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Bicornuate uterus

MedGen UID:
78599
Concept ID:
C0266387
Congenital Abnormality
Synonym: Bicornuate Uterus
SNOMED CT: Uterus heart-shaped (289637001); Bicornuate uterus (31401003); Bicornate uterus (31401003); Uterus bicornis (31401003)
 
HPO: HP:0000813
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0015842
Orphanet: ORPHA180134

Definition

The presence of a bicornuate uterus. [from HPO]

Conditions with this feature

Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome
MedGen UID:
61231
Concept ID:
C0175694
Disease or Syndrome
Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS) is a congenital multiple-anomaly / cognitive impairment syndrome caused by an abnormality in cholesterol metabolism resulting from deficiency of the enzyme 7-dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC) reductase. It is characterized by prenatal and postnatal growth restriction, microcephaly, moderate-to-severe intellectual disability, and multiple major and minor malformations. The malformations include distinctive facial features, cleft palate, cardiac defects, underdeveloped external genitalia in males, postaxial polydactyly, and 2-3 syndactyly of the toes. The clinical spectrum is wide; individuals with normal development and only minor malformations have been described.
Fryns syndrome
MedGen UID:
65088
Concept ID:
C0220730
Disease or Syndrome
Fryns syndrome is characterized by diaphragmatic defects (diaphragmatic hernia, eventration, hypoplasia, or agenesis); characteristic facial appearance (coarse facies, wide-set eyes, a wide and depressed nasal bridge with a broad nasal tip, long philtrum, low-set and anomalous ears, tented vermilion of the upper lip, wide mouth, and a small jaw); short distal phalanges of the fingers and toes (the nails may also be small); pulmonary hypoplasia; and associated anomalies (polyhydramnios, cloudy corneas and/or microphthalmia, orofacial clefting, renal dysplasia / renal cortical cysts, and/or malformations involving the brain, cardiovascular system, gastrointestinal system, and/or genitalia). Survival beyond the neonatal period is rare. Data on postnatal growth and psychomotor development are limited; however, severe developmental delay and intellectual disability are common.
Schinzel-Giedion syndrome
MedGen UID:
120517
Concept ID:
C0265227
Disease or Syndrome
Schinzel-Giedion syndrome is a highly recognizable syndrome characterized by severe mental retardation, distinctive facial features, and multiple congenital malformations including skeletal abnormalities, genitourinary and renal malformations, and cardiac defects, as well as a higher-than-normal prevalence of tumors, notably neuroepithelial neoplasia (summary by Hoischen et al., 2010).
Nager syndrome
MedGen UID:
120519
Concept ID:
C0265245
Disease or Syndrome
Nager syndrome is the prototype for a group of disorders collectively referred to as the acrofacial dysostoses (AFDs), which are characterized by malformation of the craniofacial skeleton and the limbs. The major facial features of Nager syndrome include downslanted palpebral fissures, midface retrusion, and micrognathia, the latter of which often requires the placement of a tracheostomy in early childhood. Limb defects typically involve the anterior (radial) elements of the upper limbs and manifest as small or absent thumbs, triphalangeal thumbs, radial hypoplasia or aplasia, and radioulnar synostosis. Phocomelia of the upper limbs and, occasionally, lower-limb defects have also been reported. The presence of anterior upper-limb defects and the typical lack of lower-limb involvement distinguishes Nager syndrome from Miller syndrome (263750), another rare AFD; however, distinguishing Nager syndrome from other AFDs, including Miller syndrome, can be challenging (summary by Bernier et al., 2012).
Congenital uterine anomaly
MedGen UID:
78598
Concept ID:
C0266383
Congenital Abnormality
An abnormality of the uterus.
Roberts-SC phocomelia syndrome
MedGen UID:
95931
Concept ID:
C0392475
Disease or Syndrome
ESCO2 spectrum disorder is characterized by mild-to-severe prenatal growth restriction, limb malformations (which can include bilateral symmetric tetraphocomelia or hypomelia caused by mesomelic shortening), hand anomalies (including oligodactyly, thumb aplasia or hypoplasia, and syndactyly), elbow and knee flexion contractures (involving elbows, wrists, knees, ankles, and feet [talipes equinovarus]), and craniofacial abnormalities (which can include bilateral cleft lip and/or cleft palate, micrognathia, widely spaced eyes, exophthalmos, downslanted palpebral fissures, malar flattening, and underdeveloped ala nasi), ear malformation, and corneal opacities. Intellectual disability (ranging from mild to severe) is common. Early mortality is common among severely affected pregnancies and newborns; mildly affected individuals may survive to adulthood.
Ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia-clefting syndrome
MedGen UID:
98357
Concept ID:
C0406704
Disease or Syndrome
EEC syndrome is a genetic developmental disorder characterized by ectrodactyly, ectodermal dysplasia, and orofacial clefts (cleft lip/palate).
Renal cysts and diabetes syndrome
MedGen UID:
96569
Concept ID:
C0431693
Disease or Syndrome
The 17q12 recurrent deletion syndrome is characterized by variable combinations of the three following findings: structural or functional abnormalities of the kidney and urinary tract, maturity-onset diabetes of the young type 5 (MODY5), and neurodevelopmental or neuropsychiatric disorders (e.g., developmental delay, intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorder, schizophrenia, anxiety, and bipolar disorder). Using a method of data analysis that avoids ascertainment bias, the authors determined that multicystic kidneys and other structural and functional kidney anomalies occur in 85% to 90% of affected individuals, MODY5 in approximately 40%, and some degree of developmental delay or learning disability in approximately 50%. MODY5 is most often diagnosed before age 25 years (range: age 10-50 years).
Currarino triad
MedGen UID:
323460
Concept ID:
C1531773
Disease or Syndrome
The Currarino syndrome is an autosomal dominant form of hereditary sacral dysgenesis that classically consists of the triad of sacral malformation, presacral mass, and anorectal malformations. However, other features include neonatal-onset bowel obstruction, chronic constipation, recurrent perianal sepsis, renal/urinary tract anomalies, female internal genital anomalies, tethered spinal cord, and anterior meningocele. There is marked inter- and intrafamilial variability, and up to 33% of patients are asymptomatic (summary by Wang et al., 2006).
Renal hypodysplasia/aplasia 1
MedGen UID:
301437
Concept ID:
C1619700
Congenital Abnormality
Renal hypodysplasia/aplasia belongs to a group of perinatally lethal renal diseases, including bilateral renal aplasia, unilateral renal agenesis with contralateral dysplasia (URA/RD), and severe obstructive uropathy. Renal aplasia falls at the most severe end of the spectrum of congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT; 610805), and usually results in death in utero or in the perinatal period. Families have been documented in which bilateral renal agenesis or aplasia coexists with unilateral renal aplasia, renal dysplasia, or renal aplasia with renal dysplasia, suggesting that these conditions may belong to a pathogenic continuum or phenotypic spectrum (summary by Joss et al., 2003; Humbert et al., 2014). Genetic Heterogeneity of Renal Hypodysplasia/Aplasia See also RHDA2 (615721), caused by mutation in the FGF20 gene (605558) on chromosome 8p22; RHDA3 (617805), caused by mutation in the GREB1L gene (617782) on chromosome 18q11; and RHDA4 (619887), caused by mutation in the GFRA1 gene (601496) on chromosome 10q25.
Matthew-Wood syndrome
MedGen UID:
318679
Concept ID:
C1832661
Disease or Syndrome
Syndromic microphthalmia-9 (MCOPS9), also referred to as pulmonary hypoplasia-diaphragmatic hernia-anophthalmia-cardiac defect, is characterized by bilateral clinical anophthalmia, pulmonary hypoplasia/aplasia, cardiac malformations, and diaphragmatic defects. The phenotype is variable, ranging from isolated clinical anophthalmia or microphthalmia to complex presentations involving the cardiac, pulmonary, diaphragmatic, and renal systems. At its most severe, infants are born without pulmonary structures and die soon after birth (Marcadier et al., 2015).
Meacham syndrome
MedGen UID:
373234
Concept ID:
C1837026
Disease or Syndrome
WT1 disorder is characterized by congenital/infantile or childhood onset of steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS), a progressive glomerulopathy that does not respond to standard steroid therapy. Additional common findings can include disorders of testicular development (with or without abnormalities of the external genitalia and/or müllerian structures) and Wilms tumor. Less common findings are congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) and gonadoblastoma. While various combinations of renal and other findings associated with a WT1 pathogenic variant were designated as certain syndromes in the past, those designations are now recognized to be part of a phenotypic continuum and are no longer clinically helpful.
Ehlers-Danlos syndrome due to tenascin-X deficiency
MedGen UID:
336244
Concept ID:
C1848029
Disease or Syndrome
The clinical features of TNXB-related classical-like Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (clEDS) strongly resemble those seen in classic EDS (cEDS). Affected individuals have generalized joint hypermobility, hyperextensible skin, and easy bruising, but do not have atrophic scarring, as is seen in cEDS. There are also several other distinguishing clinical findings including anomalies of feet and hands, edema in the legs in the absence of cardiac failure, mild proximal and distal muscle weakness, and axonal polyneuropathy. Vaginal, uterine, and/or rectal prolapse can also occur. Tissue fragility with resulting rupture of the trachea, esophagus, and small and large bowel has been reported. Vascular fragility causing a major event occurs in a minority of individuals. Significant variability in the severity of musculoskeletal symptoms and their effect on day-to-day function between unrelated affected individuals as well as among affected individuals in the same family has been reported. Fatigue has been reported in more than half of affected individuals. The severity of symptoms in middle-aged individuals can range from joint hypermobility without complications to being wheelchair-bound as a result of severe and painful foot deformities and fatigue.
Holoprosencephaly-postaxial polydactyly syndrome
MedGen UID:
340382
Concept ID:
C1849649
Disease or Syndrome
Holoprosencephaly-postaxial polydactyly syndrome associates, in chromosomally normal neonates, holoprosencephaly, severe facial dysmorphism, postaxial polydactyly and other congenital abnormalities, suggestive of trisomy 13. Incidence is unknown. Dysmorphic features include hypotelorism, severe eye anomalies such as microphthalmia or anophthalmia, premaxillary region aplasia and cleft lip and palate. Congenital cardiac anomalies are common. The condition seems to be inherited as an autosomal recessive trait. Prognosis is poor.
Bartsocas-Papas syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
337894
Concept ID:
C1849718
Disease or Syndrome
Bartsocas-Papas syndrome-1 (BPS1) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by multiple popliteal pterygia, ankyloblepharon, filiform bands between the jaws, cleft lip and palate, and syndactyly. Early lethality is common, although survival into childhood and beyond has been reported (summary by Mitchell et al., 2012). Genetic Heterogeneity of Bartsocas-Papas Syndrome Bartsocas-Papas syndrome-2 (BPS2) is caused by mutation in the CHUK gene (600664). A less severe form of popliteal pterygium syndrome (PPS; 119500) is caused by mutation in the IRF6 gene (607199).
Gillessen-Kaesbach-Nishimura syndrome
MedGen UID:
376653
Concept ID:
C1849762
Disease or Syndrome
Gillessen-Kaesbach-Nishimura syndrome is an autosomal recessive multiple congenital anomaly disorder characterized by skeletal dysplasia, dysmorphic facial features, and variable visceral abnormalities, including polycystic kidneys, diaphragmatic hernia, lung hypoplasia, and congenital heart defects. It may be lethal in utero or early in life. The disorder is at the severe end of the phenotypic spectrum of congenital disorders of glycosylation (summary by Tham et al., 2016).
Lethal omphalocele-cleft palate syndrome
MedGen UID:
376757
Concept ID:
C1850317
Disease or Syndrome
Syndrome with the association of omphalocele and cleft palate. It has been described in three daughters of normal unrelated parents. They were all diagnosed at birth. This syndrome is likely to be inherited as an autosomal recessive condition.
Donnai-Barrow syndrome
MedGen UID:
347406
Concept ID:
C1857277
Disease or Syndrome
Donnai-Barrow syndrome (DBS) is characterized by typical craniofacial features (large anterior fontanelle, wide metopic suture, widow's peak, markedly widely spaced eyes, enlarged globes, downslanted palpebral fissures, posteriorly rotated ears, depressed nasal bridge, and short nose. Ocular complications include high myopia, retinal detachment, retinal dystrophy, and progressive vision loss. Additional common features include agenesis of the corpus callosum, sensorineural hearing loss, intellectual disability, and congenital diaphragmatic hernia and/or omphalocele. Both inter- and intrafamilial phenotypic variability are observed.
Acro-renal-mandibular syndrome
MedGen UID:
395425
Concept ID:
C1860166
Disease or Syndrome
A very rare multiple congenital anomalies syndrome with characteristics of limb deficiencies and renal anomalies that include split hand-split foot malformation, renal agenesis, polycystic kidneys, uterine anomalies and severe mandibular hypoplasia.
Ulnar-mammary syndrome
MedGen UID:
357886
Concept ID:
C1866994
Disease or Syndrome
Ulnar-mammary syndrome (UMS) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by posterior limb deficiencies or duplications, apocrine/mammary gland hypoplasia and/or dysfunction, abnormal dentition, delayed puberty in males, and genital anomalies (Bamshad et al., 1996).
Syndactyly-telecanthus-anogenital and renal malformations syndrome
MedGen UID:
394424
Concept ID:
C2678045
Disease or Syndrome
Syndrome with the association of toe syndactyly, facial dysmorphism including telecanthus and a broad nasal tip, urogenital malformations and anal atresia. Around ten cases have been reported so far. The syndrome is caused by mutations in the FAM58A gene (located on the X chromosome) encoding a protein of unknown function.
46,XX sex reversal 1
MedGen UID:
411324
Concept ID:
C2748895
Disease or Syndrome
Nonsyndromic 46,XX testicular disorders/differences of sex development (DSD) are characterized by: the presence of a 46,XX karyotype; external genitalia ranging from typical male to ambiguous; two testicles; azoospermia; absence of müllerian structures; and absence of other syndromic features, such as congenital anomalies outside of the genitourinary system, learning disorders / cognitive impairment, or behavioral issues. Approximately 85% of individuals with nonsyndromic 46,XX testicular DSD present after puberty with normal pubic hair and normal penile size but small testes, gynecomastia, and sterility resulting from azoospermia. Approximately 15% of individuals with nonsyndromic 46,XX testicular DSD present at birth with ambiguous genitalia. Gender role and gender identity are reported as male. If untreated, males with 46,XX testicular DSD experience the consequences of testosterone deficiency.
Alveolar capillary dysplasia with pulmonary venous misalignment
MedGen UID:
755478
Concept ID:
C2960310
Congenital Abnormality
Congenital alveolar capillary dysplasia with misalignment of pulmonary veins (ACDMPV) is characterized histologically by failure of formation and ingrowth of alveolar capillaries that then do not make contact with alveolar epithelium, medial muscular thickening of small pulmonary arterioles with muscularization of the intraacinar arterioles, thickened alveolar walls, and anomalously situated pulmonary veins running alongside pulmonary arterioles and sharing the same adventitial sheath. Less common features include a reduced number of alveoli and a patchy distribution of the histopathologic changes. The disorder is associated with persistent pulmonary hypertension of the neonate and shows varying degrees of lability and severity (Boggs et al., 1994). Affected infants present with respiratory distress resulting from pulmonary hypertension in the early postnatal period, and the disease is uniformly fatal within the newborn period (Vassal et al., 1998). Additional features of ACDMPV include multiple congenital anomalies affecting the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, genitourinary, and musculoskeletal systems, as well as disruption of the normal right-left asymmetry of intrathoracic or intraabdominal organs (Sen et al., 2004).
Perrault syndrome 4
MedGen UID:
815435
Concept ID:
C3809105
Disease or Syndrome
Perrault syndrome is characterized by sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) in males and females and ovarian dysfunction in females. SNHL is bilateral and ranges from profound with prelingual (congenital) onset to moderate with early-childhood onset. When onset is in early childhood, hearing loss can be progressive. Ovarian dysfunction ranges from gonadal dysgenesis (absent or streak gonads) manifesting as primary amenorrhea to primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) defined as cessation of menses before age 40 years. Fertility in affected males is reported as normal (although the number of reported males is limited). Neurologic features described in some individuals with Perrault syndrome include learning difficulties and developmental delay, cerebellar ataxia, and motor and sensory peripheral neuropathy.
Microphthalmia, syndromic 12
MedGen UID:
816133
Concept ID:
C3809803
Disease or Syndrome
Syndromic microphthalmia-12 is a rare disease characterized by bilateral small eyeballs (microphthalmia), lungs that are too small (pulmonary hypoplasia), and a defect or hole in the diaphragm that allows the abdominal contents to move into the chest cavity (diaphragmatic hernia). Other symptoms may include: Severe global developmental delay with progressive motor impairment due to spasticity and/or uncontrolled repetitive muscular contractions (dystonia), with or without abnormal quick movements that resemble dancing (chorea), Defects of the cerebellum (Chiari type I malformation) Accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid inside the brain (hydrocephaly), Severe feeding difficulties, Mild facial dysmorphism with broad nasal root and tip, and a very small chin (micrognathia), Severe language delay, Wheelchair-bound. Syndromic microphthalmia-12 is caused by mutations in the RARB gene. There is no specific treatment for this syndrome.
Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome type 2
MedGen UID:
931237
Concept ID:
C4305568
Disease or Syndrome
Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome type 2, a form of MRKH syndrome (see this term), is characterized by congenital aplasia of the uterus and upper 2/3 of the vagina that is associated with at least one other malformation such as renal, vertebral, or, less commonly, auditory and cardiac defects. The acronym MURCS (MÜllerian duct aplasia, Renal dysplasia, Cervical Somite anomalies) is also used.
Fraser syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1639061
Concept ID:
C4551480
Disease or Syndrome
Fraser syndrome is an autosomal recessive malformation disorder characterized by cryptophthalmos, syndactyly, and abnormalities of the respiratory and urogenital tract (summary by van Haelst et al., 2008). Genetic Heterogeneity of Fraser Syndrome Fraser syndrome-2 (FRASRS2) is caused by mutation in the FREM2 gene (608945) on chromosome 13q13, and Fraser syndrome-3 (FRASRS3; 617667) is caused by mutation in the GRIP1 gene (604597) on chromosome 12q14. See Bowen syndrome (211200) for a comparable but probably distinct syndrome of multiple congenital malformations.
Teebi hypertelorism syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
989457
Concept ID:
CN306405
Disease or Syndrome
Teebi hypertelorism syndrome-1 (TBHS1) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by hypertelorism with upslanting palpebral fissures, prominent forehead, broad and depressed nasal bridge with short nose, thick eyebrows, and widow's peak. Additional features include small broad hands with mild interdigital webbing and shawl scrotum. Umbilical malformations, cardiac defects, natal teeth, cleft lip/palate, congenital diaphragmatic hernia, and malformations of the central nervous system (ventriculomegaly, abnormal corpus callosum) have also been reported. Development is typically normal, although some patients with developmental delays have been reported (summary by Bhoj et al., 2015). Genetic Heterogeneity of Teebi Hypertelorism Syndrome Teebi hypertelorism syndrome-2 (TBHS2; 619736) is caused by mutation in the CDH11 gene (600023) on chromosome 16q21.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Dietrich JE
J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol 2022 Oct;35(5):536-540. Epub 2022 Apr 27 doi: 10.1016/j.jpag.2022.04.007. PMID: 35489471
Passos IMPE, Britto RL
Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2020 Mar;59(2):183-188. doi: 10.1016/j.tjog.2020.01.003. PMID: 32127135
Brucker SY, Rall K, Campo R, Oppelt P, Isaacson K
Semin Reprod Med 2011 Mar;29(2):101-12. Epub 2011 Mar 24 doi: 10.1055/s-0031-1272472. PMID: 21437824

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Kadour Peero E, Badeghiesh A, Baghlaf H, Dahan MH
J Perinat Med 2023 Mar 28;51(3):305-310. Epub 2022 Aug 11 doi: 10.1515/jpm-2022-0075. PMID: 35946504
Hiersch L, Yeoshoua E, Miremberg H, Krissi H, Aviram A, Yogev Y, Ashwal E
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2016;29(16):2573-8. Epub 2015 Oct 20 doi: 10.3109/14767058.2015.1098613. PMID: 26395238
Werler MM, Yazdy MM, Mitchell AA, Meyer RE, Druschel CM, Anderka M, Kasser JR, Mahan ST
Am J Med Genet A 2013 Jul;161A(7):1569-78. Epub 2013 May 17 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.35955. PMID: 23686911Free PMC Article
Doumouchtsis SK, Arulkumaran S
Obstet Gynecol Surv 2009 Sep;64(9):615-23. doi: 10.1097/OGX.0b013e3181b27a3a. PMID: 19691859
Seppälä M, Vara P
Br Med J 1972 Mar 18;1(5802):747. doi: 10.1136/bmj.1.5802.747-a. PMID: 5015335Free PMC Article

Diagnosis

Bendarska-Czerwińska A, Zmarzły N, Morawiec E, Panfil A, Bryś K, Czarniecka J, Ostenda A, Dziobek K, Sagan D, Boroń D, Michalski P, Pallazo-Michalska V, Grabarek BO
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2022;13:970439. Epub 2023 Jan 17 doi: 10.3389/fendo.2022.970439. PMID: 36733805Free PMC Article
Passos IMPE, Britto RL
Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2020 Mar;59(2):183-188. doi: 10.1016/j.tjog.2020.01.003. PMID: 32127135
Yoo RE, Cho JY, Kim SY, Kim SH
Abdom Imaging 2015 Jan;40(1):192-206. doi: 10.1007/s00261-014-0195-9. PMID: 25070770
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Kusuda M
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 1982;61(5):407-12. doi: 10.3109/00016348209156581. PMID: 7158308

Therapy

Ludwin A, Lindheim SR, Bhagavath B, Martins WP, Ludwin I
Fertil Steril 2020 Oct;114(4):899-901. Epub 2020 Aug 18 doi: 10.1016/j.fertnstert.2020.06.014. PMID: 32826051
Jayaprakash S, Muralidhar L, Sampathkumar G, Sexsena R
BMJ Case Rep 2011 Oct 28;2011 doi: 10.1136/bcr.08.2011.4633. PMID: 22675095Free PMC Article
Doumouchtsis SK, Arulkumaran S
Obstet Gynecol Surv 2009 Sep;64(9):615-23. doi: 10.1097/OGX.0b013e3181b27a3a. PMID: 19691859
Propst AM, Hill JA 3rd
Semin Reprod Med 2000;18(4):341-50. doi: 10.1055/s-2000-13723. PMID: 11355792
Seppälä M, Vara P
Br Med J 1972 Mar 18;1(5802):747. doi: 10.1136/bmj.1.5802.747-a. PMID: 5015335Free PMC Article

Prognosis

Hughes KM, Kane SC, Haines TP, Sheehan PM
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2020 Nov;99(11):1519-1526. Epub 2020 Jun 3 doi: 10.1111/aogs.13923. PMID: 32438506
Pedersen LK, Maimburg RD, Hertz JM, Gjørup H, Pedersen TK, Møller-Madsen B, Østergaard JR
Orphanet J Rare Dis 2017 Jan 6;12(1):4. doi: 10.1186/s13023-016-0559-z. PMID: 28061881Free PMC Article
Chifan M, Tîrnovanu M, Grigore M, Zanoschi C
Rev Med Chir Soc Med Nat Iasi 2012 Oct-Dec;116(4):1063-8. PMID: 23700889
Doumouchtsis SK, Arulkumaran S
Obstet Gynecol Surv 2009 Sep;64(9):615-23. doi: 10.1097/OGX.0b013e3181b27a3a. PMID: 19691859
Candiani GB, Fedele L, Candiani M
Obstet Gynecol 1997 Jul;90(1):26-32. doi: 10.1016/S0029-7844(97)83836-7. PMID: 9207807

Clinical prediction guides

Hughes KM, Kane SC, Haines TP, Sheehan PM
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2020 Nov;99(11):1519-1526. Epub 2020 Jun 3 doi: 10.1111/aogs.13923. PMID: 32438506
Pedersen LK, Maimburg RD, Hertz JM, Gjørup H, Pedersen TK, Møller-Madsen B, Østergaard JR
Orphanet J Rare Dis 2017 Jan 6;12(1):4. doi: 10.1186/s13023-016-0559-z. PMID: 28061881Free PMC Article
Hiersch L, Yeoshoua E, Miremberg H, Krissi H, Aviram A, Yogev Y, Ashwal E
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2016;29(16):2573-8. Epub 2015 Oct 20 doi: 10.3109/14767058.2015.1098613. PMID: 26395238
Doumouchtsis SK, Arulkumaran S
Obstet Gynecol Surv 2009 Sep;64(9):615-23. doi: 10.1097/OGX.0b013e3181b27a3a. PMID: 19691859
Kusuda M
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 1982;61(5):407-12. doi: 10.3109/00016348209156581. PMID: 7158308

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