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Microcephaly and chorioretinopathy 2(MCCRP2)

MedGen UID:
863825
Concept ID:
C4015388
Disease or Syndrome
Synonym: Microcephaly and chorioretinopathy, autosomal recessive, 2
 
Gene (location): PLK4 (4q28.1)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0014516
OMIM®: 616171

Definition

Microcephaly and chorioretinopathy-2 is an autosomal recessive developmental disorder characterized by delayed psychomotor development, visual impairment, and short stature (summary by Martin et al., 2014). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of microcephaly and chorioretinopathy, see MCCRP1 (251270). [from OMIM]

Clinical features

From HPO
Clubfoot
MedGen UID:
3130
Concept ID:
C0009081
Congenital Abnormality
Clubfoot is a congenital limb deformity defined as fixation of the foot in cavus, adductus, varus, and equinus (i.e., inclined inwards, axially rotated outwards, and pointing downwards) with concomitant soft tissue abnormalities (Cardy et al., 2007). Clubfoot may occur in isolation or as part of a syndrome (e.g., diastrophic dysplasia, 222600). Clubfoot has been reported with deficiency of long bones and mirror-image polydactyly (Gurnett et al., 2008; Klopocki et al., 2012).
Fetal growth restriction
MedGen UID:
4693
Concept ID:
C0015934
Pathologic Function
An abnormal restriction of fetal growth with fetal weight below the tenth percentile for gestational age.
Short stature
MedGen UID:
87607
Concept ID:
C0349588
Finding
A height below that which is expected according to age and gender norms. Although there is no universally accepted definition of short stature, many refer to "short stature" as height more than 2 standard deviations below the mean for age and gender (or below the 3rd percentile for age and gender dependent norms).
Seizure
MedGen UID:
20693
Concept ID:
C0036572
Sign or Symptom
A seizure is an intermittent abnormality of nervous system physiology characterized by a transient occurrence of signs and/or symptoms due to abnormal excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.
Arachnoid cyst
MedGen UID:
86860
Concept ID:
C0078981
Disease or Syndrome
An extra-parenchymal and intra-arachnoidal collection of fluid with a composition similar to that of cerebrospinal fluid.
Cerebral atrophy
MedGen UID:
116012
Concept ID:
C0235946
Disease or Syndrome
Atrophy (wasting, decrease in size of cells or tissue) affecting the cerebrum.
Cerebellar hypoplasia
MedGen UID:
120578
Concept ID:
C0266470
Congenital Abnormality
Cerebellar hypoplasia is a descriptive term implying a cerebellum with a reduced volume, but a normal shape and is stable over time.
Partial agenesis of the corpus callosum
MedGen UID:
98127
Concept ID:
C0431368
Congenital Abnormality
A partial failure of the development of the corpus callosum.
Global developmental delay
MedGen UID:
107838
Concept ID:
C0557874
Finding
A delay in the achievement of motor or mental milestones in the domains of development of a child, including motor skills, speech and language, cognitive skills, and social and emotional skills. This term should only be used to describe children younger than five years of age.
Cerebellar atrophy
MedGen UID:
196624
Concept ID:
C0740279
Disease or Syndrome
Cerebellar atrophy is defined as a cerebellum with initially normal structures, in a posterior fossa with normal size, which displays enlarged fissures (interfolial spaces) in comparison to the foliae secondary to loss of tissue. Cerebellar atrophy implies irreversible loss of tissue and result from an ongoing progressive disease until a final stage is reached or a single injury, e.g. an intoxication or infectious event.
Hypoplasia of the pons
MedGen UID:
341246
Concept ID:
C1848529
Finding
Underdevelopment of the pons.
Absent speech
MedGen UID:
340737
Concept ID:
C1854882
Finding
Complete lack of development of speech and language abilities.
Simplified gyral pattern
MedGen UID:
413664
Concept ID:
C2749675
Finding
An abnormality of the cerebral cortex with fewer gyri but with normal cortical thickness. This pattern is usually often associated with congenital microcephaly.
Intellectual disability
MedGen UID:
811461
Concept ID:
C3714756
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Intellectual disability, previously referred to as mental retardation, is characterized by subnormal intellectual functioning that occurs during the developmental period. It is defined by an IQ score below 70.
Periventricular heterotopia
MedGen UID:
1766888
Concept ID:
C5399973
Disease or Syndrome
A form of gray matter heterotopia were the mislocalized gray matter is typically located periventricularly, also sometimes called subependymal heterotopia. Periventricular means beside the ventricles. This is by far the most common location for heterotopia. Subependymal heterotopia present in a wide array of variations. There can be a small single node or a large number of nodes, can exist on either or both sides of the brain at any point along the higher ventricle margins, can be small or large, single or multiple, and can form a small node or a large wavy or curved mass.
Micrognathia
MedGen UID:
44428
Concept ID:
C0025990
Congenital Abnormality
Developmental hypoplasia of the mandible.
Thoracic scoliosis
MedGen UID:
387910
Concept ID:
C1857790
Anatomical Abnormality
Lumbar scoliosis
MedGen UID:
412568
Concept ID:
C2748518
Finding
Microcephaly
MedGen UID:
1644158
Concept ID:
C4551563
Finding
Head circumference below 2 standard deviations below the mean for age and gender.
Prominent nose
MedGen UID:
98423
Concept ID:
C0426415
Finding
Distance between subnasale and pronasale more than two standard deviations above the mean, or alternatively, an apparently increased anterior protrusion of the nasal tip.
Sloping forehead
MedGen UID:
346640
Concept ID:
C1857679
Finding
Inclination of the anterior surface of the forehead from the vertical more than two standard deviations above the mean (objective); or apparently excessive posterior sloping of the forehead in a lateral view.
Proptosis
MedGen UID:
41917
Concept ID:
C0015300
Disease or Syndrome
An eye that is protruding anterior to the plane of the face to a greater extent than is typical.
Microphthalmia
MedGen UID:
10033
Concept ID:
C0026010
Congenital Abnormality
Microphthalmia is an eye abnormality that arises before birth. In this condition, one or both eyeballs are abnormally small. In some affected individuals, the eyeball may appear to be completely missing; however, even in these cases some remaining eye tissue is generally present. Such severe microphthalmia should be distinguished from another condition called anophthalmia, in which no eyeball forms at all. However, the terms anophthalmia and severe microphthalmia are often used interchangeably. Microphthalmia may or may not result in significant vision loss.\n\nPeople with microphthalmia may also have a condition called coloboma. Colobomas are missing pieces of tissue in structures that form the eye. They may appear as notches or gaps in the colored part of the eye called the iris; the retina, which is the specialized light-sensitive tissue that lines the back of the eye; the blood vessel layer under the retina called the choroid; or in the optic nerves, which carry information from the eyes to the brain. Colobomas may be present in one or both eyes and, depending on their size and location, can affect a person's vision.\n\nPeople with microphthalmia may also have other eye abnormalities, including clouding of the lens of the eye (cataract) and a narrowed opening of the eye (narrowed palpebral fissure). Additionally, affected individuals may have an abnormality called microcornea, in which the clear front covering of the eye (cornea) is small and abnormally curved.\n\nBetween one-third and one-half of affected individuals have microphthalmia as part of a syndrome that affects other organs and tissues in the body. These forms of the condition are described as syndromic. When microphthalmia occurs by itself, it is described as nonsyndromic or isolated.
Optic atrophy
MedGen UID:
18180
Concept ID:
C0029124
Disease or Syndrome
Atrophy of the optic nerve. Optic atrophy results from the death of the retinal ganglion cell axons that comprise the optic nerve and manifesting as a pale optic nerve on fundoscopy.
Retinopathy
MedGen UID:
11209
Concept ID:
C0035309
Disease or Syndrome
Any noninflammatory disease of the retina. This nonspecific term is retained here because of its wide use in the literature, but if possible new annotations should indicate the precise type of retinal abnormality.
Cataract
MedGen UID:
39462
Concept ID:
C0086543
Disease or Syndrome
A cataract is an opacity or clouding that develops in the crystalline lens of the eye or in its capsule.
Microcornea
MedGen UID:
78610
Concept ID:
C0266544
Congenital Abnormality
A congenital abnormality of the cornea in which the cornea and the anterior segment of the eye are smaller than normal. The horizontal diameter of the cornea does not reach 10 mm even in adulthood.
Macular atrophy
MedGen UID:
140841
Concept ID:
C0423421
Finding
Well-demarcated area(s) of partial or complete depigmentation in the macula, reflecting atrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium with associated retinal photoreceptor loss.
Optic disc pallor
MedGen UID:
108218
Concept ID:
C0554970
Finding
A pale yellow discoloration of the optic disc (the area of the optic nerve head in the retina). The optic disc normally has a pinkish hue with a central yellowish depression.
Visual impairment
MedGen UID:
777085
Concept ID:
C3665347
Finding
Visual impairment (or vision impairment) is vision loss (of a person) to such a degree as to qualify as an additional support need through a significant limitation of visual capability resulting from either disease, trauma, or congenital or degenerative conditions that cannot be corrected by conventional means, such as refractive correction, medication, or surgery.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Shurygina MF, Simonett JM, Parker MA, Mitchell A, Grigorian F, Lifton J, Nagiel A, Shpak AA, Dadali EL, Mishina IA, Weleber RG, Yang P, Pennesi ME
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2020 Nov 2;61(13):2. doi: 10.1167/iovs.61.13.2. PMID: 33137195Free PMC Article

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Shurygina MF, Simonett JM, Parker MA, Mitchell A, Grigorian F, Lifton J, Nagiel A, Shpak AA, Dadali EL, Mishina IA, Weleber RG, Yang P, Pennesi ME
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2020 Nov 2;61(13):2. doi: 10.1167/iovs.61.13.2. PMID: 33137195Free PMC Article
Ostergaard P, Simpson MA, Mendola A, Vasudevan P, Connell FC, van Impel A, Moore AT, Loeys BL, Ghalamkarpour A, Onoufriadis A, Martinez-Corral I, Devery S, Leroy JG, van Laer L, Singer A, Bialer MG, McEntagart M, Quarrell O, Brice G, Trembath RC, Schulte-Merker S, Makinen T, Vikkula M, Mortimer PS, Mansour S, Jeffery S
Am J Hum Genet 2012 Feb 10;90(2):356-62. Epub 2012 Jan 26 doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2011.12.018. PMID: 22284827Free PMC Article
Mets MB, Barton LL, Khan AS, Ksiazek TG
Am J Ophthalmol 2000 Aug;130(2):209-15. doi: 10.1016/s0002-9394(00)00570-5. PMID: 11004296
Atchaneeyasakul LO, Linck L, Weleber RG
Ophthalmic Genet 1998 Mar;19(1):39-48. doi: 10.1076/opge.19.1.39.2178. PMID: 9587928
Cantú JM, Rojas JA, García-Cruz D, Hernández A, Pagán P, Fragoso R, Manzano C
Hum Genet 1977 Apr 15;36(2):243-7. doi: 10.1007/BF00273265. PMID: 870417

Diagnosis

Shurygina MF, Simonett JM, Parker MA, Mitchell A, Grigorian F, Lifton J, Nagiel A, Shpak AA, Dadali EL, Mishina IA, Weleber RG, Yang P, Pennesi ME
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2020 Nov 2;61(13):2. doi: 10.1167/iovs.61.13.2. PMID: 33137195Free PMC Article
Da Palma MM, Motta FL, Takitani GEDS, Salles MV, Lima LH, Ferraz Sallum JM
Ophthalmic Genet 2020 Apr;41(2):189-193. Epub 2020 Apr 9 doi: 10.1080/13816810.2020.1747084. PMID: 32270730
Kashimada A, Hasegawa S, Nomura T, Shiraku H, Moriyama K, Suzuki T, Nakajima K, Mizuno T, Imai K, Sugawara Y, Morio T, Kumada S, Takagi M
Brain Dev 2019 Feb;41(2):150-157. Epub 2018 Oct 6 doi: 10.1016/j.braindev.2018.09.007. PMID: 30301590
Mets MB, Barton LL, Khan AS, Ksiazek TG
Am J Ophthalmol 2000 Aug;130(2):209-15. doi: 10.1016/s0002-9394(00)00570-5. PMID: 11004296
Atchaneeyasakul LO, Linck L, Weleber RG
Ophthalmic Genet 1998 Mar;19(1):39-48. doi: 10.1076/opge.19.1.39.2178. PMID: 9587928

Prognosis

Shurygina MF, Simonett JM, Parker MA, Mitchell A, Grigorian F, Lifton J, Nagiel A, Shpak AA, Dadali EL, Mishina IA, Weleber RG, Yang P, Pennesi ME
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2020 Nov 2;61(13):2. doi: 10.1167/iovs.61.13.2. PMID: 33137195Free PMC Article
Robitaille JM, Gillett RM, LeBlanc MA, Gaston D, Nightingale M, Mackley MP, Parkash S, Hathaway J, Thomas A, Ells A, Traboulsi EI, Héon E, Roy M, Shalev S, Fernandez CV, MacGillivray C, Wallace K, Fahiminiya S, Majewski J, McMaster CR, Bedard K
JAMA Ophthalmol 2014 Dec;132(12):1393-9. doi: 10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2014.2814. PMID: 25124931
Ostergaard P, Simpson MA, Mendola A, Vasudevan P, Connell FC, van Impel A, Moore AT, Loeys BL, Ghalamkarpour A, Onoufriadis A, Martinez-Corral I, Devery S, Leroy JG, van Laer L, Singer A, Bialer MG, McEntagart M, Quarrell O, Brice G, Trembath RC, Schulte-Merker S, Makinen T, Vikkula M, Mortimer PS, Mansour S, Jeffery S
Am J Hum Genet 2012 Feb 10;90(2):356-62. Epub 2012 Jan 26 doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2011.12.018. PMID: 22284827Free PMC Article
Ahmadi H, Bradfield YS
Ophthalmic Genet 2007 Dec;28(4):210-5. doi: 10.1080/13816810701538554. PMID: 18161621

Clinical prediction guides

Martín-Rivada Á, Pozo-Román J, Güemes M, Ortiz-Cabrera NV, Pérez-Jurado LA, Argente J
Horm Res Paediatr 2020;93(9-10):567-572. Epub 2021 Mar 23 doi: 10.1159/000514280. PMID: 33756487
Shurygina MF, Simonett JM, Parker MA, Mitchell A, Grigorian F, Lifton J, Nagiel A, Shpak AA, Dadali EL, Mishina IA, Weleber RG, Yang P, Pennesi ME
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2020 Nov 2;61(13):2. doi: 10.1167/iovs.61.13.2. PMID: 33137195Free PMC Article
Pastora N, Peralta J, Canal-Fontcuberta I, Grabowska A, Pulido JS, Abelairas J, Armada F, Garcia-Alix A
Ophthalmic Genet 2012 Jun;33(2):116-8. Epub 2012 Mar 15 doi: 10.3109/13816810.2011.626012. PMID: 22420539
Ostergaard P, Simpson MA, Mendola A, Vasudevan P, Connell FC, van Impel A, Moore AT, Loeys BL, Ghalamkarpour A, Onoufriadis A, Martinez-Corral I, Devery S, Leroy JG, van Laer L, Singer A, Bialer MG, McEntagart M, Quarrell O, Brice G, Trembath RC, Schulte-Merker S, Makinen T, Vikkula M, Mortimer PS, Mansour S, Jeffery S
Am J Hum Genet 2012 Feb 10;90(2):356-62. Epub 2012 Jan 26 doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2011.12.018. PMID: 22284827Free PMC Article
Cantú JM, Rojas JA, García-Cruz D, Hernández A, Pagán P, Fragoso R, Manzano C
Hum Genet 1977 Apr 15;36(2):243-7. doi: 10.1007/BF00273265. PMID: 870417

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