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Cardioencephalomyopathy, fatal infantile, due to cytochrome c oxidase deficiency 2(MC4DN6)

MedGen UID:
767448
Concept ID:
C3554534
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: MC4DN6; MITOCHONDRIAL COMPLEX IV DEFICIENCY, NUCLEAR TYPE 6
 
Gene (location): COX15 (10q24.2)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0014051
OMIM®: 615119

Definition

Mitochondrial complex IV deficiency nuclear type 6 (MC4DN6) is an autosomal recessive multisystem metabolic disorder with a highly variable phenotype. Some patients present in the neonatal period with encephalomyopathic features, whereas others present later in the first year of life with developmental regression. Manifestations include hypotonia, feeding difficulties, and global developmental delay. Many, but not all, patients develop hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, which may result in early death. Additional more variable features may include poor overall growth, microcephaly, seizures, neurodegeneration, spasticity, visual defects, retinopathy, and hepatic steatosis. Brain imaging in some patients shows features consistent with Leigh syndrome (see 256000). Laboratory studies show increased serum lactate and decreased levels and activity of mitochondrial respiratory complex IV (summary by Kennaway et al., 1990 and Oquendo et al., 2004). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of mitochondrial complex IV (cytochrome c oxidase) deficiency, see 220110. [from OMIM]

Additional description

From MedlinePlus Genetics
Cytochrome c oxidase deficiency is a genetic condition that can affect several parts of the body, including the muscles used for movement (skeletal muscles), the heart, the brain, or the liver. Signs and symptoms of cytochrome c oxidase deficiency usually begin before age 2 but can appear later in mildly affected individuals.

Many individuals with cytochrome c oxidase deficiency do not survive past childhood, although some individuals with mild signs and symptoms live into adolescence or adulthood.

The severity of cytochrome c oxidase deficiency varies widely among affected individuals, even among those in the same family. People who are mildly affected tend to have muscle weakness (myopathy) and poor muscle tone (hypotonia) with no other related health problems. More severely affected people have problems in multiple body systems, often including severe brain dysfunction (encephalomyopathy). Approximately one-quarter of individuals with cytochrome c oxidase deficiency have a type of heart disease that enlarges and weakens the heart muscle (hypertrophic cardiomyopathy). Another possible feature of this condition is an enlarged liver (hepatomegaly), which may lead to liver failure. Most individuals with cytochrome c oxidase deficiency have a buildup of a chemical called lactic acid in the body (lactic acidosis), which can cause nausea and an irregular heart rate, and can be life-threatening.

Many people with cytochrome c oxidase deficiency have a specific group of features known as Leigh syndrome. The signs and symptoms of Leigh syndrome include loss of mental function, movement problems, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, eating difficulties, and brain abnormalities. Cytochrome c oxidase deficiency is one of the many causes of Leigh syndrome.  https://medlineplus.gov/genetics/condition/cytochrome-c-oxidase-deficiency

Clinical features

From HPO
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
MedGen UID:
2881
Concept ID:
C0007194
Disease or Syndrome
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is defined by the presence of increased ventricular wall thickness or mass in the absence of loading conditions (hypertension, valve disease) sufficient to cause the observed abnormality.
Cardiomyopathy
MedGen UID:
209232
Concept ID:
C0878544
Disease or Syndrome
A myocardial disorder in which the heart muscle is structurally and functionally abnormal, in the absence of coronary artery disease, hypertension, valvular disease and congenital heart disease sufficient to cause the observed myocardial abnormality.
Bloody diarrhea
MedGen UID:
56232
Concept ID:
C0151594
Disease or Syndrome
Passage of many stools containing blood.
Feeding difficulties
MedGen UID:
65429
Concept ID:
C0232466
Finding
Impaired ability to eat related to problems gathering food and getting ready to suck, chew, or swallow it.
Hepatic steatosis
MedGen UID:
398225
Concept ID:
C2711227
Disease or Syndrome
Steatosis is a term used to denote lipid accumulation within hepatocytes.
Gliosis
MedGen UID:
4899
Concept ID:
C0017639
Pathologic Function
Gliosis is the focal proliferation of glial cells in the central nervous system.
Encephalopathy
MedGen UID:
39314
Concept ID:
C0085584
Disease or Syndrome
Encephalopathy is a term that means brain disease, damage, or malfunction. In general, encephalopathy is manifested by an altered mental state.
Lower limb spasticity
MedGen UID:
220865
Concept ID:
C1271100
Finding
Spasticity (velocity-dependent increase in tonic stretch reflexes with increased muscle tone and hyperexcitable tendon reflexes) in the muscles of the lower limbs, hips, and pelvis
Motor regression
MedGen UID:
478627
Concept ID:
C3276997
Finding
Loss of previously achieved motor skills, as manifested by loss of developmental motor milestones.
Bilateral basal ganglia lesions
MedGen UID:
870485
Concept ID:
C4024932
Finding
Hypotonia
MedGen UID:
10133
Concept ID:
C0026827
Finding
Hypotonia is an abnormally low muscle tone (the amount of tension or resistance to movement in a muscle). Even when relaxed, muscles have a continuous and passive partial contraction which provides some resistance to passive stretching. Hypotonia thus manifests as diminished resistance to passive stretching. Hypotonia is not the same as muscle weakness, although the two conditions can co-exist.
Microcephaly
MedGen UID:
1644158
Concept ID:
C4551563
Finding
Head circumference below 2 standard deviations below the mean for age and gender.
Lactic acidosis
MedGen UID:
1717
Concept ID:
C0001125
Disease or Syndrome
An abnormal buildup of lactic acid in the body, leading to acidification of the blood and other bodily fluids.
Midface retrusion
MedGen UID:
339938
Concept ID:
C1853242
Anatomical Abnormality
Posterior positions and/or vertical shortening of the infraorbital and perialar regions, or increased concavity of the face and/or reduced nasolabial angle.
Decreased fetal movement
MedGen UID:
68618
Concept ID:
C0235659
Finding
An abnormal reduction in quantity or strength of fetal movements.
Retinopathy
MedGen UID:
11209
Concept ID:
C0035309
Disease or Syndrome
Any noninflammatory disease of the retina. This nonspecific term is retained here because of its wide use in the literature, but if possible new annotations should indicate the precise type of retinal abnormality.
Horizontal nystagmus
MedGen UID:
124399
Concept ID:
C0271385
Disease or Syndrome
Nystagmus consisting of horizontal to-and-fro eye movements.

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