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Hereditary spastic paraplegia 49(HSAN9)

MedGen UID:
762260
Concept ID:
C3542549
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: HSAN9; NEUROPATHY, HEREDITARY SENSORY AND AUTONOMIC, TYPE IX, WITH DEVELOPMENTAL DELAY; Spastic paraplegia 49, autosomal recessive
Modes of inheritance:
Autosomal recessive inheritance
MedGen UID:
141025
Concept ID:
C0441748
Intellectual Product
Source: Orphanet
A mode of inheritance that is observed for traits related to a gene encoded on one of the autosomes (i.e., the human chromosomes 1-22) in which a trait manifests in individuals with two pathogenic alleles, either homozygotes (two copies of the same mutant allele) or compound heterozygotes (whereby each copy of a gene has a distinct mutant allele).
 
Gene (location): TECPR2 (14q32.31)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0014016
OMIM®: 615031
Orphanet: ORPHA320385

Disease characteristics

TECPR2-related hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy with intellectual disability (TECPR2-HSAN with ID) is characterized by developmental delay and subsequent intellectual disability, behavioral abnormalities, neurologic manifestations (muscular hypotonia, sensory neuropathy with lower-limb hypo- or areflexia and ataxic gait), and autonomic dysfunction (including central hypoventilation and apnea, gastrointestinal dysmotility, dysphagia, and gastroesophageal reflux disease with recurrent aspiration). To date, more than 30 individuals with TECPR2-HSAN with ID have been identified. [from GeneReviews]
Authors:
Gali Heimer  |  Sonja Neuser  |  Bruria Ben-Zeev, et. al.   view full author information

Additional descriptions

From OMIM
Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type IX with developmental delay (HSAN9) is an autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorder. Clinical features include global developmental delay and intellectual disability, axial and appendicular hypotonia, dysarthria, and an abnormal gait that is often described as ataxic. Other features may include peripheral neuropathy, hyporeflexia, and autonomic dysfunction (summary by Neuser et al., 2021). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy, see HSAN1 (162400).  http://www.omim.org/entry/615031
From MedlinePlus Genetics
Because of the nervous system abnormalities that occur in spastic paraplegia type 49, it has been suggested that the condition also be classified as a hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy, which is a group of conditions that affect sensory and autonomic neurons.

Other signs and symptoms of spastic paraplegia type 49 reflect problems with sensory neurons, which transmit information about sensations such as pain, temperature, and touch to the brain. Many affected individuals are less able to feel pain or temperature sensations than individuals in the general population. Affected individuals also have abnormal or absent reflexes (areflexia).

People with spastic paraplegia type 49 can develop recurrent episodes of severe weakness, hypotonia, and abnormal breathing, which can be life threatening. By early adulthood, some affected individuals need a machine to help them breathe (mechanical ventilation).

Problems with autonomic nerve cells (autonomic neurons), which control involuntary body functions such as heart rate, digestion, and breathing, result in several features of spastic paraplegia type 49. Affected individuals have difficulty feeding beginning in infancy. They experience a backflow of stomach acids into the esophagus (called gastroesophageal reflux or GERD), causing vomiting. GERD can also lead to recurrent bacterial lung infections called aspiration pneumonia, which can be life-threatening. In addition, people with spastic paraplegia type 49 have problems regulating their breathing, resulting in pauses in breathing (apnea), initially while sleeping but eventually also while awake. Their blood pressure, pulse rate, and body temperature are also irregular.

Spastic paraplegia type 49 often begins with weak muscle tone (hypotonia) that starts in infancy. During childhood, spasticity and paraplegia develop and gradually worsen, causing difficulty walking and frequent falls. In addition, affected individuals have moderate to severe intellectual disability and distinctive physical features, including short stature; chubbiness; an unusually small head size (microcephaly); a wide, short skull (brachycephaly); a short, broad neck; and facial features described as coarse. Some people with spastic paraplegia type 49 develop seizures.

Spastic paraplegia type 49 is part of a group of genetic disorders known as hereditary spastic paraplegias. These disorders are characterized by progressive muscle stiffness (spasticity) and the development of paralysis of the lower limbs (paraplegia). Hereditary spastic paraplegias are divided into two types: pure and complex. The pure types involve only the lower limbs, whereas the complex types also involve the upper limbs (to a lesser degree) and other problems with the nervous system. Spastic paraplegia type 49 is a complex hereditary spastic paraplegia.  https://medlineplus.gov/genetics/condition/spastic-paraplegia-type-49

Clinical features

From HPO
Short stature
MedGen UID:
87607
Concept ID:
C0349588
Finding
A height below that which is expected according to age and gender norms. Although there is no universally accepted definition of short stature, many refer to "short stature" as height more than 2 standard deviations below the mean for age and gender (or below the 3rd percentile for age and gender dependent norms).
Gastroesophageal reflux
MedGen UID:
1368658
Concept ID:
C4317146
Finding
A condition in which the stomach contents leak backwards from the stomach into the esophagus through the lower esophageal sphincter.
Dysarthria
MedGen UID:
8510
Concept ID:
C0013362
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Dysarthric speech is a general description referring to a neurological speech disorder characterized by poor articulation. Depending on the involved neurological structures, dysarthria may be further classified as spastic, flaccid, ataxic, hyperkinetic and hypokinetic, or mixed.
Spastic paraplegia
MedGen UID:
20882
Concept ID:
C0037772
Disease or Syndrome
Spasticity and weakness of the leg and hip muscles.
Spastic gait
MedGen UID:
115907
Concept ID:
C0231687
Finding
Spasticity is manifested by increased stretch reflex which is intensified with movement velocity. This results in excessive and inappropriate muscle activation which can contribute to muscle hypertonia. Spastic gait is characterized by manifestations such as muscle hypertonia, stiff knee, and circumduction of the leg.
Areflexia
MedGen UID:
115943
Concept ID:
C0234146
Finding
Absence of neurologic reflexes such as the knee-jerk reaction.
Dysmetria
MedGen UID:
68583
Concept ID:
C0234162
Finding
A type of ataxia characterized by the inability to carry out movements with the correct range and motion across the plane of more than one joint related to incorrect estimation of the distances required for targeted movements.
Cerebral atrophy
MedGen UID:
116012
Concept ID:
C0235946
Disease or Syndrome
Atrophy (wasting, decrease in size of cells or tissue) affecting the cerebrum.
Hypoplasia of the corpus callosum
MedGen UID:
138005
Concept ID:
C0344482
Congenital Abnormality
Underdevelopment of the corpus callosum.
Bilateral tonic-clonic seizure
MedGen UID:
141670
Concept ID:
C0494475
Sign or Symptom
A bilateral tonic-clonic seizure is a seizure defined by a tonic (bilateral increased tone, lasting seconds to minutes) and then a clonic (bilateral sustained rhythmic jerking) phase.
Global developmental delay
MedGen UID:
107838
Concept ID:
C0557874
Finding
A delay in the achievement of motor or mental milestones in the domains of development of a child, including motor skills, speech and language, cognitive skills, and social and emotional skills. This term should only be used to describe children younger than five years of age.
Gait ataxia
MedGen UID:
155642
Concept ID:
C0751837
Sign or Symptom
A type of ataxia characterized by the impairment of the ability to coordinate the movements required for normal walking. Gait ataxia is characteirzed by a wide-based staggering gait with a tendency to fall.
Intellectual disability
MedGen UID:
811461
Concept ID:
C3714756
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Intellectual disability, previously referred to as mental retardation, is characterized by subnormal intellectual functioning that occurs during the developmental period. It is defined by an IQ score below 70.
Hypotonia
MedGen UID:
10133
Concept ID:
C0026827
Finding
Hypotonia is an abnormally low muscle tone (the amount of tension or resistance to movement in a muscle). Even when relaxed, muscles have a continuous and passive partial contraction which provides some resistance to passive stretching. Hypotonia thus manifests as diminished resistance to passive stretching. Hypotonia is not the same as muscle weakness, although the two conditions can co-exist.
Brachycephaly
MedGen UID:
113165
Concept ID:
C0221356
Congenital Abnormality
An abnormality of skull shape characterized by a decreased anterior-posterior diameter. That is, a cephalic index greater than 81%. Alternatively, an apparently shortened anteroposterior dimension (length) of the head compared to width.
Microcephaly
MedGen UID:
1644158
Concept ID:
C4551563
Finding
Head circumference below 2 standard deviations below the mean for age and gender.
Central apnea
MedGen UID:
854403
Concept ID:
C3887548
Disease or Syndrome
Apnea resulting from depression of the respiratory centers in the medulla oblongata. There is a lack of respiratory effort rather than obstruction of airflow.
Dental crowding
MedGen UID:
11850
Concept ID:
C0040433
Finding
Changes in alignment of teeth in the dental arch
Round face
MedGen UID:
116087
Concept ID:
C0239479
Finding
The facial appearance is more circular than usual as viewed from the front.
Short neck
MedGen UID:
99267
Concept ID:
C0521525
Finding
Diminished length of the neck.
Hypomimic face
MedGen UID:
208827
Concept ID:
C0813217
Finding
A reduced degree of motion of the muscles beneath the skin of the face, often associated with reduced facial crease formation.
Low anterior hairline
MedGen UID:
331280
Concept ID:
C1842366
Finding
Distance between the hairline (trichion) and the glabella (the most prominent point on the frontal bone above the root of the nose), in the midline, more than two SD below the mean. Alternatively, an apparently decreased distance between the hairline and the glabella.
Broad neck
MedGen UID:
344099
Concept ID:
C1853638
Finding
Increased side-to-side width of the neck.

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • CROGVHereditary spastic paraplegia 49
Follow this link to review classifications for Hereditary spastic paraplegia 49 in Orphanet.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Leighton DJ, Ansari M, Newton J, Parry D, Cleary E, Colville S, Stephenson L, Larraz J, Johnson M, Beswick E, Wong M, Gregory J, Carod Artal J, Davenport R, Duncan C, Morrison I, Smith C, Swingler R, Deary IJ, Porteous M, Aitman TJ, Chandran S, Gorrie GH, Pal S; Lothian Birth Cohorts Group; and the CARE-MND Consortium
J Neurol 2023 Mar;270(3):1702-1712. Epub 2022 Dec 14 doi: 10.1007/s00415-022-11505-0. PMID: 36515702Free PMC Article
Nonnekes J, van Lith B, van de Warrenburg BP, Weerdesteyn V, Geurts ACH
J Rehabil Med 2017 May 16;49(5):369-377. doi: 10.2340/16501977-2227. PMID: 28471471
van Gassen KL, van der Heijden CD, de Bot ST, den Dunnen WF, van den Berg LH, Verschuuren-Bemelmans CC, Kremer HP, Veldink JH, Kamsteeg EJ, Scheffer H, van de Warrenburg BP
Brain 2012 Oct;135(Pt 10):2994-3004. Epub 2012 Sep 10 doi: 10.1093/brain/aws224. PMID: 22964162

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Worm C, Schambye MER, Mkrtchyan GV, Veviorskiy A, Shneyderman A, Ozerov IV, Zhavoronkov A, Bakula D, Scheibye-Knudsen M
Aging (Albany NY) 2024 Feb 9;16(3):2026-2046. doi: 10.18632/aging.205537. PMID: 38345566Free PMC Article
Leighton DJ, Ansari M, Newton J, Parry D, Cleary E, Colville S, Stephenson L, Larraz J, Johnson M, Beswick E, Wong M, Gregory J, Carod Artal J, Davenport R, Duncan C, Morrison I, Smith C, Swingler R, Deary IJ, Porteous M, Aitman TJ, Chandran S, Gorrie GH, Pal S; Lothian Birth Cohorts Group; and the CARE-MND Consortium
J Neurol 2023 Mar;270(3):1702-1712. Epub 2022 Dec 14 doi: 10.1007/s00415-022-11505-0. PMID: 36515702Free PMC Article
Narendiran S, Debnath M, Shivaram S, Kannan R, Sharma S, Christopher R, Seshagiri DV, Jain S, Purushottam M, Mangalore S, Bharath RD, Bindu PS, Sinha S, Taly AB, Nagappa M
J Neurogenet 2022 Mar;36(1):21-31. Epub 2022 May 2 doi: 10.1080/01677063.2022.2064463. PMID: 35499206
Ebrahimi-Fakhari D, Teinert J, Behne R, Wimmer M, D'Amore A, Eberhardt K, Brechmann B, Ziegler M, Jensen DM, Nagabhyrava P, Geisel G, Carmody E, Shamshad U, Dies KA, Yuskaitis CJ, Salussolia CL, Ebrahimi-Fakhari D, Pearson TS, Saffari A, Ziegler A, Kölker S, Volkmann J, Wiesener A, Bearden DR, Lakhani S, Segal D, Udwadia-Hegde A, Martinuzzi A, Hirst J, Perlman S, Takiyama Y, Xiromerisiou G, Vill K, Walker WO, Shukla A, Dubey Gupta R, Dahl N, Aksoy A, Verhelst H, Delgado MR, Kremlikova Pourova R, Sadek AA, Elkhateeb NM, Blumkin L, Brea-Fernández AJ, Dacruz-Álvarez D, Smol T, Ghoumid J, Miguel D, Heine C, Schlump JU, Langen H, Baets J, Bulk S, Darvish H, Bakhtiari S, Kruer MC, Lim-Melia E, Aydinli N, Alanay Y, El-Rashidy O, Nampoothiri S, Patel C, Beetz C, Bauer P, Yoon G, Guillot M, Miller SP, Bourinaris T, Houlden H, Robelin L, Anheim M, Alamri AS, Mahmoud AAH, Inaloo S, Habibzadeh P, Faghihi MA, Jansen AC, Brock S, Roubertie A, Darras BT, Agrawal PB, Santorelli FM, Gleeson J, Zaki MS, Sheikh SI, Bennett JT, Sahin M
Brain 2020 Oct 1;143(10):2929-2944. doi: 10.1093/brain/awz307. PMID: 32979048Free PMC Article
Ruano L, Melo C, Silva MC, Coutinho P
Neuroepidemiology 2014;42(3):174-83. Epub 2014 Mar 5 doi: 10.1159/000358801. PMID: 24603320

Diagnosis

Worm C, Schambye MER, Mkrtchyan GV, Veviorskiy A, Shneyderman A, Ozerov IV, Zhavoronkov A, Bakula D, Scheibye-Knudsen M
Aging (Albany NY) 2024 Feb 9;16(3):2026-2046. doi: 10.18632/aging.205537. PMID: 38345566Free PMC Article
Heinrich F, Cordts I, Günther R, Stolte B, Zeller D, Schröter C, Weyen U, Regensburger M, Wolf J, Schneider I, Hermann A, Metelmann M, Kohl Z, Linker RA, Koch JC, Radelfahr F, Schönfelder E, Gardt P, Mohajer-Peseschkian T, Osmanovic A, Klopstock T, Dorst J, Ludolph AC, Schöffski O, Boentert M, Hagenacker T, Deschauer M, Lingor P, Petri S, Schreiber-Katz O
J Neurol 2023 Oct;270(10):4922-4938. Epub 2023 Jun 25 doi: 10.1007/s00415-023-11811-1. PMID: 37356024Free PMC Article
Leighton DJ, Ansari M, Newton J, Parry D, Cleary E, Colville S, Stephenson L, Larraz J, Johnson M, Beswick E, Wong M, Gregory J, Carod Artal J, Davenport R, Duncan C, Morrison I, Smith C, Swingler R, Deary IJ, Porteous M, Aitman TJ, Chandran S, Gorrie GH, Pal S; Lothian Birth Cohorts Group; and the CARE-MND Consortium
J Neurol 2023 Mar;270(3):1702-1712. Epub 2022 Dec 14 doi: 10.1007/s00415-022-11505-0. PMID: 36515702Free PMC Article
Ebrahimi-Fakhari D, Teinert J, Behne R, Wimmer M, D'Amore A, Eberhardt K, Brechmann B, Ziegler M, Jensen DM, Nagabhyrava P, Geisel G, Carmody E, Shamshad U, Dies KA, Yuskaitis CJ, Salussolia CL, Ebrahimi-Fakhari D, Pearson TS, Saffari A, Ziegler A, Kölker S, Volkmann J, Wiesener A, Bearden DR, Lakhani S, Segal D, Udwadia-Hegde A, Martinuzzi A, Hirst J, Perlman S, Takiyama Y, Xiromerisiou G, Vill K, Walker WO, Shukla A, Dubey Gupta R, Dahl N, Aksoy A, Verhelst H, Delgado MR, Kremlikova Pourova R, Sadek AA, Elkhateeb NM, Blumkin L, Brea-Fernández AJ, Dacruz-Álvarez D, Smol T, Ghoumid J, Miguel D, Heine C, Schlump JU, Langen H, Baets J, Bulk S, Darvish H, Bakhtiari S, Kruer MC, Lim-Melia E, Aydinli N, Alanay Y, El-Rashidy O, Nampoothiri S, Patel C, Beetz C, Bauer P, Yoon G, Guillot M, Miller SP, Bourinaris T, Houlden H, Robelin L, Anheim M, Alamri AS, Mahmoud AAH, Inaloo S, Habibzadeh P, Faghihi MA, Jansen AC, Brock S, Roubertie A, Darras BT, Agrawal PB, Santorelli FM, Gleeson J, Zaki MS, Sheikh SI, Bennett JT, Sahin M
Brain 2020 Oct 1;143(10):2929-2944. doi: 10.1093/brain/awz307. PMID: 32979048Free PMC Article
Ruano L, Melo C, Silva MC, Coutinho P
Neuroepidemiology 2014;42(3):174-83. Epub 2014 Mar 5 doi: 10.1159/000358801. PMID: 24603320

Therapy

Lin Q, Liu Y, Ye Z, Hu J, Cai W, Weng Q, Chen WJ, Wang N, Cao D, Lin Y, Fu Y
Orphanet J Rare Dis 2021 Sep 19;16(1):391. doi: 10.1186/s13023-021-02014-w. PMID: 34538260Free PMC Article
Heetla HW, Halbertsma JP, Dekker R, Staal MJ, van Laar T
Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2015 Jun;96(6):1166-9. Epub 2015 Jan 24 doi: 10.1016/j.apmr.2015.01.012. PMID: 25626112

Prognosis

Heinrich F, Cordts I, Günther R, Stolte B, Zeller D, Schröter C, Weyen U, Regensburger M, Wolf J, Schneider I, Hermann A, Metelmann M, Kohl Z, Linker RA, Koch JC, Radelfahr F, Schönfelder E, Gardt P, Mohajer-Peseschkian T, Osmanovic A, Klopstock T, Dorst J, Ludolph AC, Schöffski O, Boentert M, Hagenacker T, Deschauer M, Lingor P, Petri S, Schreiber-Katz O
J Neurol 2023 Oct;270(10):4922-4938. Epub 2023 Jun 25 doi: 10.1007/s00415-023-11811-1. PMID: 37356024Free PMC Article
Leighton DJ, Ansari M, Newton J, Parry D, Cleary E, Colville S, Stephenson L, Larraz J, Johnson M, Beswick E, Wong M, Gregory J, Carod Artal J, Davenport R, Duncan C, Morrison I, Smith C, Swingler R, Deary IJ, Porteous M, Aitman TJ, Chandran S, Gorrie GH, Pal S; Lothian Birth Cohorts Group; and the CARE-MND Consortium
J Neurol 2023 Mar;270(3):1702-1712. Epub 2022 Dec 14 doi: 10.1007/s00415-022-11505-0. PMID: 36515702Free PMC Article
Zucchi E, Bedin R, Fasano A, Fini N, Gessani A, Vinceti M, Mandrioli J
Neurodegener Dis 2018;18(5-6):255-261. Epub 2018 Nov 14 doi: 10.1159/000493986. PMID: 30428468
Kumar KR, Wali GM, Kamate M, Wali G, Minoche AE, Puttick C, Pinese M, Gayevskiy V, Dinger ME, Roscioli T, Sue CM, Cowley MJ
Neurogenetics 2016 Oct;17(4):265-270. Epub 2016 Sep 28 doi: 10.1007/s10048-016-0495-z. PMID: 27679996Free PMC Article
Zhu PP, Patterson A, Lavoie B, Stadler J, Shoeb M, Patel R, Blackstone C
J Biol Chem 2003 Dec 5;278(49):49063-71. Epub 2003 Sep 23 doi: 10.1074/jbc.M306702200. PMID: 14506257

Clinical prediction guides

Heinrich F, Cordts I, Günther R, Stolte B, Zeller D, Schröter C, Weyen U, Regensburger M, Wolf J, Schneider I, Hermann A, Metelmann M, Kohl Z, Linker RA, Koch JC, Radelfahr F, Schönfelder E, Gardt P, Mohajer-Peseschkian T, Osmanovic A, Klopstock T, Dorst J, Ludolph AC, Schöffski O, Boentert M, Hagenacker T, Deschauer M, Lingor P, Petri S, Schreiber-Katz O
J Neurol 2023 Oct;270(10):4922-4938. Epub 2023 Jun 25 doi: 10.1007/s00415-023-11811-1. PMID: 37356024Free PMC Article
Zucchi E, Bedin R, Fasano A, Fini N, Gessani A, Vinceti M, Mandrioli J
Neurodegener Dis 2018;18(5-6):255-261. Epub 2018 Nov 14 doi: 10.1159/000493986. PMID: 30428468
Kumar KR, Wali GM, Kamate M, Wali G, Minoche AE, Puttick C, Pinese M, Gayevskiy V, Dinger ME, Roscioli T, Sue CM, Cowley MJ
Neurogenetics 2016 Oct;17(4):265-270. Epub 2016 Sep 28 doi: 10.1007/s10048-016-0495-z. PMID: 27679996Free PMC Article
Zhu PP, Patterson A, Lavoie B, Stadler J, Shoeb M, Patel R, Blackstone C
J Biol Chem 2003 Dec 5;278(49):49063-71. Epub 2003 Sep 23 doi: 10.1074/jbc.M306702200. PMID: 14506257
Reid E, Dearlove AM, Whiteford ML, Rhodes M, Rubinsztein DC
Neurology 1999 Nov 10;53(8):1844-9. doi: 10.1212/wnl.53.8.1844. PMID: 10563637

Recent systematic reviews

Ruano L, Melo C, Silva MC, Coutinho P
Neuroepidemiology 2014;42(3):174-83. Epub 2014 Mar 5 doi: 10.1159/000358801. PMID: 24603320

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