U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Format

Send to:

Choose Destination

Hereditary spastic paraplegia 64(SPG64)

MedGen UID:
816619
Concept ID:
C3810289
Disease or Syndrome
Synonym: Spastic paraplegia 64, autosomal recessive
SNOMED CT: Autosomal recessive spastic paraplegia type 64 (726609005)
Modes of inheritance:
Autosomal recessive inheritance
MedGen UID:
141025
Concept ID:
C0441748
Intellectual Product
Source: Orphanet
A mode of inheritance that is observed for traits related to a gene encoded on one of the autosomes (i.e., the human chromosomes 1-22) in which a trait manifests in individuals with two pathogenic alleles, either homozygotes (two copies of the same mutant allele) or compound heterozygotes (whereby each copy of a gene has a distinct mutant allele).
 
Gene (location): ENTPD1 (10q24.1)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0014303
OMIM®: 615683
Orphanet: ORPHA401810

Definition

Spastic paraplegia-64 (SPG64) is a neurologic disorder characterized by childhood onset of progressive spastic paraplegia with impaired intellectual development, gait impairment, dysarthria, and white matter abnormalities on brain imaging. Some individuals show neurocognitive regression (Calame et al., 2022). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal recessive SPG, see SPG5A (270800). [from OMIM]

Clinical features

From HPO
Clubfoot
MedGen UID:
3130
Concept ID:
C0009081
Congenital Abnormality
Clubfoot is a congenital limb deformity defined as fixation of the foot in cavus, adductus, varus, and equinus (i.e., inclined inwards, axially rotated outwards, and pointing downwards) with concomitant soft tissue abnormalities (Cardy et al., 2007). Clubfoot may occur in isolation or as part of a syndrome (e.g., diastrophic dysplasia, 222600). Clubfoot has been reported with deficiency of long bones and mirror-image polydactyly (Gurnett et al., 2008; Klopocki et al., 2012).
Aggressive behavior
MedGen UID:
1375
Concept ID:
C0001807
Individual Behavior
Behavior or an act aimed at harming a person, animal, or physical property (e.g., acts of physical violence; shouting, swearing, and using harsh language; slashing someone's tires).
Dysarthria
MedGen UID:
8510
Concept ID:
C0013362
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Dysarthric speech is a general description referring to a neurological speech disorder characterized by poor articulation. Depending on the involved neurological structures, dysarthria may be further classified as spastic, flaccid, ataxic, hyperkinetic and hypokinetic, or mixed.
Intellectual disability, moderate
MedGen UID:
7680
Concept ID:
C0026351
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Moderate mental retardation is defined as an intelligence quotient (IQ) in the range of 35-49.
Spasticity
MedGen UID:
7753
Concept ID:
C0026838
Sign or Symptom
A motor disorder characterized by a velocity-dependent increase in tonic stretch reflexes with increased muscle tone, exaggerated (hyperexcitable) tendon reflexes.
Spastic paraplegia
MedGen UID:
20882
Concept ID:
C0037772
Disease or Syndrome
Spasticity and weakness of the leg and hip muscles.
Gait disturbance
MedGen UID:
107895
Concept ID:
C0575081
Finding
The term gait disturbance can refer to any disruption of the ability to walk. In general, this can refer to neurological diseases but also fractures or other sources of pain that is triggered upon walking. However, in the current context gait disturbance refers to difficulty walking on the basis of a neurological or muscular disease.
Abnormal cerebral white matter morphology
MedGen UID:
181756
Concept ID:
C0948163
Pathologic Function
An abnormality of the cerebral white matter.
Intellectual disability
MedGen UID:
811461
Concept ID:
C3714756
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Intellectual disability, previously referred to as mental retardation, is characterized by subnormal intellectual functioning that occurs during the developmental period. It is defined by an IQ score below 70.
Muscular atrophy
MedGen UID:
892680
Concept ID:
C0541794
Pathologic Function
The presence of skeletal muscular atrophy (which is also known as amyotrophy).
Microcephaly
MedGen UID:
1644158
Concept ID:
C4551563
Finding
Head circumference below 2 standard deviations below the mean for age and gender.
Delayed puberty
MedGen UID:
46203
Concept ID:
C0034012
Pathologic Function
Passing the age when puberty normally occurs with no physical or hormonal signs of the onset of puberty.
Developmental cataract
MedGen UID:
3202
Concept ID:
C0009691
Congenital Abnormality
A cataract that occurs congenitally as the result of a developmental defect, in contrast to the majority of cataracts that occur in adulthood as the result of degenerative changes of the lens.

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • CROGVHereditary spastic paraplegia 64
Follow this link to review classifications for Hereditary spastic paraplegia 64 in Orphanet.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Zhou YX, Qiao WH, Gu WH, Xie H, Tang BS, Zhou LS, Yang BX, Takiyama Y, Tsuji S, He HY, Deng CX, Goldfarb LG, Wang GX
Arch Neurol 2001 May;58(5):789-94. doi: 10.1001/archneur.58.5.789. PMID: 11346374

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Ortega Suero G, Abenza Abildúa MJ, Serrano Munuera C, Rouco Axpe I, Arpa Gutiérrez FJ, Adarmes Gómez AD, Rodríguez de Rivera FJ, Quintans Castro B, Posada Rodríguez I, Vadillo Bermejo A, Domingo Santos Á, Blanco Vicente E, Infante Ceberio I, Pardo Fernández J, Costa Arpín E, Painous Martí C, Muñoz García JE, Mir Rivera P, Montón Álvarez F, Bataller Alberola L, Gascón Bayarri J, Casasnovas Pons C, Vélez Santamaría V, López de Munain A, Fernández-Eulate G, Gazulla Abío J, Sanz Gallego I, Rojas Bartolomé L, Ayo Martín Ó, Segura Martín T, González Mingot C, Baraldés Rovira M, Sivera Mascaró R, Cubo Delgado E, Echavarría Íñiguez A, Vázquez Sánchez F, Bártulos Iglesias M, Casadevall Codina MT, Martínez Fernández EM, Labandeira Guerra C, Alemany Perna B, Carvajal Hernández A, Fernández Moreno C, Palacín Larroy M, Caballol Pons N, Ávila Rivera A, Navacerrada Barrero FJ, Lobato Rodríguez R, Sobrido Gómez MJ
Neurologia (Engl Ed) 2023 Jul-Aug;38(6):379-386. Epub 2023 Apr 28 doi: 10.1016/j.nrleng.2023.04.003. PMID: 37120112
Legrand A, Pujol C, Durand CM, Mesnil A, Rubera I, Duranton C, Zuily S, Sousa AB, Renaud M, Boucher JL, Pietrancosta N, Adham S, Orssaud C, Marelli C, Casali C, Ziccardi L, Villain N, Ewenczyk C, Durr A, Mignot C, Stevanin G, Billon C, Hureaux M, Jeunemaitre X, Goizet C, Albuisson J
J Intern Med 2021 May;289(5):709-725. Epub 2021 Mar 31 doi: 10.1111/joim.13193. PMID: 33107650
Ebrahimi-Fakhari D, Teinert J, Behne R, Wimmer M, D'Amore A, Eberhardt K, Brechmann B, Ziegler M, Jensen DM, Nagabhyrava P, Geisel G, Carmody E, Shamshad U, Dies KA, Yuskaitis CJ, Salussolia CL, Ebrahimi-Fakhari D, Pearson TS, Saffari A, Ziegler A, Kölker S, Volkmann J, Wiesener A, Bearden DR, Lakhani S, Segal D, Udwadia-Hegde A, Martinuzzi A, Hirst J, Perlman S, Takiyama Y, Xiromerisiou G, Vill K, Walker WO, Shukla A, Dubey Gupta R, Dahl N, Aksoy A, Verhelst H, Delgado MR, Kremlikova Pourova R, Sadek AA, Elkhateeb NM, Blumkin L, Brea-Fernández AJ, Dacruz-Álvarez D, Smol T, Ghoumid J, Miguel D, Heine C, Schlump JU, Langen H, Baets J, Bulk S, Darvish H, Bakhtiari S, Kruer MC, Lim-Melia E, Aydinli N, Alanay Y, El-Rashidy O, Nampoothiri S, Patel C, Beetz C, Bauer P, Yoon G, Guillot M, Miller SP, Bourinaris T, Houlden H, Robelin L, Anheim M, Alamri AS, Mahmoud AAH, Inaloo S, Habibzadeh P, Faghihi MA, Jansen AC, Brock S, Roubertie A, Darras BT, Agrawal PB, Santorelli FM, Gleeson J, Zaki MS, Sheikh SI, Bennett JT, Sahin M
Brain 2020 Oct 1;143(10):2929-2944. doi: 10.1093/brain/awz307. PMID: 32979048Free PMC Article
González-Salazar C, Takazaki KAG, Martinez ARM, Pimentel-Silva LR, Jacinto-Scudeiro LA, Nakagawa ÉY, Fujiwara Murakami CE, Saute JAM, Pedroso JL, Barsottini OGP, Teive HAG, França MC Jr
Eur J Neurol 2019 Apr;26(4):687-693. Epub 2019 Jan 10 doi: 10.1111/ene.13878. PMID: 30489674
Ivanova N, Claeys KG, Deconinck T, Litvinenko I, Jordanova A, Auer-Grumbach M, Haberlova J, Löfgren A, Smeyers G, Nelis E, Mercelis R, Plecko B, Priller J, Zámecník J, Ceulemans B, Erichsen AK, Björck E, Nicholson G, Sereda MW, Seeman P, Kremensky I, Mitev V, De Jonghe P
Arch Neurol 2007 May;64(5):706-13. doi: 10.1001/archneur.64.5.706. PMID: 17502470

Diagnosis

Ortega Suero G, Abenza Abildúa MJ, Serrano Munuera C, Rouco Axpe I, Arpa Gutiérrez FJ, Adarmes Gómez AD, Rodríguez de Rivera FJ, Quintans Castro B, Posada Rodríguez I, Vadillo Bermejo A, Domingo Santos Á, Blanco Vicente E, Infante Ceberio I, Pardo Fernández J, Costa Arpín E, Painous Martí C, Muñoz García JE, Mir Rivera P, Montón Álvarez F, Bataller Alberola L, Gascón Bayarri J, Casasnovas Pons C, Vélez Santamaría V, López de Munain A, Fernández-Eulate G, Gazulla Abío J, Sanz Gallego I, Rojas Bartolomé L, Ayo Martín Ó, Segura Martín T, González Mingot C, Baraldés Rovira M, Sivera Mascaró R, Cubo Delgado E, Echavarría Íñiguez A, Vázquez Sánchez F, Bártulos Iglesias M, Casadevall Codina MT, Martínez Fernández EM, Labandeira Guerra C, Alemany Perna B, Carvajal Hernández A, Fernández Moreno C, Palacín Larroy M, Caballol Pons N, Ávila Rivera A, Navacerrada Barrero FJ, Lobato Rodríguez R, Sobrido Gómez MJ
Neurologia (Engl Ed) 2023 Jul-Aug;38(6):379-386. Epub 2023 Apr 28 doi: 10.1016/j.nrleng.2023.04.003. PMID: 37120112
Saffari A, Kellner M, Jordan C, Rosengarten H, Mo A, Zhang B, Strelko O, Neuser S, Davis MY, Yoshikura N, Futamura N, Takeuchi T, Nabatame S, Ishiura H, Tsuji S, Aldeen HS, Cali E, Rocca C, Houlden H, Efthymiou S, Assmann B, Yoon G, Trombetta BA, Kivisäkk P, Eichler F, Nan H, Takiyama Y, Tessa A, Santorelli FM, Sahin M, Blackstone C, Yang E, Schüle R, Ebrahimi-Fakhari D
Brain 2023 May 2;146(5):2003-2015. doi: 10.1093/brain/awac391. PMID: 36315648Free PMC Article
Ebrahimi-Fakhari D, Teinert J, Behne R, Wimmer M, D'Amore A, Eberhardt K, Brechmann B, Ziegler M, Jensen DM, Nagabhyrava P, Geisel G, Carmody E, Shamshad U, Dies KA, Yuskaitis CJ, Salussolia CL, Ebrahimi-Fakhari D, Pearson TS, Saffari A, Ziegler A, Kölker S, Volkmann J, Wiesener A, Bearden DR, Lakhani S, Segal D, Udwadia-Hegde A, Martinuzzi A, Hirst J, Perlman S, Takiyama Y, Xiromerisiou G, Vill K, Walker WO, Shukla A, Dubey Gupta R, Dahl N, Aksoy A, Verhelst H, Delgado MR, Kremlikova Pourova R, Sadek AA, Elkhateeb NM, Blumkin L, Brea-Fernández AJ, Dacruz-Álvarez D, Smol T, Ghoumid J, Miguel D, Heine C, Schlump JU, Langen H, Baets J, Bulk S, Darvish H, Bakhtiari S, Kruer MC, Lim-Melia E, Aydinli N, Alanay Y, El-Rashidy O, Nampoothiri S, Patel C, Beetz C, Bauer P, Yoon G, Guillot M, Miller SP, Bourinaris T, Houlden H, Robelin L, Anheim M, Alamri AS, Mahmoud AAH, Inaloo S, Habibzadeh P, Faghihi MA, Jansen AC, Brock S, Roubertie A, Darras BT, Agrawal PB, Santorelli FM, Gleeson J, Zaki MS, Sheikh SI, Bennett JT, Sahin M
Brain 2020 Oct 1;143(10):2929-2944. doi: 10.1093/brain/awz307. PMID: 32979048Free PMC Article
Hellberg C, Alinder E, Jaraj D, Puschmann A
Parkinsonism Relat Disord 2019 Dec;69:79-84. Epub 2019 Oct 29 doi: 10.1016/j.parkreldis.2019.10.028. PMID: 31706130
Richard S, Lavie J, Banneau G, Voirand N, Lavandier K, Debouverie M
Medicine (Baltimore) 2017 Jan;96(3):e5911. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000005911. PMID: 28099355Free PMC Article

Therapy

Saffari A, Kellner M, Jordan C, Rosengarten H, Mo A, Zhang B, Strelko O, Neuser S, Davis MY, Yoshikura N, Futamura N, Takeuchi T, Nabatame S, Ishiura H, Tsuji S, Aldeen HS, Cali E, Rocca C, Houlden H, Efthymiou S, Assmann B, Yoon G, Trombetta BA, Kivisäkk P, Eichler F, Nan H, Takiyama Y, Tessa A, Santorelli FM, Sahin M, Blackstone C, Yang E, Schüle R, Ebrahimi-Fakhari D
Brain 2023 May 2;146(5):2003-2015. doi: 10.1093/brain/awac391. PMID: 36315648Free PMC Article
Tezenas du Montcel S, Charles P, Goizet C, Marelli C, Ribai P, Vincitorio C, Anheim M, Guyant-Maréchal L, Le Bayon A, Vandenberghe N, Tchikviladzé M, Devos D, Le Ber I, N'Guyen K, Cazeneuve C, Tallaksen C, Brice A, Durr A
Arch Neurol 2012 Apr;69(4):500-8. doi: 10.1001/archneurol.2011.2713. PMID: 22491195
Dones I, Servello D, Molteni F, Mariani G, Broggi G
Acta Neurochir Suppl 1995;64:26-9. doi: 10.1007/978-3-7091-9419-5_6. PMID: 8748578
Buckley JF, Chapple CR, McNicholas T
Br J Urol 1989 Dec;64(6):654-5. doi: 10.1111/j.1464-410x.1989.tb05335.x. PMID: 2627645

Prognosis

Leveille E, Estiar MA, Krohn L, Spiegelman D, Dionne-Laporte A, Dupré N, Trempe JF, Rouleau GA, Gan-Or Z
J Hum Genet 2019 Nov;64(11):1145-1151. Epub 2019 Sep 12 doi: 10.1038/s10038-019-0669-2. PMID: 31515523
Finsterer J, Wakil SM, Laccone F
J Clin Neurosci 2019 Jun;64:4-5. Epub 2019 Apr 5 doi: 10.1016/j.jocn.2019.03.067. PMID: 30962061
Woehrer A, Laszlo L, Finsterer J, Stöllberger C, Furtner J, Rinner W, Molnar K, Budka H, Kovacs GG
Acta Neuropathol 2012 Oct;124(4):583-91. Epub 2012 Mar 7 doi: 10.1007/s00401-012-0965-9. PMID: 22392442
Zhu PP, Patterson A, Lavoie B, Stadler J, Shoeb M, Patel R, Blackstone C
J Biol Chem 2003 Dec 5;278(49):49063-71. Epub 2003 Sep 23 doi: 10.1074/jbc.M306702200. PMID: 14506257
Silva MC, Coutinho P, Pinheiro CD, Neves JM, Serrano P
J Clin Epidemiol 1997 Dec;50(12):1377-84. doi: 10.1016/s0895-4356(97)00202-3. PMID: 9449941

Clinical prediction guides

Saffari A, Kellner M, Jordan C, Rosengarten H, Mo A, Zhang B, Strelko O, Neuser S, Davis MY, Yoshikura N, Futamura N, Takeuchi T, Nabatame S, Ishiura H, Tsuji S, Aldeen HS, Cali E, Rocca C, Houlden H, Efthymiou S, Assmann B, Yoon G, Trombetta BA, Kivisäkk P, Eichler F, Nan H, Takiyama Y, Tessa A, Santorelli FM, Sahin M, Blackstone C, Yang E, Schüle R, Ebrahimi-Fakhari D
Brain 2023 May 2;146(5):2003-2015. doi: 10.1093/brain/awac391. PMID: 36315648Free PMC Article
Leveille E, Estiar MA, Krohn L, Spiegelman D, Dionne-Laporte A, Dupré N, Trempe JF, Rouleau GA, Gan-Or Z
J Hum Genet 2019 Nov;64(11):1145-1151. Epub 2019 Sep 12 doi: 10.1038/s10038-019-0669-2. PMID: 31515523
González-Salazar C, Takazaki KAG, Martinez ARM, Pimentel-Silva LR, Jacinto-Scudeiro LA, Nakagawa ÉY, Fujiwara Murakami CE, Saute JAM, Pedroso JL, Barsottini OGP, Teive HAG, França MC Jr
Eur J Neurol 2019 Apr;26(4):687-693. Epub 2019 Jan 10 doi: 10.1111/ene.13878. PMID: 30489674
Sakakibara R, Shimizu A, Takahashi O, Tateno F, Kishi M, Aiba Y, Suzuki H, Yamamoto T, Shibata C, Yamanishi T
Eur Neurol 2018;80(3-4):121-125. Epub 2018 Nov 2 doi: 10.1159/000494030. PMID: 30391939
Nielsen JE, Krabbe K, Jennum P, Koefoed P, Jensen LN, Fenger K, Eiberg H, Hasholt L, Werdelin L, Sørensen SA
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1998 Jan;64(1):61-6. doi: 10.1136/jnnp.64.1.61. PMID: 9436729Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Table of contents

    Clinical resources

    Practice guidelines

    • PubMed
      See practice and clinical guidelines in PubMed. The search results may include broader topics and may not capture all published guidelines. See the FAQ for details.

    Recent activity

    Your browsing activity is empty.

    Activity recording is turned off.

    Turn recording back on

    See more...