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Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 16(DEE16)

MedGen UID:
815503
Concept ID:
C3809173
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: DEE16; Early infantile epileptic encephalopathy 16
 
Gene (location): TBC1D24 (16p13.3)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0014133
OMIM®: 615338

Disease characteristics

Excerpted from the GeneReview: TBC1D24-Related Disorders
TBC1D24-related disorders comprise a continuum of features that were originally described as distinct, recognized phenotypes: DOORS syndrome (deafness, onychodystrophy, osteodystrophy, mental retardation, and seizures). Profound sensorineural hearing loss, onychodystrophy, osteodystrophy, intellectual disability / developmental delay, and seizures. Familial infantile myoclonic epilepsy (FIME). Early-onset myoclonic seizures, focal epilepsy, dysarthria, and mild-to-moderate intellectual disability. Progressive myoclonus epilepsy (PME). Action myoclonus, tonic-clonic seizures, progressive neurologic decline, and ataxia. Early-infantile epileptic encephalopathy 16 (EIEE16). Epileptiform EEG abnormalities which themselves are believed to contribute to progressive disturbance in cerebral function. Autosomal recessive nonsyndromic hearing loss, DFNB86. Profound prelingual deafness. Autosomal dominant nonsyndromic hearing loss, DFNA65. Slowly progressive deafness with onset in the third decade, initially affecting the high frequencies. [from GeneReviews]
Authors:
Bettina E Mucha  |  Raoul CM Hennekam  |  Sanjay Sisodiya, et. al.   view full author information

Additional description

From OMIM
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-16 (DEE16) is a severe autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by the onset of seizures in the first weeks or months of life. Seizures can be of various types, are unresponsive to medication, last for long periods of time, and occur frequently. Affected infants show psychomotor regression or lack of psychomotor development, as well as other neurologic features such as extrapyramidal signs and hypotonia. Most die in childhood (summary by Duru et al., 2010 and Milh et al., 2013). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.  http://www.omim.org/entry/615338

Clinical features

From HPO
Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy
MedGen UID:
930396
Concept ID:
C4304727
Finding
Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is a sudden, unexpected, witnessed or unwitnessed, non-traumatic and non-drowning death, occurring in benign circumstances, in an individual with epilepsy, with or without evidence for a seizure and excluding documented status epilepticus, in which postmortem examination has not revealed a cause of death.
Feeding difficulties
MedGen UID:
65429
Concept ID:
C0232466
Finding
Impaired ability to eat related to problems gathering food and getting ready to suck, chew, or swallow it.
Dystonic disorder
MedGen UID:
3940
Concept ID:
C0013421
Sign or Symptom
An abnormally increased muscular tone that causes fixed abnormal postures. There is a slow, intermittent twisting motion that leads to exaggerated turning and posture of the extremities and trunk.
Hemiparesis
MedGen UID:
6783
Concept ID:
C0018989
Finding
Loss of strength in the arm, leg, and sometimes face on one side of the body. Hemiplegia refers to a complete loss of strength, whereas hemiparesis refers to an incomplete loss of strength.
Myoclonus
MedGen UID:
10234
Concept ID:
C0027066
Finding
Very brief, involuntary random muscular contractions occurring at rest, in response to sensory stimuli, or accompanying voluntary movements.
Status epilepticus
MedGen UID:
11586
Concept ID:
C0038220
Disease or Syndrome
Status epilepticus is a type of prolonged seizure resulting either from the failure of the mechanisms responsible for seizure termination or from the initiation of mechanisms which lead to abnormally prolonged seizures (after time point t1). It is a condition that can have long-term consequences (after time point t2), including neuronal death, neuronal injury, and alteration of neuronal networks, depending on the type and duration of seizures.
Abnormality of extrapyramidal motor function
MedGen UID:
115941
Concept ID:
C0234133
Sign or Symptom
A neurological condition related to lesions of the basal ganglia leading to typical abnormalities including akinesia (inability to initiate changes in activity and perform volitional movements rapidly and easily), muscular rigidity (continuous contraction of muscles with constant resistance to passive movement), chorea (widespread arrhythmic movements of a forcible, rapid, jerky, and restless nature), athetosis (inability to sustain the muscles of the fingers, toes, or other group of muscles in a fixed position), and akathisia (inability to remain motionless).
Clonic seizure
MedGen UID:
66708
Concept ID:
C0234535
Disease or Syndrome
A clonic seizure is a type of motor seizure characterized by sustained rhythmic jerking, that is regularly repetitive.
Cerebral atrophy
MedGen UID:
116012
Concept ID:
C0235946
Disease or Syndrome
Atrophy (wasting, decrease in size of cells or tissue) affecting the cerebrum.
Epileptic encephalopathy
MedGen UID:
452596
Concept ID:
C0543888
Disease or Syndrome
A condition in which epileptiform abnormalities are believed to contribute to the progressive disturbance in cerebral function. Epileptic encephalaopathy is characterized by (1) electrographic EEG paroxysmal activity that is often aggressive, (2) seizures that are usually multiform and intractable, (3) cognitive, behavioral and neurological deficits that may be relentless, and (4) sometimes early death.
Global developmental delay
MedGen UID:
107838
Concept ID:
C0557874
Finding
A delay in the achievement of motor or mental milestones in the domains of development of a child, including motor skills, speech and language, cognitive skills, and social and emotional skills. This term should only be used to describe children younger than five years of age.
Delayed myelination
MedGen UID:
224820
Concept ID:
C1277241
Finding
Delayed myelination.
Developmental regression
MedGen UID:
324613
Concept ID:
C1836830
Disease or Syndrome
Loss of developmental skills, as manifested by loss of developmental milestones.
Hypotonia
MedGen UID:
10133
Concept ID:
C0026827
Finding
Hypotonia is an abnormally low muscle tone (the amount of tension or resistance to movement in a muscle). Even when relaxed, muscles have a continuous and passive partial contraction which provides some resistance to passive stretching. Hypotonia thus manifests as diminished resistance to passive stretching. Hypotonia is not the same as muscle weakness, although the two conditions can co-exist.
Secondary microcephaly
MedGen UID:
608952
Concept ID:
C0431352
Finding
Head circumference which falls below 2 standard deviations below the mean for age and gender because of insufficient head growth after birth.
Severe muscular hypotonia
MedGen UID:
326544
Concept ID:
C1839630
Finding
A severe degree of muscular hypotonia characterized by markedly reduced muscle tone.
Microcephaly
MedGen UID:
1644158
Concept ID:
C4551563
Finding
Head circumference below 2 standard deviations below the mean for age and gender.
Optic atrophy
MedGen UID:
18180
Concept ID:
C0029124
Disease or Syndrome
Atrophy of the optic nerve. Optic atrophy results from the death of the retinal ganglion cell axons that comprise the optic nerve and manifesting as a pale optic nerve on fundoscopy.
Visual loss
MedGen UID:
784038
Concept ID:
C3665386
Finding
Loss of visual acuity (implying that vision was better at a certain time point in life). Otherwise the term reduced visual acuity should be used (or a subclass of that).

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Langhammer F, Maroofian R, Badar R, Gregor A, Rochman M, Ratliff JB, Koopmans M, Herget T, Hempel M, Kortüm F, Heron D, Mignot C, Keren B, Brooks S, Botti C, Ben-Zeev B, Argilli E, Sherr EH, Gowda VK, Srinivasan VM, Bakhtiari S, Kruer MC, Salih MA, Kuechler A, Muller EA, Blocker K, Kuismin O, Park KL, Kochhar A, Brown K, Ramanathan S, Clark RD, Elgizouli M, Melikishvili G, Tabatadze N, Stark Z, Mirzaa GM, Ong J, Grasshoff U, Bevot A, von Wintzingerode L, Jamra RA, Hennig Y, Goldenberg P, Al Alam C, Charif M, Boulouiz R, Bellaoui M, Amrani R, Al Mutairi F, Tamim AM, Abdulwahab F, Alkuraya FS, Khouj EM, Alvi JR, Sultan T, Hashemi N, Karimiani EG, Ashrafzadeh F, Imannezhad S, Efthymiou S, Houlden H, Sticht H, Zweier C
Genet Med 2023 Aug;25(8):100885. Epub 2023 May 8 doi: 10.1016/j.gim.2023.100885. PMID: 37165955
Strzelczyk A, Schubert-Bast S
CNS Drugs 2021 Jan;35(1):61-83. Epub 2021 Jan 21 doi: 10.1007/s40263-020-00784-8. PMID: 33479851Free PMC Article
Coughlin CR 2nd, Tseng LA, Abdenur JE, Ashmore C, Boemer F, Bok LA, Boyer M, Buhas D, Clayton PT, Das A, Dekker H, Evangeliou A, Feillet F, Footitt EJ, Gospe SM Jr, Hartmann H, Kara M, Kristensen E, Lee J, Lilje R, Longo N, Lunsing RJ, Mills P, Papadopoulou MT, Pearl PL, Piazzon F, Plecko B, Saini AG, Santra S, Sjarif DR, Stockler-Ipsiroglu S, Striano P, Van Hove JLK, Verhoeven-Duif NM, Wijburg FA, Zuberi SM, van Karnebeek CDM
J Inherit Metab Dis 2021 Jan;44(1):178-192. Epub 2020 Dec 1 doi: 10.1002/jimd.12332. PMID: 33200442

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Strzelczyk A, Schubert-Bast S
CNS Drugs 2022 Oct;36(10):1079-1111. Epub 2022 Oct 4 doi: 10.1007/s40263-022-00955-9. PMID: 36194365Free PMC Article
Strzelczyk A, Schubert-Bast S
CNS Drugs 2021 Jan;35(1):61-83. Epub 2021 Jan 21 doi: 10.1007/s40263-020-00784-8. PMID: 33479851Free PMC Article
Bar C, Kuchenbuch M, Barcia G, Schneider A, Jennesson M, Le Guyader G, Lesca G, Mignot C, Montomoli M, Parrini E, Isnard H, Rolland A, Keren B, Afenjar A, Dorison N, Sadleir LG, Breuillard D, Levy R, Rio M, Dupont S, Negrin S, Danieli A, Scalais E, De Saint Martin A, El Chehadeh S, Chelly J, Poisson A, Lebre AS, Nica A, Odent S, Sekhara T, Brankovic V, Goldenberg A, Vrielynck P, Lederer D, Maurey H, Terrone G, Besmond C, Hubert L, Berquin P, Billette de Villemeur T, Isidor B, Freeman JL, Mefford HC, Myers CT, Howell KB, Rodríguez-Sacristán Cascajo A, Meyer P, Genevieve D, Guët A, Doummar D, Durigneux J, van Dooren MF, de Wit MCY, Gerard M, Marey I, Munnich A, Guerrini R, Scheffer IE, Kabashi E, Nabbout R
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Geschwind DH, Riemenschneider M, Riedel-Heller S, Rotter JI, Ransmayr G, Hyman BT, Cruchaga C, Alegret M, Winsvold B, Palta P, Farh KH, Cuenca-Leon E, Furlotte N, Kurth T, Ligthart L, Terwindt GM, Freilinger T, Ran C, Gordon SD, Borck G, Adams HHH, Lehtimäki T, Wedenoja J, Buring JE, Schürks M, Hrafnsdottir M, Hottenga JJ, Penninx B, Artto V, Kaunisto M, Vepsäläinen S, Martin NG, Montgomery GW, Kurki MI, Hämäläinen E, Huang H, Huang J, Sandor C, Webber C, Muller-Myhsok B, Schreiber S, Salomaa V, Loehrer E, Göbel H, Macaya A, Pozo-Rosich P, Hansen T, Werge T, Kaprio J, Metspalu A, Kubisch C, Ferrari MD, Belin AC, van den Maagdenberg AMJM, Zwart JA, Boomsma D, Eriksson N, Olesen J, Chasman DI, Nyholt DR, Avbersek A, Baum L, Berkovic S, Bradfield J, Buono RJ, Catarino CB, Cossette P, De Jonghe P, Depondt C, Dlugos D, Ferraro TN, French J, Hjalgrim H, Jamnadas-Khoda J, Kälviäinen R, Kunz WS, Lerche H, Leu C, Lindhout D, Lo W, Lowenstein D, McCormack M, Møller RS, Molloy A, Ng PW, Oliver K, Privitera M, Radtke R, Ruppert AK, Sander T, Schachter S, Schankin C, Scheffer I, Schoch S, Sisodiya SM, Smith P, Sperling M, Striano P, Surges R, Thomas GN, Visscher F, Whelan CD, Zara F, Heinzen EL, Marson A, Becker F, Stroink H, Zimprich F, Gasser T, Gibbs R, Heutink P, Martinez M, Morris HR, Sharma M, Ryten M, Mok KY, Pulit S, Bevan S, Holliday E, Attia J, Battey T, Boncoraglio G, Thijs V, Chen WM, Mitchell B, Rothwell P, Sharma P, Sudlow C, Vicente A, Markus H, Kourkoulis C, Pera J, Raffeld M, Silliman S, Boraska Perica V, Thornton LM, Huckins LM, William Rayner N, Lewis CM, Gratacos M, Rybakowski F, Keski-Rahkonen A, Raevuori A, Hudson JI, Reichborn-Kjennerud T, Monteleone P, Karwautz A, Mannik K, Baker JH, O'Toole JK, Trace SE, Davis OSP, Helder SG, Ehrlich S, Herpertz-Dahlmann B, Danner UN, van Elburg AA, Clementi M, Forzan M, Docampo E, Lissowska J, Hauser J, Tortorella A, Maj M, Gonidakis F, Tziouvas K, Papezova H, Yilmaz Z, Wagner G, Cohen-Woods S, Herms S, Julià A, Rabionet 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N, Gerber G, Grados M, Greenberg E, Hanna GL, Hartmann A, Hirschtritt ME, Hoekstra PJ, Huang A, Huyser C, Illmann C, Jenike M, Kuperman S, Leventhal B, Lochner C, Lyon GJ, Macciardi F, Madruga-Garrido M, Malaty IA, Maras A, McGrath L, Miguel EC, Mir P, Nestadt G, Nicolini H, Okun MS, Pakstis A, Paschou P, Piacentini J, Pittenger C, Plessen K, Ramensky V, Ramos EM, Reus V, Richter MA, Riddle MA, Robertson MM, Roessner V, Rosário M, Samuels JF, Sandor P, Stein DJ, Tsetsos F, Van Nieuwerburgh F, Weatherall S, Wendland JR, Wolanczyk T, Worbe Y, Zai G, Goes FS, McLaughlin N, Nestadt PS, Grabe HJ, Depienne C, Konkashbaev A, Lanzagorta N, Valencia-Duarte A, Bramon E, Buccola N, Cahn W, Cairns M, Chong SA, Cohen D, Crespo-Facorro B, Crowley J, Davidson M, DeLisi L, Dinan T, Donohoe G, Drapeau E, Duan J, Haan L, Hougaard D, Karachanak-Yankova S, Khrunin A, Klovins J, Kučinskas V, Lee Chee Keong J, Limborska S, Loughland C, Lönnqvist J, Maher B, Mattheisen M, McDonald C, Murphy KC, Nenadic I, 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Diagnosis

Vezyroglou A, Akilapa R, Barwick K, Koene S, Brownstein CA, Holder-Espinasse M, Fry AE, Németh AH, Tofaris GK, Hay E, Hughes I, Mansour S, Mordekar SR, Splitt M, Turnpenny PD, Demetriou D, Koopmann TT, Ruivenkamp CAL, Agrawal PB, Carr L, Clowes V, Ghali N, Holder SE, Radley J, Male A, Sisodiya SM, Kurian MA, Cross JH, Balasubramanian M
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Cardenal-Muñoz E, Auvin S, Villanueva V, Cross JH, Zuberi SM, Lagae L, Aibar JÁ
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Brainstorm Consortium, Anttila V, Bulik-Sullivan B, Finucane HK, Walters RK, Bras J, Duncan L, Escott-Price V, Falcone GJ, Gormley P, Malik R, Patsopoulos NA, Ripke S, Wei Z, Yu D, Lee PH, Turley P, Grenier-Boley B, Chouraki V, Kamatani Y, Berr C, Letenneur L, Hannequin D, Amouyel P, Boland A, Deleuze JF, Duron E, Vardarajan BN, Reitz C, Goate AM, Huentelman MJ, Kamboh MI, Larson EB, Rogaeva E, St George-Hyslop P, Hakonarson H, Kukull WA, Farrer LA, Barnes LL, Beach TG, Demirci FY, Head E, Hulette CM, Jicha GA, Kauwe JSK, Kaye JA, Leverenz JB, Levey AI, Lieberman AP, Pankratz VS, Poon WW, Quinn JF, Saykin AJ, Schneider LS, Smith AG, Sonnen JA, Stern RA, Van Deerlin VM, Van Eldik LJ, Harold D, Russo G, Rubinsztein DC, Bayer A, Tsolaki M, Proitsi P, Fox NC, Hampel H, Owen MJ, Mead S, Passmore P, Morgan K, Nöthen MM, Rossor M, Lupton MK, Hoffmann P, Kornhuber J, Lawlor B, McQuillin A, Al-Chalabi A, Bis JC, Ruiz A, Boada M, Seshadri S, Beiser A, Rice K, van der Lee SJ, De Jager PL, Geschwind DH, Riemenschneider M, Riedel-Heller S, Rotter JI, Ransmayr G, Hyman BT, Cruchaga C, Alegret M, Winsvold B, Palta P, Farh KH, Cuenca-Leon E, Furlotte N, Kurth T, Ligthart L, Terwindt GM, Freilinger T, Ran C, Gordon SD, Borck G, Adams HHH, Lehtimäki T, Wedenoja J, Buring JE, Schürks M, Hrafnsdottir M, Hottenga JJ, Penninx B, Artto V, Kaunisto M, Vepsäläinen S, Martin NG, Montgomery GW, Kurki MI, Hämäläinen E, Huang H, Huang J, Sandor C, Webber C, Muller-Myhsok B, Schreiber S, Salomaa V, Loehrer E, Göbel H, Macaya A, Pozo-Rosich P, Hansen T, Werge T, Kaprio J, Metspalu A, Kubisch C, Ferrari MD, Belin AC, van den Maagdenberg AMJM, Zwart JA, Boomsma D, Eriksson N, Olesen J, Chasman DI, Nyholt DR, Avbersek A, Baum L, Berkovic S, Bradfield J, Buono RJ, Catarino CB, Cossette P, De Jonghe P, Depondt C, Dlugos D, Ferraro TN, French J, Hjalgrim H, Jamnadas-Khoda J, Kälviäinen R, Kunz WS, Lerche H, Leu C, Lindhout D, Lo W, Lowenstein D, McCormack M, Møller RS, Molloy A, Ng PW, Oliver K, Privitera M, Radtke R, Ruppert AK, Sander T, Schachter S, Schankin C, Scheffer I, Schoch S, Sisodiya SM, Smith P, Sperling M, Striano P, Surges R, Thomas GN, Visscher F, Whelan CD, Zara F, Heinzen EL, Marson A, Becker F, Stroink H, Zimprich F, Gasser T, Gibbs R, Heutink P, Martinez M, Morris HR, Sharma M, Ryten M, Mok KY, Pulit S, Bevan S, Holliday E, Attia J, Battey T, Boncoraglio G, Thijs V, Chen WM, Mitchell B, Rothwell P, Sharma P, Sudlow C, Vicente A, Markus H, Kourkoulis C, Pera J, Raffeld M, Silliman S, Boraska Perica V, Thornton LM, Huckins LM, William Rayner N, Lewis CM, Gratacos M, Rybakowski F, Keski-Rahkonen A, Raevuori A, Hudson JI, Reichborn-Kjennerud T, Monteleone P, Karwautz A, Mannik K, Baker JH, O'Toole JK, Trace SE, Davis OSP, Helder SG, Ehrlich S, Herpertz-Dahlmann B, Danner UN, van Elburg AA, Clementi M, Forzan M, Docampo E, Lissowska J, Hauser J, Tortorella A, Maj M, Gonidakis F, Tziouvas K, Papezova H, Yilmaz Z, Wagner G, Cohen-Woods S, Herms S, Julià A, Rabionet R, Dick DM, Ripatti S, Andreassen OA, Espeseth T, Lundervold AJ, Steen VM, Pinto D, Scherer SW, Aschauer H, Schosser A, Alfredsson L, Padyukov L, Halmi KA, Mitchell J, Strober M, Bergen AW, Kaye W, Szatkiewicz JP, Cormand B, Ramos-Quiroga JA, Sánchez-Mora C, Ribasés M, Casas M, Hervas A, Arranz MJ, Haavik J, Zayats T, Johansson S, Williams N, Dempfle A, Rothenberger A, Kuntsi J, Oades RD, Banaschewski T, Franke B, Buitelaar JK, Arias Vasquez A, Doyle AE, Reif A, Lesch KP, Freitag C, Rivero O, Palmason H, Romanos M, Langley K, Rietschel M, Witt SH, Dalsgaard S, Børglum AD, Waldman I, Wilmot B, Molly N, Bau CHD, Crosbie J, Schachar R, Loo SK, McGough JJ, Grevet EH, Medland SE, Robinson E, Weiss LA, Bacchelli E, Bailey A, Bal V, Battaglia A, Betancur C, Bolton P, Cantor R, Celestino-Soper P, Dawson G, De Rubeis S, Duque F, Green A, Klauck SM, Leboyer M, Levitt P, Maestrini E, Mane S, De-Luca DM, Parr J, Regan R, Reichenberg A, Sandin S, Vorstman J, Wassink T, Wijsman E, Cook E, Santangelo 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Science 2018 Jun 22;360(6395) doi: 10.1126/science.aap8757. PMID: 29930110Free PMC Article

Therapy

Knight EMP, Amin S, Bahi-Buisson N, Benke TA, Cross JH, Demarest ST, Olson HE, Specchio N, Fleming TR, Aimetti AA, Gasior M, Devinsky O; Marigold Trial Group
Lancet Neurol 2022 May;21(5):417-427. doi: 10.1016/S1474-4422(22)00077-1. PMID: 35429480
Strzelczyk A, Schubert-Bast S
CNS Drugs 2022 Mar;36(3):217-237. Epub 2022 Feb 14 doi: 10.1007/s40263-022-00898-1. PMID: 35156171Free PMC Article
Strzelczyk A, Schubert-Bast S
CNS Drugs 2021 Jan;35(1):61-83. Epub 2021 Jan 21 doi: 10.1007/s40263-020-00784-8. PMID: 33479851Free PMC Article
Coughlin CR 2nd, Tseng LA, Abdenur JE, Ashmore C, Boemer F, Bok LA, Boyer M, Buhas D, Clayton PT, Das A, Dekker H, Evangeliou A, Feillet F, Footitt EJ, Gospe SM Jr, Hartmann H, Kara M, Kristensen E, Lee J, Lilje R, Longo N, Lunsing RJ, Mills P, Papadopoulou MT, Pearl PL, Piazzon F, Plecko B, Saini AG, Santra S, Sjarif DR, Stockler-Ipsiroglu S, Striano P, Van Hove JLK, Verhoeven-Duif NM, Wijburg FA, Zuberi SM, van Karnebeek CDM
J Inherit Metab Dis 2021 Jan;44(1):178-192. Epub 2020 Dec 1 doi: 10.1002/jimd.12332. PMID: 33200442
Veroniki AA, Rios P, Cogo E, Straus SE, Finkelstein Y, Kealey R, Reynen E, Soobiah C, Thavorn K, Hutton B, Hemmelgarn BR, Yazdi F, D'Souza J, MacDonald H, Tricco AC
BMJ Open 2017 Jul 20;7(7):e017248. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2017-017248. PMID: 28729328Free PMC Article

Prognosis

Talwar D, Hammer MF
Pediatr Neurol 2021 Sep;122:76-83. Epub 2021 Aug 3 doi: 10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2021.06.011. PMID: 34353676
Vetro A, Nielsen HN, Holm R, Hevner RF, Parrini E, Powis Z, Møller RS, Bellan C, Simonati A, Lesca G, Helbig KL, Palmer EE, Mei D, Ballardini E, Van Haeringen A, Syrbe S, Leuzzi V, Cioni G, Curry CJ, Costain G, Santucci M, Chong K, Mancini GMS, Clayton-Smith J, Bigoni S, Scheffer IE, Dobyns WB, Vilsen B, Guerrini R; ATP1A2/A3-collaborators
Brain 2021 Jun 22;144(5):1435-1450. doi: 10.1093/brain/awab052. PMID: 33880529
Bar C, Kuchenbuch M, Barcia G, Schneider A, Jennesson M, Le Guyader G, Lesca G, Mignot C, Montomoli M, Parrini E, Isnard H, Rolland A, Keren B, Afenjar A, Dorison N, Sadleir LG, Breuillard D, Levy R, Rio M, Dupont S, Negrin S, Danieli A, Scalais E, De Saint Martin A, El Chehadeh S, Chelly J, Poisson A, Lebre AS, Nica A, Odent S, Sekhara T, Brankovic V, Goldenberg A, Vrielynck P, Lederer D, Maurey H, Terrone G, Besmond C, Hubert L, Berquin P, Billette de Villemeur T, Isidor B, Freeman JL, Mefford HC, Myers CT, Howell KB, Rodríguez-Sacristán Cascajo A, Meyer P, Genevieve D, Guët A, Doummar D, Durigneux J, van Dooren MF, de Wit MCY, Gerard M, Marey I, Munnich A, Guerrini R, Scheffer IE, Kabashi E, Nabbout R
Epilepsia 2020 Nov;61(11):2461-2473. Epub 2020 Sep 21 doi: 10.1111/epi.16679. PMID: 32954514
Wolff M, Johannesen KM, Hedrich UBS, Masnada S, Rubboli G, Gardella E, Lesca G, Ville D, Milh M, Villard L, Afenjar A, Chantot-Bastaraud S, Mignot C, Lardennois C, Nava C, Schwarz N, Gérard M, Perrin L, Doummar D, Auvin S, Miranda MJ, Hempel M, Brilstra E, Knoers N, Verbeek N, van Kempen M, Braun KP, Mancini G, Biskup S, Hörtnagel K, Döcker M, Bast T, Loddenkemper T, Wong-Kisiel L, Baumeister FM, Fazeli W, Striano P, Dilena R, Fontana E, Zara F, Kurlemann G, Klepper J, Thoene JG, Arndt DH, Deconinck N, Schmitt-Mechelke T, Maier O, Muhle H, Wical B, Finetti C, Brückner R, Pietz J, Golla G, Jillella D, Linnet KM, Charles P, Moog U, Õiglane-Shlik E, Mantovani JF, Park K, Deprez M, Lederer D, Mary S, Scalais E, Selim L, Van Coster R, Lagae L, Nikanorova M, Hjalgrim H, Korenke GC, Trivisano M, Specchio N, Ceulemans B, Dorn T, Helbig KL, Hardies K, Stamberger H, de Jonghe P, Weckhuysen S, Lemke JR, Krägeloh-Mann I, Helbig I, Kluger G, Lerche H, Møller RS
Brain 2017 May 1;140(5):1316-1336. doi: 10.1093/brain/awx054. PMID: 28379373
Christensen J, Grønborg TK, Sørensen MJ, Schendel D, Parner ET, Pedersen LH, Vestergaard M
JAMA 2013 Apr 24;309(16):1696-703. doi: 10.1001/jama.2013.2270. PMID: 23613074Free PMC Article

Clinical prediction guides

Vezyroglou A, Akilapa R, Barwick K, Koene S, Brownstein CA, Holder-Espinasse M, Fry AE, Németh AH, Tofaris GK, Hay E, Hughes I, Mansour S, Mordekar SR, Splitt M, Turnpenny PD, Demetriou D, Koopmann TT, Ruivenkamp CAL, Agrawal PB, Carr L, Clowes V, Ghali N, Holder SE, Radley J, Male A, Sisodiya SM, Kurian MA, Cross JH, Balasubramanian M
Neurology 2022 Oct 4;99(14):e1511-e1526. Epub 2022 Jul 18 doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000200927. PMID: 36192182Free PMC Article
Talwar D, Hammer MF
Pediatr Neurol 2021 Sep;122:76-83. Epub 2021 Aug 3 doi: 10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2021.06.011. PMID: 34353676
Vetro A, Nielsen HN, Holm R, Hevner RF, Parrini E, Powis Z, Møller RS, Bellan C, Simonati A, Lesca G, Helbig KL, Palmer EE, Mei D, Ballardini E, Van Haeringen A, Syrbe S, Leuzzi V, Cioni G, Curry CJ, Costain G, Santucci M, Chong K, Mancini GMS, Clayton-Smith J, Bigoni S, Scheffer IE, Dobyns WB, Vilsen B, Guerrini R; ATP1A2/A3-collaborators
Brain 2021 Jun 22;144(5):1435-1450. doi: 10.1093/brain/awab052. PMID: 33880529
Strzelczyk A, Schubert-Bast S
CNS Drugs 2021 Jan;35(1):61-83. Epub 2021 Jan 21 doi: 10.1007/s40263-020-00784-8. PMID: 33479851Free PMC Article
Cox DM, Butler MG
Int J Mol Sci 2015 Feb 13;16(2):4068-82. doi: 10.3390/ijms16024068. PMID: 25689425Free PMC Article

Recent systematic reviews

Strzelczyk A, Zuberi SM, Striano P, Rosenow F, Schubert-Bast S
Orphanet J Rare Dis 2023 Mar 1;18(1):42. doi: 10.1186/s13023-023-02626-4. PMID: 36859290Free PMC Article
Coughlin CR 2nd, Tseng LA, Abdenur JE, Ashmore C, Boemer F, Bok LA, Boyer M, Buhas D, Clayton PT, Das A, Dekker H, Evangeliou A, Feillet F, Footitt EJ, Gospe SM Jr, Hartmann H, Kara M, Kristensen E, Lee J, Lilje R, Longo N, Lunsing RJ, Mills P, Papadopoulou MT, Pearl PL, Piazzon F, Plecko B, Saini AG, Santra S, Sjarif DR, Stockler-Ipsiroglu S, Striano P, Van Hove JLK, Verhoeven-Duif NM, Wijburg FA, Zuberi SM, van Karnebeek CDM
J Inherit Metab Dis 2021 Jan;44(1):178-192. Epub 2020 Dec 1 doi: 10.1002/jimd.12332. PMID: 33200442
McTague A, Martland T, Appleton R
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2018 Jan 10;1(1):CD001905. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD001905.pub3. PMID: 29320603Free PMC Article
Veroniki AA, Rios P, Cogo E, Straus SE, Finkelstein Y, Kealey R, Reynen E, Soobiah C, Thavorn K, Hutton B, Hemmelgarn BR, Yazdi F, D'Souza J, MacDonald H, Tricco AC
BMJ Open 2017 Jul 20;7(7):e017248. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2017-017248. PMID: 28729328Free PMC Article
Hancock EC, Osborne JP, Edwards SW
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2013 Jun 5;(6):CD001770. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD001770.pub3. PMID: 23740534

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