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Cerebral palsy

MedGen UID:
854
Concept ID:
C0007789
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: Cerebral Palsy; CP (Cerebral Palsy)
SNOMED CT: Cerebral palsy (128188000); Cerebral palsy (CP) (128188000); Congenital cerebral palsy (128188000); Infantile cerebral palsy (128188000); CP - Cerebral palsy (128188000)
 
HPO: HP:0100021
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0006497

Definition

Cerebral palsy describes a group of permanent disorders of the development of movement and posture, causing activity limitation, that are attributed to nonprogressive disturbances that occurred in the developing fetal or infant brain. The motor disorders of cerebral palsy are often accompanied by disturbances of sensation, perception, cognition, communication, and behavior, by epilepsy, and by secondary musculoskeletal problems. [from HPO]

Conditions with this feature

Ataxic cerebral palsy
MedGen UID:
95998
Concept ID:
C0394005
Disease or Syndrome
A subtype of non-spastic cerebral palsy with loss of muscular coordination with abnormal force and rhythm, and impairment of accuracy; commonly presents with gait and trunk ataxia, poor balance, past pointing, terminal intention tremor, scanning speech, nystagmus and other abnormal eye movements, and hypotonia. Low tone is a prominent feature.
3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase 2 deficiency
MedGen UID:
347898
Concept ID:
C1859499
Disease or Syndrome
3-Methylcrotonylglycinuria is an autosomal recessive disorder of leucine catabolism. The clinical phenotype is highly variable, ranging from neonatal onset with severe neurologic involvement to asymptomatic adults. There is a characteristic organic aciduria with massive excretion of 3-hydroxyisovaleric acid and 3-methylcrotonylglycine, usually in combination with a severe secondary carnitine deficiency. MCC activity in extracts of cultured fibroblasts of patients is usually less than 2% of control (summary by Baumgartner et al., 2001). Also see 3-methylcrotonylglycinuria I (MCC1D; 210200), caused by mutation in the alpha subunit of 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase (MCCC1; 609010).
Thrombophilia due to protein C deficiency, autosomal recessive
MedGen UID:
394120
Concept ID:
C2676759
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive protein C deficiency resulting from homozygous or compound heterozygous PROC mutations is a thrombotic condition that can manifest as a severe neonatal disorder or as a milder disorder with late-onset thrombophilia (Millar et al., 2000).
Hereditary spastic paraplegia 50
MedGen UID:
442869
Concept ID:
C2752008
Disease or Syndrome
AP-4-associated hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP), also known as AP-4 deficiency syndrome, is a group of neurodegenerative disorders characterized by a progressive, complex spastic paraplegia with onset typically in infancy or early childhood. Early-onset hypotonia evolves into progressive lower-extremity spasticity. The majority of children become nonambulatory and usually wheelchair bound. Over time spasticity progresses to involve the upper extremities, resulting in a spastic tetraplegia. Associated complications include dysphagia, contractures, foot deformities, dysregulation of bladder and bowel function, and a pseudobulbar affect. About 50% of affected individuals have seizures. Postnatal microcephaly (usually in the -2SD to -3SD range) is common. All have developmental delay. Speech development is significantly impaired and many affected individuals remain nonverbal. Intellectual disability in older children is usually moderate to severe.
Cerebral palsy, spastic quadriplegic, 2
MedGen UID:
442880
Concept ID:
C2752061
Disease or Syndrome
Cerebral palsy (CP) is defined as a nonprogressive but not unchanging disorder of posture or movement, caused by an abnormality of the brain and first evident at the stage of rapid brain development (Hughes and Newton, 1992). Cerebral palsy can be classified according to the type of movement disorder: spastic cerebral palsy accounts for approximately 60% of cases and can be subdivided into hemiplegic, diplegic, quadriplegic, and monoplegic types, whereas other forms include athetoid/dyskinetic, ataxic (605388), and mixed (Gustavson et al., 1969). Genetic Heterogeneity of Spastic Quadriplegic Cerebral Palsy See also CPSQ3 (617008), caused by mutation in the ADD3 gene (601568) on 10q24. Related phenotypes that were formerly classified in the CPSQ series include spastic paraplegia-47 (SPG47; 614066), spastic paraplegia-50 (SPG50; 612936), spastic paraplegia-51 (SPG51; 613744), spastic paraplegia-52 (SPG52; 614067), and neurodevelopmental disorder with progressive spasticity and brain white matter abnormalities (NEDSWMA; 619026).
Spastic paraplegia 52, autosomal recessive
MedGen UID:
481373
Concept ID:
C3279743
Disease or Syndrome
AP-4-associated hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP), also known as AP-4 deficiency syndrome, is a group of neurodegenerative disorders characterized by a progressive, complex spastic paraplegia with onset typically in infancy or early childhood. Early-onset hypotonia evolves into progressive lower-extremity spasticity. The majority of children become nonambulatory and usually wheelchair bound. Over time spasticity progresses to involve the upper extremities, resulting in a spastic tetraplegia. Associated complications include dysphagia, contractures, foot deformities, dysregulation of bladder and bowel function, and a pseudobulbar affect. About 50% of affected individuals have seizures. Postnatal microcephaly (usually in the -2SD to -3SD range) is common. All have developmental delay. Speech development is significantly impaired and many affected individuals remain nonverbal. Intellectual disability in older children is usually moderate to severe.
Aldosterone-producing adenoma with seizures and neurological abnormalities
MedGen UID:
815939
Concept ID:
C3809609
Disease or Syndrome
A rare, genetic, neurologic disease characterized by primary hyperaldosteronism presenting with early-onset, severe hypertension, hypokalemia and neurological manifestations (including seizures, severe hypotonia, spasticity, cerebral palsy and profound developmental delay/intellectual disability).
Autism spectrum disorder due to AUTS2 deficiency
MedGen UID:
862872
Concept ID:
C4014435
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
A rare genetic syndromic intellectual disability characterized by global developmental delay and borderline to severe intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorder with obsessive behavior, stereotypies, hyperactivity but frequently friendly and affable personality, feeding difficulties, short stature, muscular hypotonia, microcephaly, characteristic dysmorphic features (hypertelorism, high arched eyebrows, ptosis, deep and/or broad nasal bridge, broad/prominent nasal tip, short and/or upturned philtrum, narrow mouth, and micrognathia), and skeletal anomalies (kyphosis and/or scoliosis, arthrogryposis, slender habitus and extremities). Other clinical features may include hernias, congenital heart defects, cryptorchidism and seizures.
Tenorio syndrome
MedGen UID:
864147
Concept ID:
C4015710
Disease or Syndrome
Tenorio syndrome (TNORS) is characterized by overgrowth, macrocephaly, and impaired intellectual development. Some patients may have mild hydrocephaly, hypoglycemia, and inflammatory diseases resembling Sjogren syndrome (270150) (summary by Tenorio et al., 2014).
Intellectual disability, autosomal dominant 42
MedGen UID:
934741
Concept ID:
C4310774
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
GNB1 encephalopathy (GNB1-E) is characterized by moderate-to-severe developmental delay / intellectual disability, structural brain abnormalities, and often infantile hypotonia and seizures. Other less common findings include dystonia, reduced vision, behavior issues, growth delay, gastrointestinal (GI) problems, genitourinary (GU) abnormalities in males, and cutaneous mastocytosis.
Intellectual disability, autosomal dominant 45
MedGen UID:
1616472
Concept ID:
C4539848
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 63
MedGen UID:
1646846
Concept ID:
C4693810
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-63 (DEE63) is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by early-onset refractory infantile spasms and myoclonic seizures in the first months to years of life. Affected individuals have severe to profound developmental delay, often with hypotonia and inability to sit or speak (summary by Redler et al., 2017). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Neurodegeneration, early-onset, with choreoathetoid movements and microcytic anemia
MedGen UID:
1676579
Concept ID:
C5193104
Disease or Syndrome
Early-onset neurodegeneration with choreoathetoid movements and microcytic anemia (NDCAMA) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by severe psychomotor developmental abnormalities, abnormal movements, and functional iron deficiency (Costain et al., 2019).
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 78
MedGen UID:
1684724
Concept ID:
C5231409
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-78 (DEE78) is a severe neurologic disorder characterized by onset of refractory seizures in the first days or months of life followed by severely impaired intellectual development. Additional features may include cortical visual impairment, hypotonia, and abnormal movements, such as spasticity (summary by Butler et al., 2018). One family with an attenuated disease course has been reported (Maljevic et al., 2019). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Neurodevelopmental, jaw, eye, and digital syndrome
MedGen UID:
1712714
Concept ID:
C5394477
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental, jaw, eye, and digital syndrome (NEDJED) is characterized by phenotypic diversity, with patients exhibiting a range of overlapping phenotypes. Most patients show developmental delay ranging from mild to severe, and often have behavioral disorders as well. Brain imaging shows hypoplasia of the corpus callosum, prominence of lateral ventricles, and/or white matter abnormalities. Many patients have retro- or micrognathia, but mild prognathism has also been observed. Ocular anomalies are variably present, and may be severe and complex; however, some patients show only mild myopia. Abnormalities of fingers and toes include brachydactyly, clinodactyly, syndactyly, and contractures; polydactyly is rarely seen (Holt et al., 2019).
Neurodegeneration, infantile-onset, biotin-responsive
MedGen UID:
1771692
Concept ID:
C5436520
Disease or Syndrome
Sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter deficiency (SMVTD) is an autosomal recessive multisystemic metabolic disorder with highly variable manifestations. Affected individuals usually present at birth or in infancy with severe feeding problems, gastrointestinal reflux, cyclic vomiting, and diarrhea associated with failure to thrive. Gastrointestinal hemorrhage may occur; tube-feeding is often required for a short time. The course and severity of the disease varies: some patients have episodes of acute metabolic decompensation during infection that respond well to treatment, whereas others show more permanent neurologic regression with loss of early motor and cognitive milestones in the first year or so of life. Less severely affected patients have normal development or mild growth and motor delays, whereas more severely affected individuals may have seizures, ataxia, spasticity, peripheral neuropathy, immune defects, and osteopenia. In severely affected patients, brain imaging shows cerebral, cerebellar, and brainstem atrophy and thin corpus callosum. Treatment with biotin, pantothenic acid, and alpha-lipoic acid has been shown to result in significant clinical improvement (Byrne et al., 2019; Hauth et al., 2022).
Developmental delay, impaired speech, and behavioral abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1794167
Concept ID:
C5561957
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental delay, impaired speech, and behavioral abnormalities (DDISBA) is characterized by global developmental delay apparent from early childhood. Intellectual disability can range from mild to severe. Additional variable features may include dysmorphic facial features, seizures, hypotonia, motor abnormalities such as Tourette syndrome or dystonia, and hearing loss (summary by Cousin et al., 2021).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with neuromuscular and skeletal abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1803456
Concept ID:
C5676965
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with neuromuscular and skeletal abnormalities (NEDNMS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by global developmental delay apparent from infancy or early childhood. The severity of the disorder is highly variable. Affected individuals show impaired intellectual development and motor delay associated with either severe hypotonia or hypertonia and spasticity. Most affected individuals have skeletal defects and dysmorphic facial features. Some may have ocular or auditory problems, peripheral neuropathy, behavioral abnormalities, and nonspecific findings on brain imaging (Kurolap et al., 2022).
Neurodegeneration, childhood-onset, with progressive microcephaly
MedGen UID:
1801540
Concept ID:
C5676972
Disease or Syndrome
Childhood-onset neurodegeneration with progressive microcephaly (CONPM) is an autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay apparent from infancy. The phenotype is highly variable: the most severely affected individuals have severe and progressive microcephaly, early-onset seizures, lack of visual tracking, and almost no developmental milestones, resulting in early death. Less severely affected individuals have a small head circumference and severely impaired intellectual development with poor speech and motor delay. Additional features may include poor overall growth, axial hypotonia, limb hypertonia with spasticity, undescended testes, and cerebral atrophy with neuronal loss (Lam et al., 2019 and Vanoevelen et al., 2022).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with microcephaly, hypotonia, nystagmus, and seizures
MedGen UID:
1810140
Concept ID:
C5676986
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with microcephaly, hypotonia, nystagmus, and seizures (NEDMHS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by global developmental delay and impaired intellectual development apparent from infancy. Affected individuals have hypotonia with poor or absent motor skills, feeding difficulties with poor overall growth, microcephaly, mild dysmorphic features, and early-onset seizures. Additional variable features, such as nystagmus, cortical blindness, and spasticity, may also occur. Patients with this disorder tend to have recurrent respiratory infections, likely due to aspiration, that may lead to death in childhood (Arnadottir et al., 2022).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with spasticity, seizures, and brain abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1823970
Concept ID:
C5774197
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with spasticity, seizures, and brain abnormalities (NEDSSBA) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by global developmental delay apparent in infancy, axial hypotonia, peripheral spasticity, and early-onset seizures of various types and severity. Affected individuals have delayed walking or are unable to walk and show impaired intellectual development with poor or absent speech. Brain imaging may show developmental defects of the operculum, cerebellum, and corpus callosum. Death in early childhood may occur (Calame et al., 2021).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with short stature, prominent forehead, and feeding difficulties
MedGen UID:
1824001
Concept ID:
C5774228
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with short stature, prominent forehead, and feeding difficulties (NEDSFF) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by distinct craniofacial features, multisystem dysfunction, profound neurodevelopmental delays, and neonatal death (Shankar et al., 2022).
Tessadori-Van Haaften neurodevelopmental syndrome 3
MedGen UID:
1824083
Concept ID:
C5774310
Disease or Syndrome
Tessadori-Bicknell-van Haaften neurodevelopmental syndrome-3 (TEBIVANED3) is characterized by global developmental delay with poor overall growth, impaired intellectual development, and speech difficulties. More variable features include hypotonia, microcephaly, and dysmorphic facies. The severity and manifestations of the disorder are highly variable (Tessadori et al., 2022). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Tessadori-Bicknell-van Haaften neurodevelopmental disorder, see TEBIVANED1 (619758).
Intellectual developmental disorder, X-linked 111
MedGen UID:
1840204
Concept ID:
C5829568
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
X-linked intellectual developmental disorder-111 (XLID111) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by different degrees of impaired intellectual development associated with motor, speech, and behavioral impairments (El Chehadeh et al., 2022).
Mitochondrial complex V (ATP synthase) deficiency, nuclear type 4A
MedGen UID:
1841116
Concept ID:
C5830480
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial complex V deficiency nuclear type 4A (MC5DN4A) is an autosomal dominant metabolic disorder characterized by poor feeding and failure to thrive in early infancy. Laboratory studies show increased serum lactate, alanine, and ammonia, suggesting mitochondrial dysfunction. Some affected individuals show spontaneous resolution of these symptoms in early childhood and have subsequent normal growth and development, whereas others show developmental delay with impaired intellectual development and movement abnormalities, including dystonia, ataxia, or spasticity; these neurologic deficits are persistent (Lines et al., 2021, Zech et al., 2022). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of mitochondrial complex V deficiency, nuclear types, see MC5DN1 (604273).

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Jackman M, Sakzewski L, Morgan C, Boyd RN, Brennan SE, Langdon K, Toovey RAM, Greaves S, Thorley M, Novak I
Dev Med Child Neurol 2022 May;64(5):536-549. Epub 2021 Sep 21 doi: 10.1111/dmcn.15055. PMID: 34549424
Conde-Agudelo A, Romero R, Jung EJ, Garcia Sánchez ÁJ
Am J Obstet Gynecol 2020 Dec;223(6):848-869. Epub 2020 Sep 29 doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2020.09.044. PMID: 33007269Free PMC Article
Novak I, Morgan C, Adde L, Blackman J, Boyd RN, Brunstrom-Hernandez J, Cioni G, Damiano D, Darrah J, Eliasson AC, de Vries LS, Einspieler C, Fahey M, Fehlings D, Ferriero DM, Fetters L, Fiori S, Forssberg H, Gordon AM, Greaves S, Guzzetta A, Hadders-Algra M, Harbourne R, Kakooza-Mwesige A, Karlsson P, Krumlinde-Sundholm L, Latal B, Loughran-Fowlds A, Maitre N, McIntyre S, Noritz G, Pennington L, Romeo DM, Shepherd R, Spittle AJ, Thornton M, Valentine J, Walker K, White R, Badawi N
JAMA Pediatr 2017 Sep 1;171(9):897-907. doi: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2017.1689. PMID: 28715518Free PMC Article

Curated

UK NICE Clinical guideline (CG148), Urinary incontinence in neurological disease: assessment and management, 2023

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Mendoza-Sengco P, Lee Chicoine C, Vargus-Adams J
Pediatr Clin North Am 2023 Jun;70(3):385-398. Epub 2023 Mar 21 doi: 10.1016/j.pcl.2023.01.014. PMID: 37121632
Paul S, Nahar A, Bhagawati M, Kunwar AJ
Oxid Med Cell Longev 2022;2022:2622310. Epub 2022 Jul 30 doi: 10.1155/2022/2622310. PMID: 35941906Free PMC Article
Novak I, Morgan C, Adde L, Blackman J, Boyd RN, Brunstrom-Hernandez J, Cioni G, Damiano D, Darrah J, Eliasson AC, de Vries LS, Einspieler C, Fahey M, Fehlings D, Ferriero DM, Fetters L, Fiori S, Forssberg H, Gordon AM, Greaves S, Guzzetta A, Hadders-Algra M, Harbourne R, Kakooza-Mwesige A, Karlsson P, Krumlinde-Sundholm L, Latal B, Loughran-Fowlds A, Maitre N, McIntyre S, Noritz G, Pennington L, Romeo DM, Shepherd R, Spittle AJ, Thornton M, Valentine J, Walker K, White R, Badawi N
JAMA Pediatr 2017 Sep 1;171(9):897-907. doi: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2017.1689. PMID: 28715518Free PMC Article
Wimalasundera N, Stevenson VL
Pract Neurol 2016 Jun;16(3):184-94. Epub 2016 Feb 2 doi: 10.1136/practneurol-2015-001184. PMID: 26837375
Marret S, Vanhulle C, Laquerriere A
Handb Clin Neurol 2013;111:169-76. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-444-52891-9.00016-6. PMID: 23622161

Diagnosis

Paul S, Nahar A, Bhagawati M, Kunwar AJ
Oxid Med Cell Longev 2022;2022:2622310. Epub 2022 Jul 30 doi: 10.1155/2022/2622310. PMID: 35941906Free PMC Article
Vitrikas K, Dalton H, Breish D
Am Fam Physician 2020 Feb 15;101(4):213-220. PMID: 32053326
Gulati S, Sondhi V
Indian J Pediatr 2018 Nov;85(11):1006-1016. Epub 2017 Nov 20 doi: 10.1007/s12098-017-2475-1. PMID: 29152685
Novak I, Morgan C, Adde L, Blackman J, Boyd RN, Brunstrom-Hernandez J, Cioni G, Damiano D, Darrah J, Eliasson AC, de Vries LS, Einspieler C, Fahey M, Fehlings D, Ferriero DM, Fetters L, Fiori S, Forssberg H, Gordon AM, Greaves S, Guzzetta A, Hadders-Algra M, Harbourne R, Kakooza-Mwesige A, Karlsson P, Krumlinde-Sundholm L, Latal B, Loughran-Fowlds A, Maitre N, McIntyre S, Noritz G, Pennington L, Romeo DM, Shepherd R, Spittle AJ, Thornton M, Valentine J, Walker K, White R, Badawi N
JAMA Pediatr 2017 Sep 1;171(9):897-907. doi: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2017.1689. PMID: 28715518Free PMC Article
Wimalasundera N, Stevenson VL
Pract Neurol 2016 Jun;16(3):184-94. Epub 2016 Feb 2 doi: 10.1136/practneurol-2015-001184. PMID: 26837375

Therapy

Novak I, Honan I
Aust Occup Ther J 2019 Jun;66(3):258-273. Epub 2019 Apr 10 doi: 10.1111/1440-1630.12573. PMID: 30968419Free PMC Article
Hoare BJ, Wallen MA, Thorley MN, Jackman ML, Carey LM, Imms C
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2019 Apr 1;4(4):CD004149. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD004149.pub3. PMID: 30932166Free PMC Article
Ryan JM, Cassidy EE, Noorduyn SG, O'Connell NE
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2017 Jun 11;6(6):CD011660. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD011660.pub2. PMID: 28602046Free PMC Article
Novak I, McIntyre S, Morgan C, Campbell L, Dark L, Morton N, Stumbles E, Wilson SA, Goldsmith S
Dev Med Child Neurol 2013 Oct;55(10):885-910. Epub 2013 Aug 21 doi: 10.1111/dmcn.12246. PMID: 23962350
Steultjens EM, Dekker J, Bouter LM, van de Nes JC, Lambregts BL, van den Ende CH
Clin Rehabil 2004 Feb;18(1):1-14. doi: 10.1191/0269215504cr697oa. PMID: 14763715

Prognosis

Barron-Garza F, Coronado-Garza M, Gutierrez-Ramirez S, Ramos-Rincon JM, Guzman-de la Garza F, Lozano-Morantes A, Flores-Rodriguez A, Nieto-Sanjuanero A, Alvarez-Villalobos N, Flores-Villarreal M, Covarrubias-Contreras L
Pediatr Neurol 2023 Jun;143:50-58. Epub 2023 Mar 3 doi: 10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2023.02.005. PMID: 37001462
San Juan AM, Swaroop VT
Pediatr Ann 2022 Sep;51(9):e353-e356. Epub 2022 Sep 1 doi: 10.3928/19382359-20220706-06. PMID: 36098607
Robledo KP, Tarnow-Mordi WO, Rieger I, Suresh P, Martin A, Yeung C, Ghadge A, Liley HG, Osborn D, Morris J, Hague W, Kluckow M, Lui K, Soll R, Cruz M, Keech A, Kirby A, Simes J; APTS Childhood Follow-up Study collaborators
Lancet Child Adolesc Health 2022 Mar;6(3):150-157. Epub 2021 Dec 8 doi: 10.1016/S2352-4642(21)00373-4. PMID: 34895510
Askie LM, Darlow BA, Finer N, Schmidt B, Stenson B, Tarnow-Mordi W, Davis PG, Carlo WA, Brocklehurst P, Davies LC, Das A, Rich W, Gantz MG, Roberts RS, Whyte RK, Costantini L, Poets C, Asztalos E, Battin M, Halliday HL, Marlow N, Tin W, King A, Juszczak E, Morley CJ, Doyle LW, Gebski V, Hunter KE, Simes RJ; Neonatal Oxygenation Prospective Meta-analysis (NeOProM) Collaboration
JAMA 2018 Jun 5;319(21):2190-2201. doi: 10.1001/jama.2018.5725. PMID: 29872859Free PMC Article
Dabney KW, Lipton GE, Miller F
Curr Opin Pediatr 1997 Feb;9(1):81-8. doi: 10.1097/00008480-199702000-00017. PMID: 9088760

Clinical prediction guides

Kuo HC, Ferre CL, Chin KY, Friel KM, Gordon AM
Dev Med Child Neurol 2023 Feb;65(2):264-273. Epub 2022 Jun 24 doi: 10.1111/dmcn.15322. PMID: 35751166
McIntyre S, Morgan C, Walker K, Novak I
Dev Disabil Res Rev 2011;17(2):114-29. doi: 10.1002/ddrr.1106. PMID: 23362031
Eliasson AC, Krumlinde-Sundholm L, Rösblad B, Beckung E, Arner M, Ohrvall AM, Rosenbaum P
Dev Med Child Neurol 2006 Jul;48(7):549-54. doi: 10.1017/S0012162206001162. PMID: 16780622
Einspieler C, Prechtl HF
Ment Retard Dev Disabil Res Rev 2005;11(1):61-7. doi: 10.1002/mrdd.20051. PMID: 15856440
Palisano R, Rosenbaum P, Walter S, Russell D, Wood E, Galuppi B
Dev Med Child Neurol 1997 Apr;39(4):214-23. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8749.1997.tb07414.x. PMID: 9183258

Recent systematic reviews

McIntyre S, Goldsmith S, Webb A, Ehlinger V, Hollung SJ, McConnell K, Arnaud C, Smithers-Sheedy H, Oskoui M, Khandaker G, Himmelmann K; Global CP Prevalence Group*
Dev Med Child Neurol 2022 Dec;64(12):1494-1506. Epub 2022 Aug 11 doi: 10.1111/dmcn.15346. PMID: 35952356Free PMC Article
Merino-Andrés J, García de Mateos-López A, Damiano DL, Sánchez-Sierra A
Clin Rehabil 2022 Jan;36(1):4-14. Epub 2021 Aug 18 doi: 10.1177/02692155211040199. PMID: 34407619Free PMC Article
Novak I, Morgan C, Fahey M, Finch-Edmondson M, Galea C, Hines A, Langdon K, Namara MM, Paton MC, Popat H, Shore B, Khamis A, Stanton E, Finemore OP, Tricks A, Te Velde A, Dark L, Morton N, Badawi N
Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep 2020 Feb 21;20(2):3. doi: 10.1007/s11910-020-1022-z. PMID: 32086598Free PMC Article
Dewar R, Love S, Johnston LM
Dev Med Child Neurol 2015 Jun;57(6):504-20. Epub 2014 Dec 18 doi: 10.1111/dmcn.12660. PMID: 25523410
Novak I, McIntyre S, Morgan C, Campbell L, Dark L, Morton N, Stumbles E, Wilson SA, Goldsmith S
Dev Med Child Neurol 2013 Oct;55(10):885-910. Epub 2013 Aug 21 doi: 10.1111/dmcn.12246. PMID: 23962350

Supplemental Content

Table of contents

    Clinical resources

    Practice guidelines

    • PubMed
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      See practice and clinical guidelines in NCBI Bookshelf. The search results may include broader topics and may not capture all published guidelines. See the FAQ for details.

    Curated

    • NICE, 2023
      UK NICE Clinical guideline (CG148), Urinary incontinence in neurological disease: assessment and management, 2023

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