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Nail and teeth abnormalities-marginal palmoplantar keratoderma-oral hyperpigmentation syndrome(ECTDS)

MedGen UID:
863424
Concept ID:
C4014987
Disease or Syndrome
Synonym: Ectodermal dysplasia/short stature syndrome
SNOMED CT: Nail and tooth abnormalities, marginal palmoplantar keratoderma, oral hyperpigmentation syndrome (764995008); Ectodermal dysplasia short stature syndrome (764995008); Short stature, nail dysplasia, marginal palmoplantar keratoderma, oral hyperpigmentation syndrome (764995008)
Modes of inheritance:
Autosomal recessive inheritance
MedGen UID:
141025
Concept ID:
C0441748
Intellectual Product
Source: Orphanet
A mode of inheritance that is observed for traits related to a gene encoded on one of the autosomes (i.e., the human chromosomes 1-22) in which a trait manifests in individuals with two pathogenic alleles, either homozygotes (two copies of the same mutant allele) or compound heterozygotes (whereby each copy of a gene has a distinct mutant allele).
 
Gene (location): GRHL2 (8q22.3)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0014460
OMIM®: 616029
Orphanet: ORPHA423454

Definition

A rare genetic ectodermal dysplasia syndrome characterized by short stature, nail dystrophy and/or nail loss, oral mucosa and/or tongue hyperpigmentation, dentition abnormalities (delayed teeth eruption, hypodontia, enamel hypoplasia), keratoderma on the margins of the palms and soles and focal hyperkeratosis on the dorsum of the hands and feet. Additionally, dysphagia with esophageal strictures, sensorineural deafness, bronchial asthma and severe iron-deficiency anemia have also been observed. [from SNOMEDCT_US]

Clinical features

From HPO
Short stature
MedGen UID:
87607
Concept ID:
C0349588
Finding
A height below that which is expected according to age and gender norms. Although there is no universally accepted definition of short stature, many refer to "short stature" as height more than 2 standard deviations below the mean for age and gender (or below the 3rd percentile for age and gender dependent norms).
Dysphagia
MedGen UID:
41440
Concept ID:
C0011168
Disease or Syndrome
Difficulty in swallowing.
Asthma
MedGen UID:
2109
Concept ID:
C0004096
Disease or Syndrome
Asthma is characterized by increased responsiveness of the tracheobronchial tree to multiple stimuli, leading to narrowing of the air passages with resultant dyspnea, cough, and wheezing.
Enamel hypoplasia
MedGen UID:
3730
Concept ID:
C0011351
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental hypoplasia of the dental enamel.
Partial congenital absence of teeth
MedGen UID:
43794
Concept ID:
C0020608
Congenital Abnormality
Tooth agenesis in some form is a common human anomaly that affects approximately 20% of the population. Although tooth agenesis is associated with numerous syndromes, several case reports describe nonsyndromic forms that are either sporadic or familial in nature, as reviewed by Gorlin et al. (1990). The incidence of familial tooth agenesis varies with each class of teeth. Most commonly affected are third molars (wisdom teeth), followed by either upper lateral incisors or lower second premolars; agenesis involving first and second molars is very rare. Also see 114600 and 302400. Selective tooth agenesis without associated systemic disorders has sometimes been divided into 2 types: oligodontia, defined as agenesis of 6 or more permanent teeth, and hypodontia, defined as agenesis of less than 6 teeth. The number in both cases does not include absence of third molars (wisdom teeth). Faulty use of the terms, however, have confounded their use. The term 'partial anodontia' is obsolete (Salinas, 1978). Genetic Heterogeneity of Selective Tooth Agenesis Other forms of selective tooth agenesis include STHAG2 (602639), mapped to chromosome 16q12; STHAG3 (604625), caused by mutation in the PAX9 gene (167416) on chromosome 14q12; STHAG4 (150400), caused by mutation in the WNT10A gene (606268) on chromosome 2q35; STHAG5 (610926), mapped to chromosome 10q11; STHAG7 (616724), caused by mutation in the LRP6 gene (603507) on chromosome 12p13; STHAG8 (617073), caused by mutation in the WNT10B gene (601906) on chromosome 12q13; STHAG9 (617275), caused by mutation in the GREM2 gene (608832) on chromosome 1q43; STHAG10 (620173), caused by mutation in the TSPEAR gene (612920) on chromosome 21q22; and STHAGX1 (313500), caused by mutation in the EDA gene (300451) on chromosome Xq13. A type of selective tooth agenesis that was formerly designated STHAG6 has been incorporated into the dental anomalies and short stature syndrome (DASS; 601216). Of 34 unrelated patients with nonsyndromic tooth agenesis, van den Boogaard et al. (2012) found that 56% (19 patients) had mutations in the WNT10A gene (STHAG4), whereas only 3% and 9% had mutations in the MSX1 (STHAG1) and PAX9 (STHAG3) genes, respectively. The authors concluded that WNT10A is a major gene in the etiology of isolated hypodontia. Genotype-Phenotype Correlations Yu et al. (2016) observed that the most frequently missing permanent teeth in WNT10B-associated oligodontia were the lateral incisors (83.3%), whereas premolars were missing only 51.4% of the time, which they noted was a pattern 'clearly different' from the oligodontia patterns resulting from WNT10A mutations. They also stated that the selective pattern in WNT10B mutants was different from that associated with mutations in other genes, such as MSX1, in which second premolars are missing, and PAX9, in which there is agenesis of molars.
Nail dystrophy
MedGen UID:
66368
Concept ID:
C0221260
Disease or Syndrome
Onychodystrophy (nail dystrophy) refers to nail changes apart from changes of the color (nail dyschromia) and involves partial or complete disruption of the various keratinous layers of the nail plate.
Epidermal acanthosis
MedGen UID:
65136
Concept ID:
C0221270
Finding
Diffuse hypertrophy or thickening of the stratum spinosum of the epidermis (prickle cell layer of the skin).
Anonychia
MedGen UID:
120563
Concept ID:
C0265998
Congenital Abnormality
Congenital anonychia is defined as the absence of fingernails and toenails. Anonychia and its milder phenotypic variant, hyponychia, usually occur as a feature of genetic syndromes, in association with significant skeletal and limb anomalies. Isolated nonsyndromic congenital anonychia/hyponychia is a rare entity that usually follows autosomal recessive inheritance with variable expression, even within a given family. The nail phenotypes observed range from no nail field to a nail field of reduced size with an absent or rudimentary nail (summary by Bruchle et al., 2008). This form of nail disorder is referred to here as nonsyndromic congenital nail disorder-4 (NDNC4). For a list of other nonsyndromic congenital nail disorders and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity, see NDNC1 (161050).
Hyperkeratosis
MedGen UID:
209030
Concept ID:
C0870082
Disease or Syndrome
Hyperkeratosis is thickening of the outer layer of the skin, the stratum corneum, which is composed of large, polyhedral, plate-like envelopes filled with keratin which are the dead cells that have migrated up from the stratum granulosum.

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • CROGVNail and teeth abnormalities-marginal palmoplantar keratoderma-oral hyperpigmentation syndrome

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