U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Format

Send to:

Choose Destination

Alstrom syndrome(ALMS)

MedGen UID:
78675
Concept ID:
C0268425
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: ALMS; Alstrom's syndrome
SNOMED CT: Alstrom syndrome (63702009)
Modes of inheritance:
Autosomal recessive inheritance
MedGen UID:
141025
Concept ID:
C0441748
Intellectual Product
Source: Orphanet
A mode of inheritance that is observed for traits related to a gene encoded on one of the autosomes (i.e., the human chromosomes 1-22) in which a trait manifests in individuals with two pathogenic alleles, either homozygotes (two copies of the same mutant allele) or compound heterozygotes (whereby each copy of a gene has a distinct mutant allele).
 
Gene (location): ALMS1 (2p13.1)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0008763
OMIM®: 203800
Orphanet: ORPHA64

Disease characteristics

Excerpted from the GeneReview: Alström Syndrome
Alström syndrome is characterized by cone-rod dystrophy, obesity, progressive bilateral sensorineural hearing impairment, acute infantile-onset cardiomyopathy and/or adolescent- or adult-onset restrictive cardiomyopathy, insulin resistance / type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and chronic progressive kidney disease. Cone-rod dystrophy presents as progressive visual impairment, photophobia, and nystagmus usually starting between birth and age 15 months. Many individuals lose all perception of light by the end of the second decade, but a minority retain the ability to read large print into the third decade. Children usually have normal birth weight but develop truncal obesity during their first year. Sensorineural hearing loss presents in the first decade in as many as 70% of individuals and may progress to the severe or moderately severe range (40-70 db) by the end of the first to second decade. Insulin resistance is typically accompanied by the skin changes of acanthosis nigricans, and proceeds to T2DM in the majority by the third decade. Nearly all demonstrate hypertriglyceridemia. Other findings can include endocrine abnormalities (hypothyroidism, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism in males, and hyperandrogenism in females), urologic dysfunction / detrusor instability, progressive decrease in renal function, and hepatic disease (ranging from elevated transaminases to steatohepatitis/NAFLD). Approximately 20% of affected individuals have delay in early developmental milestones, most commonly in gross and fine motor skills. About 30% have a learning disability. Cognitive impairment (IQ <70) is very rare. Wide clinical variability is observed among affected individuals, even within the same family. [from GeneReviews]
Authors:
Richard B Paisey  |  Rick Steeds  |  Tim Barrett, et. al.   view full author information

Additional descriptions

From OMIM
Alstrom syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by progressive cone-rod dystrophy leading to blindness, sensorineural hearing loss, childhood obesity associated with hyperinsulinemia, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Dilated cardiomyopathy occurs in approximately 70% of patients during infancy or adolescence. Renal failure, pulmonary, hepatic, and urologic dysfunction are often observed, and systemic fibrosis develops with age (summary by Collin et al., 2002; Marshall et al., 2007).  http://www.omim.org/entry/203800
From MedlinePlus Genetics
Alström syndrome is a rare condition that affects many body systems. Many of the signs and symptoms of this condition begin in infancy or early childhood, although some appear later in life.

Alström syndrome is characterized by a progressive loss of vision and hearing, a form of heart disease that enlarges and weakens the heart muscle (dilated cardiomyopathy), obesity, type 2 diabetes (the most common form of diabetes), and short stature. This disorder can also cause serious or life-threatening medical problems involving the liver, kidneys, bladder, and lungs. Some individuals with Alström syndrome have a skin condition called acanthosis nigricans, which causes the skin in body folds and creases to become thick, dark, and velvety. The signs and symptoms of Alström syndrome vary in severity, and not all affected individuals have all of the characteristic features of the disorder.  https://medlineplus.gov/genetics/condition/alstrom-syndrome

Clinical features

From HPO
Interstitial nephritis
MedGen UID:
11952
Concept ID:
C0041349
Disease or Syndrome
A form of inflammation of the kidney affecting the interstitium of the kidneys surrounding the tubules.
Irregular menstruation
MedGen UID:
56379
Concept ID:
C0156404
Finding
Abnormally high variation in the amount of time between periods.
Renal insufficiency
MedGen UID:
332529
Concept ID:
C1565489
Disease or Syndrome
A reduction in the level of performance of the kidneys in areas of function comprising the concentration of urine, removal of wastes, the maintenance of electrolyte balance, homeostasis of blood pressure, and calcium metabolism.
Pes planus
MedGen UID:
42034
Concept ID:
C0016202
Anatomical Abnormality
A foot where the longitudinal arch of the foot is in contact with the ground or floor when the individual is standing; or, in a patient lying supine, a foot where the arch is in contact with the surface of a flat board pressed against the sole of the foot by the examiner with a pressure similar to that expected from weight bearing; or, the height of the arch is reduced.
Abnormality of the hand
MedGen UID:
6715
Concept ID:
C0018564
Anatomical Abnormality
An abnormality affecting one or both hands.
Atherosclerosis
MedGen UID:
13948
Concept ID:
C0004153
Disease or Syndrome
A condition characterized by patchy atheromas or atherosclerotic plaques which develop in the walls of medium-sized and large arteries and can lead to arterial stenosis with reduced or blocked blood flow.
Primary dilated cardiomyopathy
MedGen UID:
2880
Concept ID:
C0007193
Disease or Syndrome
Familial dilated cardiomyopathy is a genetic form of heart disease. It occurs when heart (cardiac) muscle becomes thin and weakened in at least one chamber of the heart, causing the open area of the chamber to become enlarged (dilated). As a result, the heart is unable to pump blood as efficiently as usual. To compensate, the heart attempts to increase the amount of blood being pumped through the heart, leading to further thinning and weakening of the cardiac muscle. Over time, this condition results in heart failure.\n\nIt usually takes many years for symptoms of familial dilated cardiomyopathy to cause health problems. They typically begin in mid-adulthood, but can occur at any time from infancy to late adulthood. Signs and symptoms of familial dilated cardiomyopathy can include an irregular heartbeat (arrhythmia), shortness of breath (dyspnea), extreme tiredness (fatigue), fainting episodes (syncope), and swelling of the legs and feet. In some cases, the first sign of the disorder is sudden cardiac death. The severity of the condition varies among affected individuals, even in members of the same family.
Congestive heart failure
MedGen UID:
9169
Concept ID:
C0018802
Disease or Syndrome
The presence of an abnormality of cardiac function that is responsible for the failure of the heart to pump blood at a rate that is commensurate with the needs of the tissues or a state in which abnormally elevated filling pressures are required for the heart to do so. Heart failure is frequently related to a defect in myocardial contraction.
Hypertensive disorder
MedGen UID:
6969
Concept ID:
C0020538
Disease or Syndrome
The presence of chronic increased pressure in the systemic arterial system.
Short stature
MedGen UID:
87607
Concept ID:
C0349588
Finding
A height below that which is expected according to age and gender norms. Although there is no universally accepted definition of short stature, many refer to "short stature" as height more than 2 standard deviations below the mean for age and gender (or below the 3rd percentile for age and gender dependent norms).
Truncal obesity
MedGen UID:
1637490
Concept ID:
C4551560
Finding
Obesity located preferentially in the trunk of the body as opposed to the extremities.
Hepatomegaly
MedGen UID:
42428
Concept ID:
C0019209
Finding
Abnormally increased size of the liver.
Chronic active hepatitis
MedGen UID:
105441
Concept ID:
C0520463
Disease or Syndrome
Chronic hepatitis associated with recurrent clinical exacerbations, extrahepatic manifestations, and progression to cirrhosis.
Hepatic steatosis
MedGen UID:
398225
Concept ID:
C2711227
Disease or Syndrome
Steatosis is a term used to denote lipid accumulation within hepatocytes.
Progressive sensorineural hearing impairment
MedGen UID:
335894
Concept ID:
C1843156
Disease or Syndrome
A progressive form of sensorineural hearing impairment.
Photophobia
MedGen UID:
43220
Concept ID:
C0085636
Sign or Symptom
Excessive sensitivity to light with the sensation of discomfort or pain in the eyes due to exposure to bright light.
Global developmental delay
MedGen UID:
107838
Concept ID:
C0557874
Finding
A delay in the achievement of motor or mental milestones in the domains of development of a child, including motor skills, speech and language, cognitive skills, and social and emotional skills. This term should only be used to describe children younger than five years of age.
Hyperostosis interna frontalis
MedGen UID:
9367
Concept ID:
C0020494
Disease or Syndrome
Bony overgrowth of the internal (endosteal) surface of the frontal bone.
Kyphosis
MedGen UID:
44042
Concept ID:
C0022821
Anatomical Abnormality
Exaggerated anterior convexity of the thoracic vertebral column.
Scoliosis
MedGen UID:
11348
Concept ID:
C0036439
Disease or Syndrome
The presence of an abnormal lateral curvature of the spine.
Accelerated skeletal maturation
MedGen UID:
154262
Concept ID:
C0545053
Finding
An abnormally increased rate of skeletal maturation. Accelerated skeletal maturation can be diagnosed on the basis of an estimation of the bone age from radiographs of specific bones in the human body.
Recurrent pneumonia
MedGen UID:
195802
Concept ID:
C0694550
Disease or Syndrome
An increased susceptibility to pneumonia as manifested by a history of recurrent episodes of pneumonia.
Asthma
MedGen UID:
2109
Concept ID:
C0004096
Disease or Syndrome
Asthma is characterized by increased responsiveness of the tracheobronchial tree to multiple stimuli, leading to narrowing of the air passages with resultant dyspnea, cough, and wheezing.
Nephritis
MedGen UID:
14328
Concept ID:
C0027697
Disease or Syndrome
The presence of inflammation affecting the kidney.
Otitis media
MedGen UID:
45253
Concept ID:
C0029882
Disease or Syndrome
Inflammation or infection of the middle ear.
Decreased HDL cholesterol concentration
MedGen UID:
57731
Concept ID:
C0151691
Finding
An decreased concentration of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in the blood.
Hyperuricemia
MedGen UID:
149260
Concept ID:
C0740394
Disease or Syndrome
An abnormally high level of uric acid in the blood.
Hypertriglyceridemia
MedGen UID:
167238
Concept ID:
C0813230
Finding
An abnormal increase in the level of triglycerides in the blood.
Insulin-resistant diabetes mellitus
MedGen UID:
163439
Concept ID:
C0854110
Disease or Syndrome
A type of diabetes mellitus related not to lack of insulin but rather to lack of response to insulin on the part of the target tissues of insulin such as muscle, fat, and liver cells. This type of diabetes is typically associated with increases both in blood glucose concentrations as well as in fasting and postprandial serum insulin levels.
Elevated hepatic transaminase
MedGen UID:
338525
Concept ID:
C1848701
Finding
Elevations of the levels of SGOT and SGPT in the serum. SGOT (serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase) and SGPT (serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase) are transaminases primarily found in the liver and heart and are released into the bloodstream as the result of liver or heart damage. SGOT and SGPT are used clinically mainly as markers of liver damage.
Gingivitis
MedGen UID:
4895
Concept ID:
C0017574
Disease or Syndrome
Inflammation of the gingiva.
Abnormality of the dentition
MedGen UID:
78084
Concept ID:
C0262444
Finding
Any abnormality of the teeth.
Acanthosis nigricans
MedGen UID:
54
Concept ID:
C0000889
Disease or Syndrome
A dermatosis characterized by thickened, hyperpigmented plaques, typically on the intertriginous surfaces and neck.
Alopecia
MedGen UID:
7982
Concept ID:
C0002170
Finding
A noncongenital process of hair loss, which may progress to partial or complete baldness.
Diabetes insipidus
MedGen UID:
8349
Concept ID:
C0011848
Disease or Syndrome
A state of excessive water intake and hypotonic (dilute) polyuria. Diabetes insipidus may be due to failure of vasopressin (AVP) release (central or neurogenic diabetes insipidus) or to a failure of the kidney to respond to AVP (nephrogenic diabetes insipidus).
Hyperinsulinemia
MedGen UID:
43779
Concept ID:
C0020459
Disease or Syndrome
An increased concentration of insulin in the blood.
Hypothyroidism
MedGen UID:
6991
Concept ID:
C0020676
Disease or Syndrome
Deficiency of thyroid hormone.
Multinodular goiter
MedGen UID:
87431
Concept ID:
C0342208
Disease or Syndrome
Enlargement of the thyroid gland related to multiple nodules in the thyroid gland.
Hypergonadotropic hypogonadism
MedGen UID:
184926
Concept ID:
C0948896
Disease or Syndrome
Reduced function of the gonads (testes in males or ovaries in females) associated with excess pituitary gonadotropin secretion and resulting in delayed sexual development and growth delay.
Decreased response to growth hormone stimulation test
MedGen UID:
1784655
Concept ID:
C5539399
Finding
Insufficient responses to growth hormone (GH) provocation tests. GH deficiency is defined as a serum peak GH concentration less than 10 ng/mL on provocation with a combination of at least two separate stimulation tests.
Gynecomastia
MedGen UID:
6694
Concept ID:
C0018418
Disease or Syndrome
Abnormal development of large mammary glands in males resulting in breast enlargement.
Nystagmus
MedGen UID:
45166
Concept ID:
C0028738
Disease or Syndrome
Rhythmic, involuntary oscillations of one or both eyes related to abnormality in fixation, conjugate gaze, or vestibular mechanisms.
Constriction of peripheral visual field
MedGen UID:
68613
Concept ID:
C0235095
Finding
An absolute or relative decrease in retinal sensitivity extending from edge (periphery) of the visual field in a concentric pattern. The visual field is the area that is perceived simultaneously by a fixating eye.
Subcapsular cataract
MedGen UID:
65903
Concept ID:
C0235259
Finding
A cataract that affects the region of the lens directly beneath the capsule of the lens.
Blindness
MedGen UID:
99138
Concept ID:
C0456909
Disease or Syndrome
Blindness is the condition of lacking visual perception defined as visual perception below 3/60 and/or a visual field of no greater than 10 degrees in radius around central fixation.
Visual loss
MedGen UID:
784038
Concept ID:
C3665386
Finding
Loss of visual acuity (implying that vision was better at a certain time point in life). Otherwise the term reduced visual acuity should be used (or a subclass of that).
Cone-rod dystrophy
MedGen UID:
896366
Concept ID:
C4085590
Disease or Syndrome
The first signs and symptoms of cone-rod dystrophy, which often occur in childhood, are usually decreased sharpness of vision (visual acuity) and increased sensitivity to light (photophobia). These features are typically followed by impaired color vision (dyschromatopsia), blind spots (scotomas) in the center of the visual field, and partial side (peripheral) vision loss. Over time, affected individuals develop night blindness and a worsening of their peripheral vision, which can limit independent mobility. Decreasing visual acuity makes reading increasingly difficult and most affected individuals are legally blind by mid-adulthood. As the condition progresses, individuals may develop involuntary eye movements (nystagmus).\n\nThere are more than 30 types of cone-rod dystrophy, which are distinguished by their genetic cause and their pattern of inheritance: autosomal recessive, autosomal dominant, and X-linked. Additionally, cone-rod dystrophy can occur alone without any other signs and symptoms or it can occur as part of a syndrome that affects multiple parts of the body.\n\nCone-rod dystrophy is a group of related eye disorders that causes vision loss, which becomes more severe over time. These disorders affect the retina, which is the layer of light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye. In people with cone-rod dystrophy, vision loss occurs as the light-sensing cells of the retina gradually deteriorate.
Pigmentary retinopathy
MedGen UID:
1643295
Concept ID:
C4551715
Disease or Syndrome
An abnormality of the retina characterized by pigment deposition. It is typically associated with migration and proliferation of macrophages or retinal pigment epithelial cells into the retina; melanin from these cells causes the pigmentary changes. Pigmentary retinopathy is a common final pathway of many retinal conditions and is often associated with visual loss.

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • CROGVAlstrom syndrome
Follow this link to review classifications for Alstrom syndrome in Orphanet.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Bea-Mascato B, Valverde D
J Med Genet 2023 Dec 21;61(1):18-26. doi: 10.1136/jmg-2023-109175. PMID: 37321834Free PMC Article
Wang Y, Huang L, Sun L, Li S, Zhang Z, Zhang T, Lai Y, Ding X
Exp Eye Res 2022 Dec;225:109277. Epub 2022 Oct 4 doi: 10.1016/j.exer.2022.109277. PMID: 36206858
Tahani N, Maffei P, Dollfus H, Paisey R, Valverde D, Milan G, Han JC, Favaretto F, Madathil SC, Dawson C, Armstrong MJ, Warfield AT, Düzenli S, Francomano CA, Gunay-Aygun M, Dassie F, Marion V, Valenti M, Leeson-Beevers K, Chivers A, Steeds R, Barrett T, Geberhiwot T
Orphanet J Rare Dis 2020 Sep 21;15(1):253. doi: 10.1186/s13023-020-01468-8. PMID: 32958032Free PMC Article

Curated

Marshall JD, Maffei P, Beck S, Barrett TG, Paisey RB
Eur J Hum Genet 2011 Oct;19(10) Epub 2011 Apr 27 doi: 10.1038/ejhg.2011.72. PMID: 21522186Free PMC Article

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Huang YC, Chao YC, Lee IC
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2022;13:998675. Epub 2022 Nov 10 doi: 10.3389/fendo.2022.998675. PMID: 36440223Free PMC Article
Haqq AM, Chung WK, Dollfus H, Haws RM, Martos-Moreno GÁ, Poitou C, Yanovski JA, Mittleman RS, Yuan G, Forsythe E, Clément K, Argente J
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol 2022 Dec;10(12):859-868. Epub 2022 Nov 7 doi: 10.1016/S2213-8587(22)00277-7. PMID: 36356613Free PMC Article
Littleton SH, Berkowitz RI, Grant SFA
Mol Diagn Ther 2020 Dec;24(6):653-663. Epub 2020 Oct 1 doi: 10.1007/s40291-020-00496-1. PMID: 33006084Free PMC Article
Baig S, Paisey R, Dawson C, Barrett T, Maffei P, Hodson J, Rambhatla SB, Chauhan P, Bolton S, Dassie F, Francomano C, Marshall RP, Belal M, Skordilis K, Hayer M, Price AM, Cramb R, Edwards N, Steeds RP, Geberhiwot T
Nephrol Dial Transplant 2020 Jun 1;35(6):994-1001. doi: 10.1093/ndt/gfy293. PMID: 30307515
Marshall JD, Beck S, Maffei P, Naggert JK
Eur J Hum Genet 2007 Dec;15(12):1193-202. Epub 2007 Oct 17 doi: 10.1038/sj.ejhg.5201933. PMID: 17940554

Diagnosis

Haqq AM, Chung WK, Dollfus H, Haws RM, Martos-Moreno GÁ, Poitou C, Yanovski JA, Mittleman RS, Yuan G, Forsythe E, Clément K, Argente J
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol 2022 Dec;10(12):859-868. Epub 2022 Nov 7 doi: 10.1016/S2213-8587(22)00277-7. PMID: 36356613Free PMC Article
Wang Y, Huang L, Sun L, Li S, Zhang Z, Zhang T, Lai Y, Ding X
Exp Eye Res 2022 Dec;225:109277. Epub 2022 Oct 4 doi: 10.1016/j.exer.2022.109277. PMID: 36206858
Tsang SH, Aycinena ARP, Sharma T
Adv Exp Med Biol 2018;1085:179-180. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-95046-4_35. PMID: 30578508
Antosik K, Borowiec M
Arch Immunol Ther Exp (Warsz) 2016 Dec;64(Suppl 1):157-160. Epub 2017 Jan 12 doi: 10.1007/s00005-016-0432-8. PMID: 28083605
Marshall JD, Beck S, Maffei P, Naggert JK
Eur J Hum Genet 2007 Dec;15(12):1193-202. Epub 2007 Oct 17 doi: 10.1038/sj.ejhg.5201933. PMID: 17940554

Therapy

Haqq AM, Chung WK, Dollfus H, Haws RM, Martos-Moreno GÁ, Poitou C, Yanovski JA, Mittleman RS, Yuan G, Forsythe E, Clément K, Argente J
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol 2022 Dec;10(12):859-868. Epub 2022 Nov 7 doi: 10.1016/S2213-8587(22)00277-7. PMID: 36356613Free PMC Article
Torimitsu T, Yoshida T, Nishi S, Itoh H, Oya M
CEN Case Rep 2022 Feb;11(1):11-16. Epub 2021 Jul 5 doi: 10.1007/s13730-021-00621-x. PMID: 34227055Free PMC Article
Chan S, Freund PR, MacDonald I
Curr Opin Pediatr 2013 Dec;25(6):645-52. doi: 10.1097/MOP.0000000000000026. PMID: 24126856
Mokashi A, Cummings EA
Pediatr Diabetes 2011 May;12(3 Pt 2):270-5. Epub 2011 Mar 29 doi: 10.1111/j.1399-5448.2010.00698.x. PMID: 21518413
Mihai CM, Catrinoiu D, Marshall J, Stoicescu R, Tofolean IT
J Med Life 2008 Jul-Sep;1(3):254-61. PMID: 20108502Free PMC Article

Prognosis

Dedeoglu S, Dede E, Oztunc F, Gedikbasi A, Yesil G, Dedeoglu R
Orphanet J Rare Dis 2022 Sep 15;17(1):359. doi: 10.1186/s13023-022-02483-7. PMID: 36109815Free PMC Article
Dassie F, Favaretto F, Bettini S, Parolin M, Valenti M, Reschke F, Danne T, Vettor R, Milan G, Maffei P
Endocrine 2021 Mar;71(3):618-625. Epub 2021 Feb 10 doi: 10.1007/s12020-021-02643-y. PMID: 33566311
Ozantürk A, Marshall JD, Collin GB, Düzenli S, Marshall RP, Candan Ş, Tos T, Esen İ, Taşkesen M, Çayır A, Öztürk Ş, Üstün İ, Ataman E, Karaca E, Özdemir TR, Erol İ, Eroğlu FK, Torun D, Parıltay E, Yılmaz-Güleç E, Karaca E, Atabek ME, Elçioğlu N, Satman İ, Möller C, Muller J, Naggert JK, Özgül RK
J Hum Genet 2015 Jan;60(1):1-9. Epub 2014 Oct 9 doi: 10.1038/jhg.2014.85. PMID: 25296579Free PMC Article
Marshall JD, Beck S, Maffei P, Naggert JK
Eur J Hum Genet 2007 Dec;15(12):1193-202. Epub 2007 Oct 17 doi: 10.1038/sj.ejhg.5201933. PMID: 17940554
Russell-Eggitt IM, Clayton PT, Coffey R, Kriss A, Taylor DS, Taylor JF
Ophthalmology 1998 Jul;105(7):1274-80. doi: 10.1016/S0161-6420(98)97033-6. PMID: 9663233

Clinical prediction guides

Dedeoglu S, Dede E, Oztunc F, Gedikbasi A, Yesil G, Dedeoglu R
Orphanet J Rare Dis 2022 Sep 15;17(1):359. doi: 10.1186/s13023-022-02483-7. PMID: 36109815Free PMC Article
Dassie F, Favaretto F, Bettini S, Parolin M, Valenti M, Reschke F, Danne T, Vettor R, Milan G, Maffei P
Endocrine 2021 Mar;71(3):618-625. Epub 2021 Feb 10 doi: 10.1007/s12020-021-02643-y. PMID: 33566311
Baig S, Paisey R, Dawson C, Barrett T, Maffei P, Hodson J, Rambhatla SB, Chauhan P, Bolton S, Dassie F, Francomano C, Marshall RP, Belal M, Skordilis K, Hayer M, Price AM, Cramb R, Edwards N, Steeds RP, Geberhiwot T
Nephrol Dial Transplant 2020 Jun 1;35(6):994-1001. doi: 10.1093/ndt/gfy293. PMID: 30307515
Mariman EC, Vink RG, Roumans NJ, Bouwman FG, Stumpel CT, Aller EE, van Baak MA, Wang P
Br J Nutr 2016 Aug;116(4):576-92. Epub 2016 Jun 20 doi: 10.1017/S0007114516002282. PMID: 27323230
Ozantürk A, Marshall JD, Collin GB, Düzenli S, Marshall RP, Candan Ş, Tos T, Esen İ, Taşkesen M, Çayır A, Öztürk Ş, Üstün İ, Ataman E, Karaca E, Özdemir TR, Erol İ, Eroğlu FK, Torun D, Parıltay E, Yılmaz-Güleç E, Karaca E, Atabek ME, Elçioğlu N, Satman İ, Möller C, Muller J, Naggert JK, Özgül RK
J Hum Genet 2015 Jan;60(1):1-9. Epub 2014 Oct 9 doi: 10.1038/jhg.2014.85. PMID: 25296579Free PMC Article

Recent systematic reviews

Bea-Mascato B, Valverde D
J Med Genet 2023 Dec 21;61(1):18-26. doi: 10.1136/jmg-2023-109175. PMID: 37321834Free PMC Article
Tahani N, Maffei P, Dollfus H, Paisey R, Valverde D, Milan G, Han JC, Favaretto F, Madathil SC, Dawson C, Armstrong MJ, Warfield AT, Düzenli S, Francomano CA, Gunay-Aygun M, Dassie F, Marion V, Valenti M, Leeson-Beevers K, Chivers A, Steeds R, Barrett T, Geberhiwot T
Orphanet J Rare Dis 2020 Sep 21;15(1):253. doi: 10.1186/s13023-020-01468-8. PMID: 32958032Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Table of contents

    Clinical resources

    Practice guidelines

    • PubMed
      See practice and clinical guidelines in PubMed. The search results may include broader topics and may not capture all published guidelines. See the FAQ for details.

    Curated

    Recent activity

    Your browsing activity is empty.

    Activity recording is turned off.

    Turn recording back on

    See more...