 4;27(1):154-189. doi: 10.1093/humupd/dmaa034. PMID: 33118031

Clinical prediction guides

Ringshausen FC, Shapiro AJ, Nielsen KG, Mazurek H, Pifferi M, Donn KH, van der Eerden MM, Loebinger MR, Zariwala MA, Leigh MW, Knowles MR, Ferkol TW; CLEAN-PCD investigators and study team
Lancet Respir Med 2024 Jan;12(1):21-33. Epub 2023 Aug 31 doi: 10.1016/S2213-2600(23)00226-6. PMID: 37660715
Kinghorn B, Rosenfeld M, Sullivan E, Onchiri F, Ferkol TW, Sagel SD, Dell SD, Milla C, Shapiro AJ, Sullivan KM, Zariwala MA, Pittman JE, Mollica F, Tiddens HAWM, Kemner-van de Corput M, Knowles MR, Davis SD, Leigh MW
Ann Am Thorac Soc 2023 Apr;20(4):539-547. doi: 10.1513/AnnalsATS.202206-524OC. PMID: 36442147Free PMC Article
Toro MDC, Ribeiro JD, Marson FAL, Ortiz É, Toro AADC, Bertuzzo CS, Jones MH, Sakano E
Genes (Basel) 2022 Jul 15;13(7) doi: 10.3390/genes13071252. PMID: 35886035Free PMC Article
Spencer S, Donovan T, Chalmers JD, Mathioudakis AG, McDonnell MJ, Tsang A, Leadbetter P
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2022 Jan 5;1(1):CD013254. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD013254.pub2. PMID: 34985761Free PMC Article
Jiao SY, Yang YH, Chen SR
Hum Reprod Update 2021 Jan 4;27(1):154-189. doi: 10.1093/humupd/dmaa034. PMID: 33118031

Recent systematic reviews

Cheng L, Dong Y, Liu S
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2023 Jun;37(6):1021-1025. Epub 2023 Feb 3 doi: 10.1053/j.jvca.2023.01.033. PMID: 36849313
Spencer S, Donovan T, Chalmers JD, Mathioudakis AG, McDonnell MJ, Tsang A, Leadbetter P
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2022 Jan 5;1(1):CD013254. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD013254.pub2. PMID: 34985761Free PMC Article
Mener DJ, Lin SY, Ishman SL, Boss EF
Int Forum Allergy Rhinol 2013 Dec;3(12):986-91. Epub 2013 Oct 4 doi: 10.1002/alr.21227. PMID: 24124045

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