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Anisometropia

MedGen UID:
8099
Concept ID:
C0003081
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: anisometropia; anisometropia (disease)
SNOMED CT: Anisometropia (3289004)
 
HPO: HP:0012803
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0001478

Definition

Inequality of refractive power of the two eyes. [from HPO]

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • Anisometropia

Conditions with this feature

Toriello-Lacassie-Droste syndrome
MedGen UID:
333068
Concept ID:
C1838329
Disease or Syndrome
Oculoectodermal syndrome (OES) is characterized by the association of epibulbar dermoids and aplasia cutis congenita. Affected individuals exhibit congenital scalp lesions which are atrophic, nonscarring, hairless regions that are often multiple and asymmetric in distribution, and may have associated hamartomas. Ectodermal changes include linear hyperpigmentation that may follow the lines of Blaschko and, rarely, epidermal nevus-like lesions. Epibulbar dermoids may be uni- or bilateral. Additional ocular anomalies such as skin tags of the upper eyelid and rarely optic nerve or retinal changes or microphthalmia can be present. Phenotypic expression is highly variable, and various other abnormalities have occasionally been reported, including growth failure, lymphedema, and cardiovascular defects, as well as neurodevelopmental symptoms such as developmental delay, epilepsy, learning difficulties, and behavioral abnormalities. Benign tumor-like lesions such as nonossifying fibromas of the long bones and giant cell granulomas of the jaws have repeatedly been observed and appear to be age-dependent, becoming a common manifestation in individuals aged 5 years or older (summary by Boppudi et al., 2016).
Alport syndrome-intellectual disability-midface hypoplasia-elliptocytosis syndrome
MedGen UID:
337424
Concept ID:
C1846242
Disease or Syndrome
The AMME complex is an X-linked contiguous gene deletion syndrome with features of Alport syndrome (see 301050), impaired intellectual development, midface hypoplasia, and elliptocytosis in affected males (summary by Meloni et al., 2002).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with or without anomalies of the brain, eye, or heart
MedGen UID:
934739
Concept ID:
C4310772
Disease or Syndrome
RERE-related disorders are characterized by neurodevelopmental problems with or without structural anomalies of the eyes, heart, kidneys, and genitourinary tract and mild sensorineural hearing loss. Hypotonia and feeding problems are common among affected individuals. Developmental delay and intellectual disability range from mild to profound. Behavior problems may include attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, self-injurious behavior, and autism spectrum disorder. A variety of eye anomalies (coloboma, optic nerve anomalies, microphthalmia, and/or Peter's anomaly) and vision issues (myopia, anisometropia, astigmatism, exotropia, esotropia) have been reported. Congenital heart defects, most commonly septal defects, have also been described. Genitourinary abnormalities include vesicoureteral reflux, and cryptorchidism and hypospadias in males. Sensorineural hearing loss can be unilateral or bilateral.
Usmani-Riazuddin syndrome, autosomal dominant
MedGen UID:
1794162
Concept ID:
C5561952
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal dominant Usmani-Riazzudin syndrome (USRISD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay with impaired intellectual development and speech delay, hypotonia, and behavioral abnormalities, most commonly aggressive behavior. More variable additional features may include seizures and distal limb anomalies (summary by Usmani et al., 2021).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with hypotonia and brain abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1794187
Concept ID:
C5561977
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with hypotonia and brain abnormalities (NEDHYBA) is characterized by impaired development of motor skills, cognitive function, and speech acquisition beginning in infancy or early childhood. Some affected individuals may have feeding difficulties, seizures, behavioral abnormalities, and nonspecific dysmorphic facial features. Brain imaging shows variable abnormalities, including corpus callosum defects, cerebellar defects, and decreased white matter volume. There is significant phenotypic variability (summary by Duncan et al., 2021).

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Migliorini R, Comberiati AM, Pacella F, Monsellato R, Arrico L
Clin Ter 2019 Sep-Oct;170(5):e339-e344. doi: 10.7417/CT.2019.2158. PMID: 31612190
Kekunnaya R, Chandrasekharan A, Sachdeva V
Middle East Afr J Ophthalmol 2015 Jul-Sep;22(3):298-306. doi: 10.4103/0974-9233.159728. PMID: 26180467Free PMC Article
Burne R, Taylor R; Medscape
Eye (Lond) 2014 Nov;28(11):1281-4; quiz 1285. Epub 2014 Oct 17 doi: 10.1038/eye.2014.237. PMID: 25323853Free PMC Article

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Xu Z, Wu Z, Wen Y, Ding M, Sun W, Wang Y, Shao Z, Liu Y, Yu M, Liu G, Hu Y, Bi H
Front Public Health 2022;10:1072574. Epub 2022 Dec 22 doi: 10.3389/fpubh.2022.1072574. PMID: 36620276Free PMC Article
Flitcroft I, Mccullough S, Saunders K
Br J Ophthalmol 2021 Sep;105(9):1211-1215. Epub 2020 Aug 27 doi: 10.1136/bjophthalmol-2020-316406. PMID: 32855163
García-Montero M, Albarrán Diego C, Garzón-Jiménez N, Pérez-Cambrodí RJ, López-Artero E, Ondategui-Parra JC
Acta Ophthalmol 2019 Mar;97(2):e145-e155. Epub 2018 Sep 14 doi: 10.1111/aos.13891. PMID: 30218490
Jeon HS, Choi DG
Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2017 Dec;255(12):2487-2492. Epub 2017 Sep 9 doi: 10.1007/s00417-017-3798-3. PMID: 28889226
Kutschke PJ, Scott WE, Keech RV
Ophthalmology 1991 Feb;98(2):258-63. doi: 10.1016/s0161-6420(91)32307-8. PMID: 2008287

Diagnosis

Azad R, Sinha S, Nishant P
Indian J Ophthalmol 2021 Nov;69(11):3026-3034. doi: 10.4103/ijo.IJO_1525_21. PMID: 34708738Free PMC Article
South J, Gao T, Collins A, Turuwhenua J, Robertson K, Black J
Clin Exp Optom 2019 Nov;102(6):556-565. Epub 2019 Feb 21 doi: 10.1111/cxo.12881. PMID: 30791133
Schiefer U, Kraus C, Baumbach P, Ungewiß J, Michels R
Dtsch Arztebl Int 2016 Oct 14;113(41):693-702. doi: 10.3238/arztebl.2016.0693. PMID: 27839543Free PMC Article
Carruthers J
Curr Opin Ophthalmol 1996 Oct;7(5):3-7. doi: 10.1097/00055735-199610000-00002. PMID: 10165105
Shippman S, Hermann JS
J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus 1978 Jul-Aug;15(4):210-2. doi: 10.3928/0191-3913-19780701-05. PMID: 739353

Therapy

Alfonso-Bartolozzi B, Martínez-Alberquilla I, Baamonde B, Fernández-Vega-Cueto L, Alfonso JF, Madrid-Costa D
Int Ophthalmol 2023 Apr;43(4):1413-1435. Epub 2022 Sep 9 doi: 10.1007/s10792-022-02507-y. PMID: 36083561
Atchison DA, Nguyen T, Schmid KL, Rakshit A, Baldwin AS, Hess RF
Ophthalmic Physiol Opt 2022 Jul;42(4):921-930. Epub 2022 Mar 6 doi: 10.1111/opo.12973. PMID: 35253250Free PMC Article
Jiang Y, Zhu Z, Tan X, Kong X, Zhong H, Zhang J, Xiong R, Yuan Y, Zeng J, Morgan IG, He M
Ophthalmology 2022 May;129(5):509-519. Epub 2021 Dec 1 doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2021.11.023. PMID: 34863776
Minnal VR, Rosenberg JB
Curr Opin Ophthalmol 2011 Jul;22(4):222-5. doi: 10.1097/ICU.0b013e3283477c60. PMID: 21537187
Shippman S, Hermann JS
J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus 1978 Jul-Aug;15(4):210-2. doi: 10.3928/0191-3913-19780701-05. PMID: 739353

Prognosis

Flitcroft I, Mccullough S, Saunders K
Br J Ophthalmol 2021 Sep;105(9):1211-1215. Epub 2020 Aug 27 doi: 10.1136/bjophthalmol-2020-316406. PMID: 32855163
Cankurtaran V, Tekin K, Şimşek M, Elgin U, Yilmazbaş P
Eye Contact Lens 2018 Jan;44(1):29-34. doi: 10.1097/ICL.0000000000000296. PMID: 27541970
Gencarelli JR, Murphy A, Samargandi OA, Bezuhly M
J Craniofac Surg 2016 Oct;27(7):1629-1635. doi: 10.1097/SCS.0000000000003085. PMID: 27648656
Carruthers J
Curr Opin Ophthalmol 1996 Oct;7(5):3-7. doi: 10.1097/00055735-199610000-00002. PMID: 10165105
Kutschke PJ, Scott WE, Keech RV
Ophthalmology 1991 Feb;98(2):258-63. doi: 10.1016/s0161-6420(91)32307-8. PMID: 2008287

Clinical prediction guides

Hoshikawa R, Handa T, Akaishizawa C, Shoji N
Optom Vis Sci 2023 May 1;100(5):350-355. doi: 10.1097/OPX.0000000000001990. PMID: 36728216
Jiang Y, Zhu Z, Tan X, Kong X, Zhong H, Zhang J, Xiong R, Yuan Y, Zeng J, Morgan IG, He M
Ophthalmology 2022 May;129(5):509-519. Epub 2021 Dec 1 doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2021.11.023. PMID: 34863776
Azad R, Sinha S, Nishant P
Indian J Ophthalmol 2021 Nov;69(11):3026-3034. doi: 10.4103/ijo.IJO_1525_21. PMID: 34708738Free PMC Article
Migliorini R, Comberiati AM, Pacella F, Monsellato R, Arrico L
Clin Ter 2019 Sep-Oct;170(5):e339-e344. doi: 10.7417/CT.2019.2158. PMID: 31612190
Carruthers J
Curr Opin Ophthalmol 1996 Oct;7(5):3-7. doi: 10.1097/00055735-199610000-00002. PMID: 10165105

Recent systematic reviews

Chen J, Hao Q, Zhang J, Du Y, Chen H, Cheng X
Ital J Pediatr 2023 Oct 9;49(1):136. doi: 10.1186/s13052-023-01543-3. PMID: 37814332Free PMC Article
Hashemi H, Pakzad R MSc, Yekta A, Bostamzad P, Aghamirsalim M, Sardari S MSc, Valadkhan M MSc, Pakbin M MSc, Heydarian S, Khabazkhoob M
Strabismus 2018 Dec;26(4):168-183. Epub 2018 Jul 30 doi: 10.1080/09273972.2018.1500618. PMID: 30059649
Malvankar-Mehta MS, Chen YN, Patel S, Leung AP, Merchea MM, Hodge WG
PLoS One 2015;10(6):e0131857. Epub 2015 Jun 29 doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0131857. PMID: 26121673Free PMC Article
Ishikawa T, Desapriya E, Puri M, Kerr JM, Hewapathirane DS, Pike I
J Cataract Refract Surg 2013 Oct;39(10):1593-603. doi: 10.1016/j.jcrs.2013.08.033. PMID: 24075161
Maconachie GD, Gottlob I, McLean RJ
JAMA Ophthalmol 2013 Sep;131(9):1179-86. doi: 10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2013.4001. PMID: 23846622

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