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Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism 13 with or without anosmia(HH13)

MedGen UID:
762090
Concept ID:
C3541462
Disease or Syndrome
Synonym: HH13
 
Gene (location): KISS1 (1q32.1)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0013915
OMIM®: 614842

Disease characteristics

Isolated gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) deficiency (IGD) is characterized by inappropriately low serum concentrations of the gonadotropins LH (luteinizing hormone) and FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone) in the presence of low circulating concentrations of sex steroids. IGD is associated with a normal sense of smell (normosmic IGD) in approximately 40% of affected individuals and an impaired sense of smell (Kallmann syndrome) in approximately 60%. IGD can first become apparent in infancy, adolescence, or adulthood. Infant boys with congenital IGD often have micropenis and cryptorchidism. Adolescents and adults with IGD have clinical evidence of hypogonadism and incomplete sexual maturation on physical examination. Adult males with IGD tend to have prepubertal testicular volume (i.e., <4 mL), absence of secondary sexual features (e.g., facial and axillary hair growth, deepening of the voice), decreased muscle mass, diminished libido, erectile dysfunction, and infertility. Adult females have little or no breast development and primary amenorrhea. Although skeletal maturation is delayed, the rate of linear growth is usually normal except for the absence of a distinct pubertal growth spurt. [from GeneReviews]
Authors:
Ravikumar Balasubramanian  |  William F Crowley   view full author information

Additional description

From OMIM
Congenital idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH) is a disorder characterized by absent or incomplete sexual maturation by the age of 18 years, in conjunction with low levels of circulating gonadotropins and testosterone and no other abnormalities of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. Idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism can be caused by an isolated defect in gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GNRH; 152760) release, action, or both. Other associated nonreproductive phenotypes, such as anosmia, cleft palate, and sensorineural hearing loss, occur with variable frequency. In the presence of anosmia, idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism has been called 'Kallmann syndrome (KS),' whereas in the presence of a normal sense of smell, it has been termed 'normosmic idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (nIHH)' (summary by Raivio et al., 2007). Because families have been found to segregate both KS and nIHH, the disorder is here referred to as 'hypogonadotropic hypogonadism with or without anosmia (HH).' For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism with or without anosmia, see 147950.  http://www.omim.org/entry/614842

Clinical features

From HPO
Uterine hypoplasia
MedGen UID:
120575
Concept ID:
C0266399
Congenital Abnormality
Underdevelopment of the uterus.
Anosmia
MedGen UID:
1950
Concept ID:
C0003126
Finding
An inability to perceive odors. This is a general term describing inability to smell arising in any part of the process of smelling from absorption of odorants into the nasal mucous overlying the olfactory epithelium, diffusion to the cilia, binding to olfactory receptor sites, generation of action potentials in olfactory neurons, and perception of a smell.
Delayed skeletal maturation
MedGen UID:
108148
Concept ID:
C0541764
Finding
A decreased rate of skeletal maturation. Delayed skeletal maturation can be diagnosed on the basis of an estimation of the bone age from radiographs of specific bones in the human body.
Decreased serum estradiol
MedGen UID:
69129
Concept ID:
C0241011
Finding
A reduction below normal concentration of estradiol in the circulation.
Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism
MedGen UID:
82883
Concept ID:
C0271623
Disease or Syndrome
Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism is characterized by reduced function of the gonads (testes in males or ovaries in females) and results from the absence of the gonadal stimulating pituitary hormones
Decreased circulating follicle stimulating hormone concentration
MedGen UID:
892977
Concept ID:
C4072889
Finding
A reduction of the circulating level of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH).
Decreased circulating luteinizing hormone level
MedGen UID:
893008
Concept ID:
C4072890
Finding
A reduction in the circulating level of luteinizing hormone (LH).

Professional guidelines

PubMed

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Recent clinical studies

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Diagnosis

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Therapy

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Prognosis

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Clinical prediction guides

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Recent systematic reviews

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