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Conjugated hyperbilirubinemia

MedGen UID:
82787
Concept ID:
C0268307
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: Direct hyperbilirubinemia; Hyperbilirubinemia, conjugated; Hyperbilirubinemia, direct
SNOMED CT: Conjugated hyperbilirubinemia (9326001)
 
HPO: HP:0002908

Definition

Abnormally high level of conjugated bilirubin in the blood. [from NCI]

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • CROGVConjugated hyperbilirubinemia

Conditions with this feature

Dubin-Johnson syndrome
MedGen UID:
7181
Concept ID:
C0022350
Disease or Syndrome
Dubin-Johnson syndrome (DJS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by conjugated hyperbilirubinemia, an increase in the urinary excretion of coproporphyrin isomer I, deposition of melanin-like pigment in hepatocytes, and prolonged retention of sulfobromophthalein, but otherwise normal liver function (summary by Wada et al., 1998).
Johanson-Blizzard syndrome
MedGen UID:
59798
Concept ID:
C0175692
Disease or Syndrome
Johanson-Blizzard syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by poor growth, mental retardation, and variable dysmorphic features, including aplasia or hypoplasia of the nasal alae, abnormal hair patterns or scalp defects, and oligodontia. Other features include hypothyroidism, sensorineural hearing loss, imperforate anus, and pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (summary by Al-Dosari et al., 2008).
Rotor syndrome
MedGen UID:
67435
Concept ID:
C0220991
Disease or Syndrome
Rotor syndrome is characterized by mild conjugated and unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia that usually begins shortly after birth or in childhood. Jaundice may be intermittent. Conjunctival icterus may be the only clinical manifestation.
Cholestasis-edema syndrome, Norwegian type
MedGen UID:
78658
Concept ID:
C0268314
Disease or Syndrome
Cholestasis-lymphedema syndrome is a rare genetic disorder characterized by neonatal intrahepatic cholestasis, often lessening and becoming intermittent with age, and severe chronic lymphedema which mainly affects the lower limbs. Patients often present with fat malabsorption leading to failure to thrive, fat soluble vitamin deficiency with bleeding, rickets, and neuropathy. In 25% of cases, cirrhosis occurs during childhood or later in life.
Hyperbilirubinemia - conjugated - type III
MedGen UID:
98323
Concept ID:
C0400964
Disease or Syndrome
Sialic acid storage disease, severe infantile type
MedGen UID:
203367
Concept ID:
C1096902
Disease or Syndrome
Free sialic acid storage disorders (FSASDs) are a spectrum of neurodegenerative disorders resulting from increased lysosomal storage of free sialic acid. Historically, FSASD was divided into separate allelic disorders: Salla disease, intermediate severe Salla disease, and infantile free sialic acid storage disease (ISSD). The mildest type was Salla disease, characterized by normal appearance and absence of neurologic findings at birth, followed by slowly progressive neurologic deterioration resulting in mild-to-moderate psychomotor delays, spasticity, athetosis, and epileptic seizures. Salla disease was named for a municipality in Finnish Lapland where a specific founder variant is relatively prevalent. However, the term Salla has been used in the literature to refer to less severe FSASD. More severe FSASD is historically referred to as ISSD, and is characterized by severe developmental delay, coarse facial features, hepatosplenomegaly, and cardiomegaly; death usually occurs in early childhood.
Hereditary cryohydrocytosis with reduced stomatin
MedGen UID:
332390
Concept ID:
C1837206
Disease or Syndrome
Stomatin-deficient cryohydrocytosis with neurologic defects is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by delayed psychomotor development, seizures, cataracts, and pseudohyperkalemia resulting from defects in the red blood cell membrane. The disorder combines the neurologic features of Glut1 deficiency syndrome-1 (GLUT1DS1; 606777), resulting from impaired glucose transport at the blood-brain barrier, and hemolytic anemia/pseudohyperkalemia with stomatocytosis, resulting from a cation leak in erythrocytes (summary by Bawazir et al., 2012). For a discussion of clinical and genetic heterogeneity of red cell stomatocyte disorders, see 194380.
Congenital bile acid synthesis defect 1
MedGen UID:
335883
Concept ID:
C1843116
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital defects of bile acid synthesis are autosomal recessive disorders characterized by neonatal onset of progressive liver disease with cholestatic jaundice and malabsorption of lipids and lipid-soluble vitamins from the gastrointestinal tract resulting from a primary failure to synthesize bile acids. Affected infants show failure to thrive and secondary coagulopathy. In most forms of the disorder, there is a favorable response to oral bile acid therapy (summary by Cheng et al., 2003). Genetic Heterogeneity of Congenital Defects in Bile Acid Synthesis There are several disorders that result from defects in bile acid synthesis. See CBAS2 (235555), caused by mutation in the delta(4)-3-oxosteroid 5-beta-reductase gene (AKR1D1; 604741) on chromosome 7q33; CBAS3 (613812), caused by mutation in the 7-alpha hydroxylase gene (CYP7B1; 603711) on chromosome 8q12; CBAS4 (214950), caused by mutation in the AMACR gene (604489) on chromosome 5p13; CBAS5 (616278), caused by mutation in the ABCD3 gene (170995) on chromosome 1p21; and CBAS6 (617308), caused by mutation in the ACOX2 gene (601641) on chromosome 3p14. See also progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis (PFIC1; 211600), which has a similar phenotype.
Neonatal intrahepatic cholestasis due to citrin deficiency
MedGen UID:
340091
Concept ID:
C1853942
Disease or Syndrome
Citrin deficiency can manifest in newborns or infants as neonatal intrahepatic cholestasis caused by citrin deficiency (NICCD), in older children as failure to thrive and dyslipidemia caused by citrin deficiency (FTTDCD), and in adults as recurrent hyperammonemia with neuropsychiatric symptoms in citrullinemia type II (CTLN2). Often citrin deficiency is characterized by strong preference for protein-rich and/or lipid-rich foods and aversion to carbohydrate-rich foods. NICCD. Children younger than age one year have a history of low birth weight with growth restriction and transient intrahepatic cholestasis, hepatomegaly, diffuse fatty liver, and parenchymal cellular infiltration associated with hepatic fibrosis, variable liver dysfunction, hypoproteinemia, decreased coagulation factors, hemolytic anemia, and/or hypoglycemia. NICCD is generally not severe and symptoms often resolve by age one year with appropriate treatment, although liver transplantation has been required in rare instances. FTTDCD. Beyond age one year, many children with citrin deficiency develop a protein-rich and/or lipid-rich food preference and aversion to carbohydrate-rich foods. Clinical abnormalities may include growth restriction, hypoglycemia, pancreatitis, severe fatigue, anorexia, and impaired quality of life. Laboratory changes are dyslipidemia, increased lactate-to-pyruvate ratio, higher levels of urinary oxidative stress markers, and considerable deviation in tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle metabolites. One or more decades later, some individuals with NICCD or FTTDCD develop CTLN2. CTLN2. Presentation is sudden and usually between ages 20 and 50 years. Manifestations are recurrent hyperammonemia with neuropsychiatric symptoms including nocturnal delirium, aggression, irritability, hyperactivity, delusions, disorientation, restlessness, drowsiness, loss of memory, flapping tremor, convulsive seizures, and coma. Symptoms are often provoked by alcohol and sugar intake, medication, and/or surgery. Affected individuals may or may not have a prior history of NICCD or FTTDCD.
Arthrogryposis, renal dysfunction, and cholestasis 1
MedGen UID:
347219
Concept ID:
C1859722
Disease or Syndrome
Any arthrogryposis-renal dysfunction-cholestasis syndrome in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the VPS33B gene.
Benign recurrent intrahepatic cholestasis type 2
MedGen UID:
435857
Concept ID:
C2608083
Disease or Syndrome
The phenotypic spectrum of ATP8B1 deficiency ranges from severe through moderate to mild. Severe ATP8B1 deficiency is characterized by infantile-onset cholestasis that progresses to cirrhosis, hepatic failure, and early death. Although mild-to-moderate ATP8B1 deficiency initially was thought to involve intermittent symptomatic cholestasis with a lack of hepatic fibrosis, it is now known that hepatic fibrosis may be present early in the disease course. Furthermore, in some persons with ATP8B1 deficiency the clinical findings can span the phenotypic spectrum, shifting over time from the mild end of the spectrum (episodic cholestasis) to the severe end of the spectrum (persistent cholestasis). Sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) is common across the phenotypic spectrum.
Arthrogryposis, renal dysfunction, and cholestasis 2
MedGen UID:
462022
Concept ID:
C3150672
Disease or Syndrome
Arthrogryposis, renal dysfunction, and cholestasis-2 (ARCS2) is a multisystem disorder associated with abnormalities in polarized liver and kidney cells (Qiu et al., 2019). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of ARCS, see ARCS1 (208085).
Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis type 2
MedGen UID:
483742
Concept ID:
C3489789
Disease or Syndrome
The phenotypic spectrum of ATP8B1 deficiency ranges from severe through moderate to mild. Severe ATP8B1 deficiency is characterized by infantile-onset cholestasis that progresses to cirrhosis, hepatic failure, and early death. Although mild-to-moderate ATP8B1 deficiency initially was thought to involve intermittent symptomatic cholestasis with a lack of hepatic fibrosis, it is now known that hepatic fibrosis may be present early in the disease course. Furthermore, in some persons with ATP8B1 deficiency the clinical findings can span the phenotypic spectrum, shifting over time from the mild end of the spectrum (episodic cholestasis) to the severe end of the spectrum (persistent cholestasis). Sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) is common across the phenotypic spectrum.
Peroxisome biogenesis disorder 5A (Zellweger)
MedGen UID:
766854
Concept ID:
C3553940
Disease or Syndrome
The peroxisomal biogenesis disorder (PBD) Zellweger syndrome (ZS) is an autosomal recessive multiple congenital anomaly syndrome. Affected children present in the newborn period with profound hypotonia, seizures, and inability to feed. Characteristic craniofacial anomalies, eye abnormalities, neuronal migration defects, hepatomegaly, and chondrodysplasia punctata are present. Children with this condition do not show any significant development and usually die in the first year of life (summary by Steinberg et al., 2006). For a complete phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Zellweger syndrome, see 214100. Individuals with PBDs of complementation group 5 (CG5, equivalent to CG10 and CGF) have mutations in the PEX2 gene. For information on the history of PBD complementation groups, see 214100.
Peroxisome biogenesis disorder 13A (Zellweger)
MedGen UID:
766918
Concept ID:
C3554004
Disease or Syndrome
Zellweger syndrome (ZS) is an autosomal recessive multiple congenital anomaly syndrome resulting from disordered peroxisome biogenesis. Affected children present in the newborn period with profound hypotonia, seizures, and inability to feed. Characteristic craniofacial anomalies, eye abnormalities, neuronal migration defects, hepatomegaly, and chondrodysplasia punctata are present. Children with this condition do not show any significant development and usually die in the first year of life (summary by Steinberg et al., 2006). For a complete phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Zellweger syndrome, see 214100. Individuals with PBDs of complementation group K (CGK) have mutations in the PEX14 gene. For information on the history of PBD complementation groups, see 214100.
Sideroblastic anemia 3
MedGen UID:
895975
Concept ID:
C4225155
Disease or Syndrome
Sideroblastic anemia-3 is an autosomal recessive hematologic disorder characterized by onset of anemia in adulthood. Affected individuals show signs of systemic iron overload, and iron chelation therapy may be of clinical benefit (summary by Liu et al., 2014). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of sideroblastic anemia, see SIDBA1 (300751).
Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome 15 (hepatocerebral type)
MedGen UID:
934657
Concept ID:
C4310690
Disease or Syndrome
Any mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the TFAM gene.
Growth retardation, intellectual developmental disorder, hypotonia, and hepatopathy
MedGen UID:
934687
Concept ID:
C4310720
Disease or Syndrome
GRIDHH is an autosomal recessive multisystem disorder characterized by poor overall growth, impaired intellectual development, hypotonia, and variable liver dysfunction. Additional features, such as seizures and hearing loss, may also be present (summary by Kopajtich et al., 2016).
Cholestasis, progressive familial intrahepatic, 5
MedGen UID:
934714
Concept ID:
C4310747
Disease or Syndrome
Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis-5 (PFIC5) is an autosomal recessive severe liver disorder characterized by onset of intralobular cholestasis in the neonatal period. The disease is rapidly progressive, leading to liver failure and death if liver transplant is not performed. Other features include abnormal liver enzymes, low to normal gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) activity, increased alpha-fetoprotein, and a vitamin K-independent coagulopathy (summary by Gomez-Ospina et al., 2016). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of PFIC, see PFIC1 (211600).
Asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy 1
MedGen UID:
1648057
Concept ID:
C4551856
Congenital Abnormality
Short-rib thoracic dysplasia (SRTD) with or without polydactyly refers to a group of autosomal recessive skeletal ciliopathies that are characterized by a constricted thoracic cage, short ribs, shortened tubular bones, and a 'trident' appearance of the acetabular roof. SRTD encompasses Ellis-van Creveld syndrome (EVC) and the disorders previously designated as Jeune syndrome or asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy (ATD), short rib-polydactyly syndrome (SRPS), and Mainzer-Saldino syndrome (MZSDS). Polydactyly is variably present, and there is phenotypic overlap in the various forms of SRTDs, which differ by visceral malformation and metaphyseal appearance. Nonskeletal involvement can include cleft lip/palate as well as anomalies of major organs such as the brain, eye, heart, kidneys, liver, pancreas, intestines, and genitalia. Some forms of SRTD are lethal in the neonatal period due to respiratory insufficiency secondary to a severely restricted thoracic cage, whereas others are compatible with life (summary by Huber and Cormier-Daire, 2012 and Schmidts et al., 2013). There is phenotypic overlap with the cranioectodermal dysplasias (Sensenbrenner syndrome; see CED1, 218330). Genetic Heterogeneity of Asphyxiating Thoracic Dysplasia SRTD1 has been mapped to chromosome 15q13. See also SRTD2 (611263), caused by mutation in the IFT80 gene (611177); SRTD3 (613091), caused by mutation in the DYNC2H1 gene (603297); SRTD4 (613819), caused by mutation in the TTC21B gene (612014); SRTD5 (614376), caused by mutation in the WDR19 gene (608151); SRTD6 (263520), caused by mutation in the NEK1 gene (604588); SRTD7 (614091), caused by mutation in the WDR35 gene (613602); SRTD8 (615503), caused by mutation in the WDR60 gene (615462); SRTD9 (266920), caused by mutation in the IFT140 gene (614620); SRTD10 (615630), caused by mutation in the IFT172 gene (607386); SRTD11 (615633), caused by mutation in the WDR34 gene (613363); SRTD13 (616300), caused by mutation in the CEP120 gene (613446); SRTD14 (616546), caused by mutation in the KIAA0586 gene (610178); SRTD15 (617088), caused by mutation in the DYNC2LI1 gene (617083); SRTD16 (617102), caused by mutation in the IFT52 gene (617094); SRTD17 (617405), caused by mutation in the TCTEX1D2 gene (617353); SRTD18 (617866), caused by mutation in the IFT43 gene (614068); SRTD19 (617895), caused by mutation in the IFT81 gene (605489); SRTD20 (617925), caused by mutation in the INTU gene (610621); and SRTD21 (619479), caused by mutation in the KIAA0753 gene (617112). See also SRTD12 (Beemer-Langer syndrome; 269860).
Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis type 1
MedGen UID:
1645830
Concept ID:
C4551898
Disease or Syndrome
The phenotypic spectrum of ATP8B1 deficiency ranges from severe through moderate to mild. Severe ATP8B1 deficiency is characterized by infantile-onset cholestasis that progresses to cirrhosis, hepatic failure, and early death. Although mild-to-moderate ATP8B1 deficiency initially was thought to involve intermittent symptomatic cholestasis with a lack of hepatic fibrosis, it is now known that hepatic fibrosis may be present early in the disease course. Furthermore, in some persons with ATP8B1 deficiency the clinical findings can span the phenotypic spectrum, shifting over time from the mild end of the spectrum (episodic cholestasis) to the severe end of the spectrum (persistent cholestasis). Sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) is common across the phenotypic spectrum.
Benign recurrent intrahepatic cholestasis type 1
MedGen UID:
1637492
Concept ID:
C4551899
Disease or Syndrome
The phenotypic spectrum of ATP8B1 deficiency ranges from severe through moderate to mild. Severe ATP8B1 deficiency is characterized by infantile-onset cholestasis that progresses to cirrhosis, hepatic failure, and early death. Although mild-to-moderate ATP8B1 deficiency initially was thought to involve intermittent symptomatic cholestasis with a lack of hepatic fibrosis, it is now known that hepatic fibrosis may be present early in the disease course. Furthermore, in some persons with ATP8B1 deficiency the clinical findings can span the phenotypic spectrum, shifting over time from the mild end of the spectrum (episodic cholestasis) to the severe end of the spectrum (persistent cholestasis). Sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) is common across the phenotypic spectrum.
Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome 16 (hepatic type)
MedGen UID:
1684495
Concept ID:
C5193142
Disease or Syndrome
Bile acid conjugation defect 1
MedGen UID:
1780260
Concept ID:
C5543203
Disease or Syndrome
Bile acid conjugation defect-1 (BACD1) is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder characterized by onset of symptoms, including jaundice and failure to thrive, in early infancy. The clinical features of the disorder result from impaired absorption of fat-soluble vitamins. Vitamin D deficiency causes rickets with variable growth deficiency, and vitamin K deficiency causes a coagulopathy with decreased production of vitamin K-dependent clotting factors. More variable features may include pruritis, anemia, hepatomegaly, and bile duct proliferation on liver biopsy. Laboratory studies show abnormally increased levels of unconjugated bile acids (summary by Setchell et al., 2013). See also familial hypercholanemia (FHCA; 607748), in which patients have increased serum bile levels of conjugated bile acids.
Cholestasis, progressive familial intrahepatic, 6
MedGen UID:
1794175
Concept ID:
C5561965
Disease or Syndrome
Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis-6 (PFIC6) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by elevated liver transaminases, cholestasis, and congenital diarrhea (Gao et al., 2020). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of PFIC, see PFIC1 (211600).
Biliary, renal, neurologic, and skeletal syndrome
MedGen UID:
1794200
Concept ID:
C5561990
Disease or Syndrome
Biliary, renal, neurologic, and skeletal syndrome (BRENS) is an autosomal recessive complex ciliopathy with multisystemic manifestations. The most common presentation is severe neonatal cholestasis that progresses to liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. Most patients have additional clinical features suggestive of a ciliopathy, including postaxial polydactyly, hydrocephalus, retinal abnormalities, and situs inversus. Additional features of the syndrome may include congenital cardiac defects, echogenic kidneys with renal failure, ocular abnormalities, joint hyperextensibility, and dysmorphic facial features. Some patients have global developmental delay. Brain imaging typically shows dilated ventricles, hypomyelination, and white matter abnormalities, although some patients have been described with abnormal pituitary development (summary by Shaheen et al., 2020 and David et al., 2020).
Cholestasis, progressive familial intrahepatic, 8
MedGen UID:
1794255
Concept ID:
C5562045
Disease or Syndrome
Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis-8 (PFIC8) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by cholestasis and high gamma-glutamyltransferase presenting in the infantile period (summary by Unlusoy Aksu et al., 2019). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of PFIC, see PFIC1 (211600).
Cholestasis, progressive familial intrahepatic, 10
MedGen UID:
1807702
Concept ID:
C5676981
Disease or Syndrome
Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis-10 (PFIC10) is an autosomal recessive liver disorder characterized by the onset of symptoms in the first months or years of life. Features include jaundice, pruritis, and hepatomegaly associated with increased serum bilirubin and bile acids. Liver transaminases may be variably increased, but gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT; see 612346) is normal. Liver biopsy shows hepatocellular and canalicular cholestasis with giant cell changes. Although rare patients may have episodes of diarrhea and even show endoscopic features of microvillus inclusion disease (MVID), this tends to be transient and cholestasis dominates the clinical picture (Gonzales et al., 2017; Cockar et al., 2020). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis, see PFIC1 (211600).
Cholestasis, progressive familial intrahepatic, 12
MedGen UID:
1824084
Concept ID:
C5774311
Disease or Syndrome
Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis-12 (PFIC12) is characterized by neonatal-onset jaundice and conjugated hyperbilirubinemia, associated with intense pruritus. Transaminases are mildly elevated but GGT (see 612346) is normal. Hepatosplenomegaly and mildly prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) have been observed in some patients (Qiu et al., 2019).
Neurooculorenal syndrome
MedGen UID:
1841013
Concept ID:
C5830377
Disease or Syndrome
Neurooculorenal syndrome (NORS) is an autosomal recessive developmental disorder with highly variable clinical manifestations involving several organ systems. Some affected individuals present in utero with renal agenesis and structural brain abnormalities incompatible with life, whereas others present in infancy with a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay and dysmorphic facial features that may be associated with congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT). Additional more variable features may include ocular anomalies, most commonly strabismus, congenital heart defects, and pituitary hormone deficiency. Brain imaging usually shows structural midline defects, including dysgenesis of the corpus callosum and hindbrain. There is variation in the severity, manifestations, and expressivity of the phenotype, even within families (Rasmussen et al., 2018; Munch et al., 2022).

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Feldman AG, Sokol RJ
Semin Pediatr Surg 2020 Aug;29(4):150945. Epub 2020 Jul 23 doi: 10.1016/j.sempedsurg.2020.150945. PMID: 32861449Free PMC Article
Wagner KH, Shiels RG, Lang CA, Seyed Khoei N, Bulmer AC
Crit Rev Clin Lab Sci 2018 Mar;55(2):129-139. Epub 2018 Feb 1 doi: 10.1080/10408363.2018.1428526. PMID: 29390925
Dani C, Pratesi S, Raimondi F, Romagnoli C; Task Force for Hyperbilirubinemia of the Italian Society of Neonatology
Ital J Pediatr 2015 Oct 1;41:69. doi: 10.1186/s13052-015-0178-7. PMID: 26428285Free PMC Article

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Kepple JW, Peeples ES
Am J Med Genet A 2022 Feb;188(2):548-555. Epub 2021 Nov 1 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.62552. PMID: 34719838
Edwards M, Falzone N, Harrington J
Eur J Pediatr 2021 May;180(5):1653-1657. Epub 2021 Jan 19 doi: 10.1007/s00431-021-03944-0. PMID: 33469712
Feldman AG, Sokol RJ
Semin Pediatr Surg 2020 Aug;29(4):150945. Epub 2020 Jul 23 doi: 10.1016/j.sempedsurg.2020.150945. PMID: 32861449Free PMC Article
Abbey P, Kandasamy D, Naranje P
Indian J Pediatr 2019 Sep;86(9):830-841. Epub 2019 Feb 21 doi: 10.1007/s12098-019-02856-0. PMID: 30790186
Wagner KH, Shiels RG, Lang CA, Seyed Khoei N, Bulmer AC
Crit Rev Clin Lab Sci 2018 Mar;55(2):129-139. Epub 2018 Feb 1 doi: 10.1080/10408363.2018.1428526. PMID: 29390925

Diagnosis

Feldman AG, Sokol RJ
Semin Pediatr Surg 2020 Aug;29(4):150945. Epub 2020 Jul 23 doi: 10.1016/j.sempedsurg.2020.150945. PMID: 32861449Free PMC Article
Abbey P, Kandasamy D, Naranje P
Indian J Pediatr 2019 Sep;86(9):830-841. Epub 2019 Feb 21 doi: 10.1007/s12098-019-02856-0. PMID: 30790186
Wagner KH, Shiels RG, Lang CA, Seyed Khoei N, Bulmer AC
Crit Rev Clin Lab Sci 2018 Mar;55(2):129-139. Epub 2018 Feb 1 doi: 10.1080/10408363.2018.1428526. PMID: 29390925
Fargo MV, Grogan SP, Saguil A
Am Fam Physician 2017 Feb 1;95(3):164-168. PMID: 28145671
Roche SP, Kobos R
Am Fam Physician 2004 Jan 15;69(2):299-304. PMID: 14765767

Therapy

Killelea P, Sakhuja S, Hernandez J, Hicks MJ, Harpavat S
BMC Pediatr 2022 Sep 4;22(1):526. doi: 10.1186/s12887-022-03560-3. PMID: 36058901Free PMC Article
Kepple JW, Peeples ES
Am J Med Genet A 2022 Feb;188(2):548-555. Epub 2021 Nov 1 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.62552. PMID: 34719838
Stovicek J, Hlava S, Keil R, Drabek J, Lochmannova J, Koptová P, Wasserbauer M, Frybova B, Snajdauf J, Kotalova R, Rygl M
Can J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2021;2021:9969825. Epub 2021 Jun 24 doi: 10.1155/2021/9969825. PMID: 34258256Free PMC Article
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Acta Medica (Hradec Kralove) 2012;55(4):153-9. doi: 10.14712/18059694.2015.39. PMID: 23631285
Klein CJ, Revenis M, Kusenda C, Scavo L
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Prognosis

Jankowska I, Czubkowski P, Rokicki D, Lipiński P, Piekutowska-Abramczuk D, Ciara E, Płoski R, Kaliciński P, Szymczak M, Pawłowska J, Socha P
Clin Res Hepatol Gastroenterol 2021 Jan;45(1):101408. Epub 2020 Apr 8 doi: 10.1016/j.clinre.2020.02.018. PMID: 32278775
Clouston AD
Surg Pathol Clin 2018 Jun;11(2):313-327. Epub 2018 Mar 26 doi: 10.1016/j.path.2018.02.001. PMID: 29751877
Cichoz-Lach H, Celiński K, Słomka M
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Barnard JA 3rd, Manci E
Gastroenterology 1991 Nov;101(5):1420-7. doi: 10.1016/0016-5085(91)90097-5. PMID: 1936813

Clinical prediction guides

Kumar A, Aggarwal B, Bamal P, Jat KR, Lodha R, Kabra SK
Indian Pediatr 2022 Jan 15;59(1):43-45. Epub 2021 Sep 4 PMID: 34480466
Jankowska I, Czubkowski P, Rokicki D, Lipiński P, Piekutowska-Abramczuk D, Ciara E, Płoski R, Kaliciński P, Szymczak M, Pawłowska J, Socha P
Clin Res Hepatol Gastroenterol 2021 Jan;45(1):101408. Epub 2020 Apr 8 doi: 10.1016/j.clinre.2020.02.018. PMID: 32278775
Nikolac Gabaj N, Miler M, Mihic R
Clin Chim Acta 2017 Oct;473:32-34. Epub 2017 Aug 12 doi: 10.1016/j.cca.2017.08.013. PMID: 28811238
Lee LA
Paediatr Drugs 2004;6(2):71-8. doi: 10.2165/00148581-200406020-00001. PMID: 15035648
Bates MD, Bucuvalas JC, Alonso MH, Ryckman FC
Semin Liver Dis 1998;18(3):281-93. doi: 10.1055/s-2007-1007164. PMID: 9773428

Recent systematic reviews

Gottesman LE, Del Vecchio MT, Aronoff SC
BMC Pediatr 2015 Nov 20;15:192. doi: 10.1186/s12887-015-0506-5. PMID: 26589959Free PMC Article

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