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Immunodeficiency 23(IMD23)

MedGen UID:
862808
Concept ID:
C4014371
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: IMD23; IMMUNODEFICIENCY WITH HYPER IgE AND COGNITIVE IMPAIRMENT; IMMUNODEFICIENCY-VASCULITIS-MYOCLONUS SYNDROME
SNOMED CT: PGM3-CDG - phosphoglucomutase 3-related congenital disorder of glycosylation (1187623009); Phosphoglucomutase 3-related congenital disorder of glycosylation (1187623009); Combined immunodeficiency due to PGM3 (phosphoglucomutase 3) deficiency (1187623009); PGM3-related congenital disorder of glycosylation (1187623009)
Modes of inheritance:
Autosomal recessive inheritance
MedGen UID:
141025
Concept ID:
C0441748
Intellectual Product
Source: Orphanet
A mode of inheritance that is observed for traits related to a gene encoded on one of the autosomes (i.e., the human chromosomes 1-22) in which a trait manifests in individuals with two pathogenic alleles, either homozygotes (two copies of the same mutant allele) or compound heterozygotes (whereby each copy of a gene has a distinct mutant allele).
 
Gene (location): PGM3 (6q14.1)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0014353
OMIM®: 615816
Orphanet: ORPHA443811

Definition

IMD23 is an autosomal recessive primary immunodeficiency syndrome characterized by onset of recurrent infections, usually respiratory or cutaneous, in early childhood. Immune workup usually shows neutropenia, lymphopenia, eosinophilia, and increased serum IgE or IgA. Neutrophil chemotactic defects have also been reported. Infectious agents include bacteria, viruses, and fungi. Many patients develop atopic dermatitis, eczema, and other signs of autoinflammation. Affected individuals may also show developmental delay or cognitive impairment of varying severity (summary by Bjorksten and Lundmark, 1976 and Zhang et al., 2014). [from OMIM]

Additional description

From MedlinePlus Genetics
PGM3-congenital disorder of glycosylation (PGM3-CDG) is an inherited condition that primarily affects the immune system but can also involve other areas of the body. The pattern and severity of this disorder's signs and symptoms typically vary.

Most people with PGM3-CDG have impaired immune function (immune deficiency). Many have a shortage of white blood cells (leukopenia), which normally protect the body from infection. Because affected individuals lack the necessary immune cells to fight off certain bacteria, viruses, and fungi, they are prone to repeated and persistent infections that often occur in the lungs, ears, skin, or gastrointestinal tract. In severe cases of PGM3-CDG, impaired bone marrow function may lead to a decrease in the production of all blood cells, resulting in a condition called bone marrow failure. Affected individuals usually also have allergies, asthma, or an inflammatory skin condition called eczema. People with PGM3-CDG may develop autoimmunity, which occurs when the body attacks its own tissues and organs by mistake. Persistent illness may cause affected children to grow more slowly than other individuals.

Additionally, people with PGM3-CDG often have abnormally high levels of immune system proteins called antibodies (also known as immunoglobulins), particularly immunoglobulin E (IgE). Antibodies help protect the body against infection by attaching to specific foreign particles and germs, marking them for destruction. The effect of abnormal levels of antibodies in PGM3-CDG is unclear.

People with PGM3-CDG often have intellectual disability, delayed development, and weak muscle tone (hypotonia). Many affected individuals have skeletal abnormalities involving the ribs or bones in the hands, feet, or spine. Some people with this condition have distinct facial features, such as a flat or sunken appearance of the middle of the face (midface hypoplasia), small chin (micrognathia), full lips, downturned corners of the mouth, and wide nostrils that open to the front rather than downward. PGM3-CDG can also cause problems in the lungs, gastrointestinal tract, and kidneys.

Lifespan varies widely in people with PGM3-CDG; some do not survive past infancy while others live into late adulthood.  https://medlineplus.gov/genetics/condition/pgm3-congenital-disorder-of-glycosylation

Clinical features

From HPO
Classic Hodgkin lymphoma
MedGen UID:
9283
Concept ID:
C0019829
Neoplastic Process
Classic Hodgkin lymphoma is a lymph node cancer of germinal center B-cell origin. Hodgkin lymphoma tumors consist of a minority of malignant cells, known as 'Reed-Sternberg' (RS) cells, mixed with reactive lymphocytes and other benign inflammatory cells. A defining feature of RS cells is the presence of 2 nuclei (summary by Salipante et al., 2009).
Vasculitis in the skin
MedGen UID:
488809
Concept ID:
C0262988
Disease or Syndrome
A type of vasculitis (inflammation of blood vessel walls) that affects skeletal muscle tissue.
Aortic root aneurysm
MedGen UID:
720712
Concept ID:
C1298820
Anatomical Abnormality
An abnormal localized widening (dilatation) of the aortic root.
Failure to thrive
MedGen UID:
746019
Concept ID:
C2315100
Disease or Syndrome
Failure to thrive (FTT) refers to a child whose physical growth is substantially below the norm.
Esophageal stricture
MedGen UID:
1637009
Concept ID:
C4551650
Disease or Syndrome
A pathological narrowing of the esophagus that is caused by the development of a ring of scar tissue that constricts the esophageal lumen.
Conductive hearing impairment
MedGen UID:
9163
Concept ID:
C0018777
Disease or Syndrome
An abnormality of vibrational conductance of sound to the inner ear leading to impairment of sensory perception of sound.
Sensorineural hearing loss disorder
MedGen UID:
9164
Concept ID:
C0018784
Disease or Syndrome
A type of hearing impairment in one or both ears related to an abnormal functionality of the cochlear nerve.
Cerebellar ataxia
MedGen UID:
849
Concept ID:
C0007758
Disease or Syndrome
Cerebellar ataxia refers to ataxia due to dysfunction of the cerebellum. This causes a variety of elementary neurological deficits including asynergy (lack of coordination between muscles, limbs and joints), dysmetria (lack of ability to judge distances that can lead to under- or overshoot in grasping movements), and dysdiadochokinesia (inability to perform rapid movements requiring antagonizing muscle groups to be switched on and off repeatedly).
Dysarthria
MedGen UID:
8510
Concept ID:
C0013362
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Dysarthric speech is a general description referring to a neurological speech disorder characterized by poor articulation. Depending on the involved neurological structures, dysarthria may be further classified as spastic, flaccid, ataxic, hyperkinetic and hypokinetic, or mixed.
Myoclonus
MedGen UID:
10234
Concept ID:
C0027066
Finding
Very brief, involuntary random muscular contractions occurring at rest, in response to sensory stimuli, or accompanying voluntary movements.
Global developmental delay
MedGen UID:
107838
Concept ID:
C0557874
Finding
A delay in the achievement of motor or mental milestones in the domains of development of a child, including motor skills, speech and language, cognitive skills, and social and emotional skills. This term should only be used to describe children younger than five years of age.
Hyporeflexia
MedGen UID:
195967
Concept ID:
C0700078
Finding
Reduction of neurologic reflexes such as the knee-jerk reaction.
Cortical myoclonus
MedGen UID:
785503
Concept ID:
C3698239
Disease or Syndrome
Cortical myoclonus mainly affects the distal upper limbs and face, which reflects the largest cortical representations of these body areas. It is often focal, but may be multifocal, bilateral or generalized, as a consequence of intracortical and transcallosal spreading of abnormal activity. It typically occurs on voluntary action and may affect speech and gait. Cortical myoclonic jerks are stimulus sensitive, typically to touch, but sensitivity to visual stimuli is also described. Most patients with cortical myoclonus have both positive myoclonus and NM, occurring either independently or together as a complex of the two kinds of myoclonus. If cortical myoclonus is prolonged and lasts for hours, days or weeks, it is called epilepsia partials continua and is considered to be a rare form of focal epileptic status. Focal cortical myoclonus almost always points to an underlining lesion of the sensori-motor cortex, which produces hyperexcitability (e.g. vascular, inflammatory or neoplastic).
Intellectual disability
MedGen UID:
811461
Concept ID:
C3714756
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Intellectual disability, previously referred to as mental retardation, is characterized by subnormal intellectual functioning that occurs during the developmental period. It is defined by an IQ score below 70.
Abnormal CNS myelination
MedGen UID:
866800
Concept ID:
C4021152
Anatomical Abnormality
An abnormality of myelination of nerves in the central nervous system.
Somatic sensory dysfunction
MedGen UID:
1790456
Concept ID:
C5551413
Finding
An abnormality of the primary sensation that is mediated by peripheral nerves (pain, temperature, touch, vibration, joint position). The word hypoesthesia (or hypesthesia) refers to a reduction in cutaneous sensation to a specific type of testing.
Hemolytic anemia
MedGen UID:
1916
Concept ID:
C0002878
Disease or Syndrome
A type of anemia caused by premature destruction of red blood cells (hemolysis).
Hypotonia
MedGen UID:
10133
Concept ID:
C0026827
Finding
Hypotonia is an abnormally low muscle tone (the amount of tension or resistance to movement in a muscle). Even when relaxed, muscles have a continuous and passive partial contraction which provides some resistance to passive stretching. Hypotonia thus manifests as diminished resistance to passive stretching. Hypotonia is not the same as muscle weakness, although the two conditions can co-exist.
Scoliosis
MedGen UID:
11348
Concept ID:
C0036439
Disease or Syndrome
The presence of an abnormal lateral curvature of the spine.
Joint hypermobility
MedGen UID:
336793
Concept ID:
C1844820
Finding
The capability that a joint (or a group of joints) has to move, passively and/or actively, beyond normal limits along physiological axes.
Generalized hypotonia
MedGen UID:
346841
Concept ID:
C1858120
Finding
Generalized muscular hypotonia (abnormally low muscle tone).
Bronchiectasis
MedGen UID:
14234
Concept ID:
C0006267
Disease or Syndrome
Persistent abnormal dilatation of the bronchi owing to localized and irreversible destruction and widening of the large airways.
Recurrent respiratory infections
MedGen UID:
812812
Concept ID:
C3806482
Finding
An increased susceptibility to respiratory infections as manifested by a history of recurrent respiratory infections.
Abscess
MedGen UID:
1684
Concept ID:
C0000833
Disease or Syndrome
An inflammatory process characterized by the accumulation of pus within a newly formed tissue cavity which is the result of a bacterial, fungal, or parasitic infection or the presence of a foreign body.
Asthma
MedGen UID:
2109
Concept ID:
C0004096
Disease or Syndrome
Asthma is characterized by increased responsiveness of the tracheobronchial tree to multiple stimuli, leading to narrowing of the air passages with resultant dyspnea, cough, and wheezing.
Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis
MedGen UID:
2426
Concept ID:
C0006845
Disease or Syndrome
Recurrent or persistent superficial Candida infections of the skin, mucous membranes, and nails.
Drug allergy
MedGen UID:
41663
Concept ID:
C0013182
Pathologic Function
Hypersensitivity in form of an adverse immune reaction against drugs.
Eosinophilia
MedGen UID:
41824
Concept ID:
C0014457
Disease or Syndrome
Increased count of eosinophils in the blood.
Mesangiocapillary glomerulonephritis
MedGen UID:
9033
Concept ID:
C0017662
Disease or Syndrome
A type of glomerulonephritis characterized by diffuse mesangial cell proliferation and the thickening of capillary walls due to subendothelial extension of the mesangium. The term membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis is often employed to denote a general pattern of glomerular injury seen in a variety of disease processes that share a common pathogenetic mechanism, rather than to describe a single disease entity
Immunodeficiency
MedGen UID:
7034
Concept ID:
C0021051
Disease or Syndrome
Failure of the immune system to protect the body adequately from infection, due to the absence or insufficiency of some component process or substance.
Lymphopenia
MedGen UID:
7418
Concept ID:
C0024312
Disease or Syndrome
A reduced number of lymphocytes in the blood.
Molluscum contagiosum
MedGen UID:
10081
Concept ID:
C0026393
Disease or Syndrome
Molluscum contagiosum is a cutaneous viral infection that is commonly observed in both healthy and immunocompromised children. The infection is caused by a member of the Poxviridae family, the molluscum contagiosum virus. Molluscum contagiosum presents as single or multiple small white or flesh-colored papules that typically have a central umbilication. The central umbilication may be difficult to observe in young children and, instead, may bear an appearance similar to an acneiform eruption. The lesions vary in size (from 1 mm to 1 cm in diameter) and are painless, although a subset of patients report pruritus in the area of infection. On average, 11-20 papules appear on the body during the course of infection and generally remains a self-limiting disease. However, in immunosuppressed patients, molluscum contagiosum can be a severe infection with hundreds of lesions developing on the body. Extensive eruption is indicative of an advanced immunodeficiency state.
Rheumatoid factor positive
MedGen UID:
56226
Concept ID:
C0151379
Laboratory or Test Result
The presence in the serum of an autoantibody directed against the Fc portion of IgG.
Increased circulating IgE level
MedGen UID:
116018
Concept ID:
C0236175
Finding
An abnormally increased overall level of immunoglobulin E in blood.
Neutropenia
MedGen UID:
163121
Concept ID:
C0853697
Finding
An abnormally low number of neutrophils in the peripheral blood.
Increased circulating IgM level
MedGen UID:
333454
Concept ID:
C1839972
Finding
An abnormally increased level of immunoglobulin M in blood.
Increased circulating IgG level
MedGen UID:
347032
Concept ID:
C1858977
Finding
An abnormally increased level of immunoglobulin G in blood.
Allergic rhinitis
MedGen UID:
382012
Concept ID:
C2607914
Disease or Syndrome
It is characterized by one or more symptoms including sneezing, itching, nasal congestion, and rhinorrhea.
Recurrent Staphylococcus aureus infections
MedGen UID:
392925
Concept ID:
C2673462
Finding
Increased susceptibility to Staphylococcus aureus infections, as manifested by recurrent episodes of Staphylococcus aureus infection.
Persistent EBV viremia
MedGen UID:
767466
Concept ID:
C3554552
Finding
Persistent presence of Epstein-Barr virus in the blood.
Recurrent staphylococcal infections
MedGen UID:
870417
Concept ID:
C4024862
Finding
Increased susceptibility to staphylococcal infections, as manifested by recurrent episodes of staphylococcal infections.
Food allergy
MedGen UID:
1635115
Concept ID:
C4554344
Disease or Syndrome
Primary food allergies primarily occur as a result (most likely) of gastrointestinal sensitization to predominantly stable food allergens (glycoproteins). A secondary food allergy develops after primary sensitization to airborne allergens (e. g., pollen allergens) with subsequent reactions (due to cross-reactivity) to structurally related often labile allergens in (plant) foods.
Severe varicella zoster infection
MedGen UID:
1688785
Concept ID:
C5139168
Disease or Syndrome
An unusually severe form of varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection. In the majority of the cases, especially in children, varicella is a very mild infection characterised by skin lesions, low grade fever and malaise. Severe infection is characterized by manifestions including VZV pneumonia, hepatitis, meningitis, and disseminated varicella.
High palate
MedGen UID:
66814
Concept ID:
C0240635
Congenital Abnormality
Height of the palate more than 2 SD above the mean (objective) or palatal height at the level of the first permanent molar more than twice the height of the teeth (subjective).
Erythema
MedGen UID:
11999
Concept ID:
C0041834
Disease or Syndrome
Redness of the skin, caused by hyperemia of the capillaries in the lower layers of the skin.

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • CROGVImmunodeficiency 23

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Biggs SE, Gilchrist B, May KR
Curr Allergy Asthma Rep 2023 Apr;23(4):213-222. Epub 2023 Mar 10 doi: 10.1007/s11882-023-01071-4. PMID: 36897497Free PMC Article
Cuperus E, Bygum A, Boeckmann L, Bodemer C, Bolling MC, Caproni M, Diociaiuti A, Emmert S, Fischer J, Gostynski A, Guez S, van Gijn ME, Hannulla-Jouppi K, Has C, Hernández-Martín A, Martinez AE, Mazereeuw-Hautier J, Medvecz M, Neri I, Sigurdsson V, Suessmuth K, Traupe H, Oji V, Pasmans SGMA
J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2022 Jul;36(7):973-986. Epub 2022 Mar 15 doi: 10.1111/jdv.18043. PMID: 35238435Free PMC Article
Maartens G, Celum C, Lewin SR
Lancet 2014 Jul 19;384(9939):258-71. Epub 2014 Jun 5 doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(14)60164-1. PMID: 24907868

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Leiding JW, Vogel TP, Santarlas VGJ, Mhaskar R, Smith MR, Carisey A, Vargas-Hernández A, Silva-Carmona M, Heeg M, Rensing-Ehl A, Neven B, Hadjadj J, Hambleton S, Ronan Leahy T, Meesilpavikai K, Cunningham-Rundles C, Dutmer CM, Sharapova SO, Taskinen M, Chua I, Hague R, Klemann C, Kostyuchenko L, Morio T, Thatayatikom A, Ozen A, Scherbina A, Bauer CS, Flanagan SE, Gambineri E, Giovannini-Chami L, Heimall J, Sullivan KE, Allenspach E, Romberg N, Deane SG, Prince BT, Rose MJ, Bohnsack J, Mousallem T, Jesudas R, Santos Vilela MMD, O'Sullivan M, Pachlopnik Schmid J, Průhová Š, Klocperk A, Rees M, Su H, Bahna S, Baris S, Bartnikas LM, Chang Berger A, Briggs TA, Brothers S, Bundy V, Chan AY, Chandrakasan S, Christiansen M, Cole T, Cook MC, Desai MM, Fischer U, Fulcher DA, Gallo S, Gauthier A, Gennery AR, Gonçalo Marques J, Gottrand F, Grimbacher B, Grunebaum E, Haapaniemi E, Hämäläinen S, Heiskanen K, Heiskanen-Kosma T, Hoffman HM, Gonzalez-Granado LI, Guerrerio AL, Kainulainen L, Kumar A, Lawrence MG, Levin C, Martelius T, Neth O, Olbrich P, Palma A, Patel NC, Pozos T, Preece K, Lugo Reyes SO, Russell MA, Schejter Y, Seroogy C, Sinclair J, Skevofilax E, Suan D, Suez D, Szabolcs P, Velasco H, Warnatz K, Walkovich K, Worth A; STAT3 GOF Working Group members, Seppänen MRJ, Torgerson TR, Sogkas G, Ehl S, Tangye SG, Cooper MA, Milner JD, Forbes Satter LR
J Allergy Clin Immunol 2023 Apr;151(4):1081-1095. Epub 2022 Oct 11 doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2022.09.002. PMID: 36228738Free PMC Article
Dimitrova D, Nademi Z, Maccari ME, Ehl S, Uzel G, Tomoda T, Okano T, Imai K, Carpenter B, Ip W, Rao K, Worth AJJ, Laberko A, Mukhina A, Néven B, Moshous D, Speckmann C, Warnatz K, Wehr C, Abolhassani H, Aghamohammadi A, Bleesing JJ, Dara J, Dvorak CC, Ghosh S, Kang HJ, Markelj G, Modi A, Bayer DK, Notarangelo LD, Schulz A, Garcia-Prat M, Soler-Palacín P, Karakükcü M, Yilmaz E, Gambineri E, Menconi M, Masmas TN, Holm M, Bonfim C, Prando C, Hughes S, Jolles S, Morris EC, Kapoor N, Koltan S, Paneesha S, Steward C, Wynn R, Duffner U, Gennery AR, Lankester AC, Slatter M, Kanakry JA
J Allergy Clin Immunol 2022 Jan;149(1):410-421.e7. Epub 2021 May 24 doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2021.04.036. PMID: 34033842Free PMC Article
Rühl H, Bein G, Sachs UJ
Transfus Med Rev 2009 Jan;23(1):62-71. doi: 10.1016/j.tmrv.2008.09.006. PMID: 19056035
Abrams M, Paller A
Adv Dermatol 2007;23:197-229. doi: 10.1016/j.yadr.2007.08.001. PMID: 18159903
Paller AS
Clin Dermatol 2005 Jan-Feb;23(1):68-77. doi: 10.1016/j.clindermatol.2004.09.011. PMID: 15708291

Diagnosis

Leiding JW, Vogel TP, Santarlas VGJ, Mhaskar R, Smith MR, Carisey A, Vargas-Hernández A, Silva-Carmona M, Heeg M, Rensing-Ehl A, Neven B, Hadjadj J, Hambleton S, Ronan Leahy T, Meesilpavikai K, Cunningham-Rundles C, Dutmer CM, Sharapova SO, Taskinen M, Chua I, Hague R, Klemann C, Kostyuchenko L, Morio T, Thatayatikom A, Ozen A, Scherbina A, Bauer CS, Flanagan SE, Gambineri E, Giovannini-Chami L, Heimall J, Sullivan KE, Allenspach E, Romberg N, Deane SG, Prince BT, Rose MJ, Bohnsack J, Mousallem T, Jesudas R, Santos Vilela MMD, O'Sullivan M, Pachlopnik Schmid J, Průhová Š, Klocperk A, Rees M, Su H, Bahna S, Baris S, Bartnikas LM, Chang Berger A, Briggs TA, Brothers S, Bundy V, Chan AY, Chandrakasan S, Christiansen M, Cole T, Cook MC, Desai MM, Fischer U, Fulcher DA, Gallo S, Gauthier A, Gennery AR, Gonçalo Marques J, Gottrand F, Grimbacher B, Grunebaum E, Haapaniemi E, Hämäläinen S, Heiskanen K, Heiskanen-Kosma T, Hoffman HM, Gonzalez-Granado LI, Guerrerio AL, Kainulainen L, Kumar A, Lawrence MG, Levin C, Martelius T, Neth O, Olbrich P, Palma A, Patel NC, Pozos T, Preece K, Lugo Reyes SO, Russell MA, Schejter Y, Seroogy C, Sinclair J, Skevofilax E, Suan D, Suez D, Szabolcs P, Velasco H, Warnatz K, Walkovich K, Worth A; STAT3 GOF Working Group members, Seppänen MRJ, Torgerson TR, Sogkas G, Ehl S, Tangye SG, Cooper MA, Milner JD, Forbes Satter LR
J Allergy Clin Immunol 2023 Apr;151(4):1081-1095. Epub 2022 Oct 11 doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2022.09.002. PMID: 36228738Free PMC Article
Ayano G, Demelash S, Abraha M, Tsegay L
AIDS Res Ther 2021 Apr 27;18(1):23. doi: 10.1186/s12981-021-00351-1. PMID: 33906698Free PMC Article
Perez EE, Ballow M
Immunol Allergy Clin North Am 2020 Aug;40(3):499-510. Epub 2020 Jun 9 doi: 10.1016/j.iac.2020.03.005. PMID: 32654695
Abrams M, Paller A
Adv Dermatol 2007;23:197-229. doi: 10.1016/j.yadr.2007.08.001. PMID: 18159903
Paller AS
Clin Dermatol 2005 Jan-Feb;23(1):68-77. doi: 10.1016/j.clindermatol.2004.09.011. PMID: 15708291

Therapy

Houston S
Nat Immunol 2022 Nov;23(11):1520. doi: 10.1038/s41590-022-01362-4. PMID: 36333609
Senefeld JW, Klassen SA, Ford SK, Senese KA, Wiggins CC, Bostrom BC, Thompson MA, Baker SE, Nicholson WT, Johnson PW, Carter RE, Henderson JP, Hartman WR, Pirofski LA, Wright RS, Fairweather L, Bruno KA, Paneth NS, Casadevall A, Joyner MJ
Transfusion 2021 Aug;61(8):2503-2511. Epub 2021 Jun 1 doi: 10.1111/trf.16525. PMID: 34036587Free PMC Article
Perez EE, Ballow M
Immunol Allergy Clin North Am 2020 Aug;40(3):499-510. Epub 2020 Jun 9 doi: 10.1016/j.iac.2020.03.005. PMID: 32654695
Zeppa P, Cozzolino I
Monogr Clin Cytol 2018;23:77-80. Epub 2017 Nov 13 doi: 10.1159/000478883. PMID: 29131000
Williams SJ, Gupta S
Arch Immunol Ther Exp (Warsz) 2017 Feb;65(1):11-19. Epub 2016 Jul 13 doi: 10.1007/s00005-016-0410-1. PMID: 27412077

Prognosis

Hémar V, Rivière E, Greib C, Machelart I, Roucoules M, Prot C, Pellegrin JL, Viallard JF, Lazaro E
Immunotherapy 2021 Dec;13(18):1491-1499. Epub 2021 Nov 8 doi: 10.2217/imt-2020-0313. PMID: 34743547
Senefeld JW, Klassen SA, Ford SK, Senese KA, Wiggins CC, Bostrom BC, Thompson MA, Baker SE, Nicholson WT, Johnson PW, Carter RE, Henderson JP, Hartman WR, Pirofski LA, Wright RS, Fairweather L, Bruno KA, Paneth NS, Casadevall A, Joyner MJ
Transfusion 2021 Aug;61(8):2503-2511. Epub 2021 Jun 1 doi: 10.1111/trf.16525. PMID: 34036587Free PMC Article
Caka C, Cimen O, Kahyaoğlu P, Tezcan İ, Cagdas D
Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2021 Aug;32(6):1327-1334. Epub 2021 Mar 29 doi: 10.1111/pai.13497. PMID: 33706406
Rosario-Filho NA, Jacob CM, Sole D, Condino-Neto A, Arruda LK, Costa-Carvalho B, Cocco RR, Camelo-Nunes I, Chong-Neto HJ, Wandalsen GF, Castro AP, Yang AC, Pastorino AC, Sarinho ES
Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2013 Jun;24(4):402-9. Epub 2013 Apr 11 doi: 10.1111/pai.12069. PMID: 23578336
Paller AS
Clin Dermatol 2005 Jan-Feb;23(1):68-77. doi: 10.1016/j.clindermatol.2004.09.011. PMID: 15708291

Clinical prediction guides

Fevang B
Expert Rev Clin Immunol 2023 Jun;19(6):627-638. Epub 2023 Apr 6 doi: 10.1080/1744666X.2023.2198208. PMID: 36996348
Leiding JW, Vogel TP, Santarlas VGJ, Mhaskar R, Smith MR, Carisey A, Vargas-Hernández A, Silva-Carmona M, Heeg M, Rensing-Ehl A, Neven B, Hadjadj J, Hambleton S, Ronan Leahy T, Meesilpavikai K, Cunningham-Rundles C, Dutmer CM, Sharapova SO, Taskinen M, Chua I, Hague R, Klemann C, Kostyuchenko L, Morio T, Thatayatikom A, Ozen A, Scherbina A, Bauer CS, Flanagan SE, Gambineri E, Giovannini-Chami L, Heimall J, Sullivan KE, Allenspach E, Romberg N, Deane SG, Prince BT, Rose MJ, Bohnsack J, Mousallem T, Jesudas R, Santos Vilela MMD, O'Sullivan M, Pachlopnik Schmid J, Průhová Š, Klocperk A, Rees M, Su H, Bahna S, Baris S, Bartnikas LM, Chang Berger A, Briggs TA, Brothers S, Bundy V, Chan AY, Chandrakasan S, Christiansen M, Cole T, Cook MC, Desai MM, Fischer U, Fulcher DA, Gallo S, Gauthier A, Gennery AR, Gonçalo Marques J, Gottrand F, Grimbacher B, Grunebaum E, Haapaniemi E, Hämäläinen S, Heiskanen K, Heiskanen-Kosma T, Hoffman HM, Gonzalez-Granado LI, Guerrerio AL, Kainulainen L, Kumar A, Lawrence MG, Levin C, Martelius T, Neth O, Olbrich P, Palma A, Patel NC, Pozos T, Preece K, Lugo Reyes SO, Russell MA, Schejter Y, Seroogy C, Sinclair J, Skevofilax E, Suan D, Suez D, Szabolcs P, Velasco H, Warnatz K, Walkovich K, Worth A; STAT3 GOF Working Group members, Seppänen MRJ, Torgerson TR, Sogkas G, Ehl S, Tangye SG, Cooper MA, Milner JD, Forbes Satter LR
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