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Nephronophthisis 15(NPHP15)

MedGen UID:
762112
Concept ID:
C3541853
Disease or Syndrome
Synonym: NPHP15
 
Gene (location): CEP164 (11q23.3)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0013917
OMIM®: 614845

Authors:
Marijn Stokman  |  Marc Lilien  |  Nine Knoers   view full author information

Additional descriptions

From GeneReviews Overview
The nephronophthisis (NPH) phenotype is characterized by reduced renal concentrating ability, chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis, cystic renal disease, and progression to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) before age 30 years. Three age-based clinical subtypes are recognized: infantile, juvenile, and adolescent/adult. Infantile NPH can present in utero with oligohydramnios sequence (limb contractures, pulmonary hypoplasia, and facial dysmorphisms) or postnatally with renal manifestations that progress to ESRD before age 3 years. Juvenile NPH, the most prevalent subtype, typically presents with polydipsia and polyuria, growth retardation, chronic iron-resistant anemia, or other findings related to chronic kidney disease (CKD). Hypertension is typically absent due to salt wasting. ESRD develops at a median age of 13 years. Ultrasound findings are increased echogenicity, reduced corticomedullary differentiation, and renal cysts (in 50% of affected individuals). Histologic findings include tubulointerstitial fibrosis, thickened and disrupted tubular basement membrane, sporadic corticomedullary cysts, and normal or reduced kidney size. Adolescent/adult NPH is clinically similar to juvenile NPH, but ESRD develops at a median age of 19 years. Within a subtype, inter- and intrafamilial variability in rate of progression to ESRD is considerable. Approximately 80%-90% of individuals with the NPH phenotype have no extrarenal features (i.e., they have isolated NPH); ~10%-20% have extrarenal manifestations that constitute a recognizable syndrome (e.g., Joubert syndrome, Bardet-Biedl syndrome, Jeune syndrome and related skeletal disorders, Meckel-Gruber syndrome, Senior-Løken syndrome, Leber congenital amaurosis, COACH syndrome, and oculomotor apraxia, Cogan type).
From MedlinePlus Genetics
About 85 percent of all cases of nephronophthisis are isolated, which means they occur without other signs and symptoms. Some people with nephronophthisis have additional features, which can include liver fibrosis, heart abnormalities, or mirror image reversal of the position of one or more organs inside the body (situs inversus).

Nephronophthisis is a disorder that affects the kidneys. It is characterized by inflammation and scarring (fibrosis) that impairs kidney function. These abnormalities lead to increased urine production (polyuria), excessive thirst (polydipsia), general weakness, and extreme tiredness (fatigue). In addition, affected individuals develop fluid-filled cysts in the kidneys, usually in an area known as the corticomedullary region. Another feature of nephronophthisis is a shortage of red blood cells, a condition known as anemia.

Nephronophthisis eventually leads to end-stage renal disease (ESRD), a life-threatening failure of kidney function that occurs when the kidneys are no longer able to filter fluids and waste products from the body effectively. Nephronophthisis can be classified by the approximate age at which ESRD begins: around age 1 (infantile), around age 13 (juvenile), and around age 19 (adolescent).

Nephronophthisis can occur as part of separate syndromes that affect other areas of the body; these are often referred to as nephronophthisis-associated ciliopathies. For example, Senior-Løken syndrome is characterized by the combination of nephronophthisis and a breakdown of the light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye (retinal degeneration); Joubert syndrome affects many parts of the body, causing neurological problems and other features, which can include nephronophthisis.  https://medlineplus.gov/genetics/condition/nephronophthisis

Clinical features

From HPO
Nephronophthisis
MedGen UID:
146912
Concept ID:
C0687120
Disease or Syndrome
The nephronophthisis (NPH) phenotype is characterized by reduced renal concentrating ability, chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis, cystic renal disease, and progression to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) before age 30 years. Three age-based clinical subtypes are recognized: infantile, juvenile, and adolescent/adult. Infantile NPH can present in utero with oligohydramnios sequence (limb contractures, pulmonary hypoplasia, and facial dysmorphisms) or postnatally with renal manifestations that progress to ESRD before age 3 years. Juvenile NPH, the most prevalent subtype, typically presents with polydipsia and polyuria, growth retardation, chronic iron-resistant anemia, or other findings related to chronic kidney disease (CKD). Hypertension is typically absent due to salt wasting. ESRD develops at a median age of 13 years. Ultrasound findings are increased echogenicity, reduced corticomedullary differentiation, and renal cysts (in 50% of affected individuals). Histologic findings include tubulointerstitial fibrosis, thickened and disrupted tubular basement membrane, sporadic corticomedullary cysts, and normal or reduced kidney size. Adolescent/adult NPH is clinically similar to juvenile NPH, but ESRD develops at a median age of 19 years. Within a subtype, inter- and intrafamilial variability in rate of progression to ESRD is considerable. Approximately 80%-90% of individuals with the NPH phenotype have no extrarenal features (i.e., they have isolated NPH); ~10%-20% have extrarenal manifestations that constitute a recognizable syndrome (e.g., Joubert syndrome, Bardet-Biedl syndrome, Jeune syndrome and related skeletal disorders, Meckel-Gruber syndrome, Senior-Løken syndrome, Leber congenital amaurosis, COACH syndrome, and oculomotor apraxia, Cogan type).
Polydactyly
MedGen UID:
57774
Concept ID:
C0152427
Congenital Abnormality
A congenital anomaly characterized by the presence of supernumerary fingers or toes.
Obesity
MedGen UID:
18127
Concept ID:
C0028754
Disease or Syndrome
Accumulation of substantial excess body fat.
Seizure
MedGen UID:
20693
Concept ID:
C0036572
Sign or Symptom
A seizure is an intermittent abnormality of nervous system physiology characterized by a transient occurrence of signs and/or symptoms due to abnormal excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.
Global developmental delay
MedGen UID:
107838
Concept ID:
C0557874
Finding
A delay in the achievement of motor or mental milestones in the domains of development of a child, including motor skills, speech and language, cognitive skills, and social and emotional skills. This term should only be used to describe children younger than five years of age.
Cerebellar vermis hypoplasia
MedGen UID:
333548
Concept ID:
C1840379
Finding
Underdevelopment of the vermis of cerebellum.
Elevated circulating hepatic transaminase concentration
MedGen UID:
338525
Concept ID:
C1848701
Finding
Elevations of the levels of SGOT and SGPT in the serum. SGOT (serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase) and SGPT (serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase) are transaminases primarily found in the liver and heart and are released into the bloodstream as the result of liver or heart damage. SGOT and SGPT are used clinically mainly as markers of liver damage.
Nystagmus
MedGen UID:
45166
Concept ID:
C0028738
Disease or Syndrome
Rhythmic, involuntary oscillations of one or both eyes related to abnormality in fixation, conjugate gaze, or vestibular mechanisms.
Retinal degeneration
MedGen UID:
48432
Concept ID:
C0035304
Finding
A nonspecific term denoting degeneration of the retinal pigment epithelium and/or retinal photoreceptor cells.
Blindness
MedGen UID:
99138
Concept ID:
C0456909
Disease or Syndrome
Blindness is the condition of lacking visual perception defined as a profound reduction in visual perception. On the 6m visual acuity scale, blindness is defined as less than 3/60. On the 20ft visual acuity scale, blindness is defined as less than 20/400. On the decimal visual acuity scale, blindness is defined as less than 0.05. Blindness is typically characterized by a visual field of no greater than 10 degrees in radius around central fixation.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Yao T, Udwan K, John R, Rana A, Haghighi A, Xu L, Hack S, Reich HN, Hladunewich MA, Cattran DC, Paterson AD, Pei Y, Barua M
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2019 Feb 7;14(2):213-223. Epub 2019 Jan 15 doi: 10.2215/CJN.08750718. PMID: 30647093Free PMC Article
Iannicelli M, Brancati F, Mougou-Zerelli S, Mazzotta A, Thomas S, Elkhartoufi N, Travaglini L, Gomes C, Ardissino GL, Bertini E, Boltshauser E, Castorina P, D'Arrigo S, Fischetto R, Leroy B, Loget P, Bonnière M, Starck L, Tantau J, Gentilin B, Majore S, Swistun D, Flori E, Lalatta F, Pantaleoni C, Penzien J, Grammatico P; International JSRD Study Group, Dallapiccola B, Gleeson JG, Attie-Bitach T, Valente EM
Hum Mutat 2010 May;31(5):E1319-31. doi: 10.1002/humu.21239. PMID: 20232449Free PMC Article

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Petzold F, Billot K, Chen X, Henry C, Filhol E, Martin Y, Avramescu M, Douillet M, Morinière V, Krug P, Jeanpierre C, Tory K, Boyer O, Burgun A, Servais A, Salomon R, Benmerah A, Heidet L, Garcelon N, Antignac C, Zaidan M, Saunier S; INSERM–Necker Hospital NPH collaborative group
Kidney Int 2023 Aug;104(2):378-387. Epub 2023 May 23 doi: 10.1016/j.kint.2023.05.007. PMID: 37230223
Tay SA, Vincent AL
Ophthalmic Genet 2020 Aug;41(4):354-357. Epub 2020 May 20 doi: 10.1080/13816810.2020.1766086. PMID: 32432520
Rao J, Liu X, Mao J, Tang X, Shen Q, Li G, Sun L, Bi Y, Wang X, Qian Y, Wu B, Wang H, Zhou W, Ma D, Zheng B, Shen Y, Chen Z, Luan J, Wang X, Wang M, Dang X, Wang Y, Wu Y, Hou L, Sun S, Li Q, Liu X, Bai H, Yang Y, Shao X, Li Y, Zheng S, Han M, Liu C, Cao G, Zhao L, Qiu S, Dong Y, Zhu Y, Wang F, Zhang D, Li Y, Zhao L, Yang C, Luo X, Chen L, Jiang X, Zhang A, Xu H; for “Internet Plus” Nephrology Alliance of National Center for Children's Care
Clin Genet 2019 Nov;96(5):402-410. Epub 2019 Jul 25 doi: 10.1111/cge.13606. PMID: 31328266
Fleming LR, Doherty DA, Parisi MA, Glass IA, Bryant J, Fischer R, Turkbey B, Choyke P, Daryanani K, Vemulapalli M, Mullikin JC, Malicdan MC, Vilboux T, Sayer JA, Gahl WA, Gunay-Aygun M
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2017 Dec 7;12(12):1962-1973. Epub 2017 Nov 16 doi: 10.2215/CJN.05660517. PMID: 29146704Free PMC Article
Pazour GJ
J Am Soc Nephrol 2004 Oct;15(10):2528-36. doi: 10.1097/01.ASN.0000141055.57643.E0. PMID: 15466257

Diagnosis

Satariano M, Ghose S, Raina R
Genes (Basel) 2024 Jan 11;15(1) doi: 10.3390/genes15010091. PMID: 38254980Free PMC Article
Petzold F, Billot K, Chen X, Henry C, Filhol E, Martin Y, Avramescu M, Douillet M, Morinière V, Krug P, Jeanpierre C, Tory K, Boyer O, Burgun A, Servais A, Salomon R, Benmerah A, Heidet L, Garcelon N, Antignac C, Zaidan M, Saunier S; INSERM–Necker Hospital NPH collaborative group
Kidney Int 2023 Aug;104(2):378-387. Epub 2023 May 23 doi: 10.1016/j.kint.2023.05.007. PMID: 37230223
Tay SA, Vincent AL
Ophthalmic Genet 2020 Aug;41(4):354-357. Epub 2020 May 20 doi: 10.1080/13816810.2020.1766086. PMID: 32432520
Rao J, Liu X, Mao J, Tang X, Shen Q, Li G, Sun L, Bi Y, Wang X, Qian Y, Wu B, Wang H, Zhou W, Ma D, Zheng B, Shen Y, Chen Z, Luan J, Wang X, Wang M, Dang X, Wang Y, Wu Y, Hou L, Sun S, Li Q, Liu X, Bai H, Yang Y, Shao X, Li Y, Zheng S, Han M, Liu C, Cao G, Zhao L, Qiu S, Dong Y, Zhu Y, Wang F, Zhang D, Li Y, Zhao L, Yang C, Luo X, Chen L, Jiang X, Zhang A, Xu H; for “Internet Plus” Nephrology Alliance of National Center for Children's Care
Clin Genet 2019 Nov;96(5):402-410. Epub 2019 Jul 25 doi: 10.1111/cge.13606. PMID: 31328266
Hildebrandt F, Waldherr R, Kutt R, Brandis M
Clin Investig 1992 Sep;70(9):802-8. doi: 10.1007/BF00180751. PMID: 1450635

Therapy

AlZabali SM, AlAnazi A, Rahim KA, Faqeehi HY
J Med Case Rep 2021 Jul 13;15(1):366. doi: 10.1186/s13256-021-02905-3. PMID: 34253224Free PMC Article
Malbos S, Urena-Torres P, Cohen-Solal M, Trout H, Lioté F, Bardin T, Ea HK
Rheumatology (Oxford) 2014 Mar;53(3):547-51. Epub 2013 Nov 29 doi: 10.1093/rheumatology/ket388. PMID: 24292346
Vega J, Goecke H, Carrasco A, Escobar C, Escobar M, Espinosa R, Méndez G, de Los Ángeles Rodríguez M
Clin Exp Nephrol 2011 Apr;15(2):308-11. Epub 2010 Dec 10 doi: 10.1007/s10157-010-0387-8. PMID: 21152944
Grenda R, Wühl E, Litwin M, Janas R, Sladowska J, Arbeiter K, Berg U, Caldas-Afonso A, Fischbach M, Mehls O, Sallay P, Schaefer F; ESCAPE Trial group
Nephrol Dial Transplant 2007 Dec;22(12):3487-94. Epub 2007 Sep 26 doi: 10.1093/ndt/gfm300. PMID: 17901069

Prognosis

Tay SA, Vincent AL
Ophthalmic Genet 2020 Aug;41(4):354-357. Epub 2020 May 20 doi: 10.1080/13816810.2020.1766086. PMID: 32432520
Yao T, Udwan K, John R, Rana A, Haghighi A, Xu L, Hack S, Reich HN, Hladunewich MA, Cattran DC, Paterson AD, Pei Y, Barua M
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2019 Feb 7;14(2):213-223. Epub 2019 Jan 15 doi: 10.2215/CJN.08750718. PMID: 30647093Free PMC Article
Fleming LR, Doherty DA, Parisi MA, Glass IA, Bryant J, Fischer R, Turkbey B, Choyke P, Daryanani K, Vemulapalli M, Mullikin JC, Malicdan MC, Vilboux T, Sayer JA, Gahl WA, Gunay-Aygun M
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2017 Dec 7;12(12):1962-1973. Epub 2017 Nov 16 doi: 10.2215/CJN.05660517. PMID: 29146704Free PMC Article
Caridi G, Dagnino M, Rossi A, Valente EM, Bertini E, Fazzi E, Emma F, Murer L, Verrina E, Ghiggeri GM
Kidney Int 2006 Oct;70(7):1342-7. Epub 2006 Aug 9 doi: 10.1038/sj.ki.5001768. PMID: 16900087
Hildebrandt F, Waldherr R, Kutt R, Brandis M
Clin Investig 1992 Sep;70(9):802-8. doi: 10.1007/BF00180751. PMID: 1450635

Clinical prediction guides

Fleming LR, Doherty DA, Parisi MA, Glass IA, Bryant J, Fischer R, Turkbey B, Choyke P, Daryanani K, Vemulapalli M, Mullikin JC, Malicdan MC, Vilboux T, Sayer JA, Gahl WA, Gunay-Aygun M
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2017 Dec 7;12(12):1962-1973. Epub 2017 Nov 16 doi: 10.2215/CJN.05660517. PMID: 29146704Free PMC Article
Maron JL, Hwang JS, Pathak S, Ruthazer R, Russell RL, Alterovitz G
J Pediatr 2015 Feb;166(2):282-8.e5. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2014.10.065. PMID: 25620512Free PMC Article
Kang HG, Ahn YH, Kim JH, Ha IS, Yu YS, Park YH, Cheong HI
Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2015 Jul;43(5):437-42. Epub 2015 Jan 14 doi: 10.1111/ceo.12469. PMID: 25401970
Caridi G, Dagnino M, Rossi A, Valente EM, Bertini E, Fazzi E, Emma F, Murer L, Verrina E, Ghiggeri GM
Kidney Int 2006 Oct;70(7):1342-7. Epub 2006 Aug 9 doi: 10.1038/sj.ki.5001768. PMID: 16900087
Caridi G, Dagnino M, Gusmano R, Ginevri F, Murer L, Ghio L, Piaggio G, Ciardi MR, Perfumo F, Ghiggeri GM
Am J Kidney Dis 2000 Jan;35(1):44-51. doi: 10.1016/S0272-6386(00)70300-3. PMID: 10620543

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