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Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis

MedGen UID:
868604
Concept ID:
C4023003
Disease or Syndrome; Finding
Synonym: Recurrent Vulvovaginal Candidiasis
 
HPO: HP:0012204

Definition

Recurrent infection involving the vulva, vagina, and adjacent crural areas, whereby the causative agent belongs to the genus Candida. [from HPO]

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • CROGVRecurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis

Conditions with this feature

Familial chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis
MedGen UID:
90958
Concept ID:
C0341024
Disease or Syndrome
Familial candidiasis is an inherited tendency to develop infections caused by a type of fungus called Candida. Affected individuals typically have infections of the skin, the nails, and the moist lining of body cavities (mucous membranes). These infections are recurrent and persistent, which means they come back repeatedly and can last a long time. This pattern of infection is called chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis.\n\nCandida is commonly present on the skin and on the mucous membranes, and in most people usually causes no health problems. However, certain medications (such as antibiotics and corticosteroids) and other factors can lead to occasional overgrowth of Candida (candidiasis) in the mouth (where it is known as thrush) or in the vagina. These episodes, commonly called yeast infections, usually last only a short time before being cleared by a healthy immune system.\n\nMost people with familial candidiasis have chronic or recurrent yeast infections that begin in early childhood. Skin infections lead to a rash with crusty, thickened patches; when these patches occur on the scalp, they can cause loss of hair in the affected area (scarring alopecia). Candidiasis of the nails can result in thick, cracked, and discolored nails and swelling and redness of the surrounding skin. Thrush and gastrointestinal symptoms such as bloating, constipation, or diarrhea are common in affected individuals. Women with familial candidiasis can develop frequent vaginal yeast infections, and infants can have yeast infections on the skin that cause persistent diaper rash.\n\nDepending on the genetic change involved in this condition, some affected individuals are at risk for developing systemic candidiasis, a more severe condition in which the infection spreads through the bloodstream to various organs including the brain and the meninges, which are the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord. Systemic candidiasis can be life-threatening.\n\nChronic or recurrent yeast infections can occur in people without familial candidiasis. Some individuals experience recurrent candidiasis as part of a general susceptibility to infections because their immune systems are impaired by a disease such as acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) or severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), medications, or other factors. Other individuals have syndromes such as autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) or autosomal dominant hyper-IgE syndrome (AD-HIES) that include a tendency to develop candidiasis along with other signs and symptoms affecting various organs and systems of the body.
Autoimmune enteropathy and endocrinopathy - susceptibility to chronic infections syndrome
MedGen UID:
481620
Concept ID:
C3279990
Disease or Syndrome
IMD31C is a disorder of immunologic dysregulation with highly variable manifestations resulting from autosomal dominant gain-of-function mutations in STAT1 (600555). Most patients present in infancy or early childhood with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC). Other highly variable features include recurrent bacterial, viral, fungal, and mycoplasmal infections, disseminated dimorphic fungal infections, enteropathy with villous atrophy, and autoimmune disorders, such as hypothyroidism or diabetes mellitus. A subset of patients show apparently nonimmunologic features, including osteopenia, delayed puberty, and intracranial aneurysms. Laboratory studies show increased activation of gamma-interferon (IFNG; 147570)-mediated inflammation (summary by Uzel et al., 2013 and Sampaio et al., 2013).

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Cooke G, Watson C, Deckx L, Pirotta M, Smith J, van Driel ML
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2022 Jan 10;1(1):CD009151. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD009151.pub2. PMID: 35005777Free PMC Article
van Schalkwyk J, Yudin MH; INFECTIOUS DISEASE COMMITTEE
J Obstet Gynaecol Can 2015 Mar;37(3):266-274. doi: 10.1016/S1701-2163(15)30316-9. PMID: 26001874
Fan S, Liu X, Wu C, Xu L, Li J
Mycopathologia 2015 Feb;179(1-2):95-101. Epub 2014 Nov 22 doi: 10.1007/s11046-014-9827-4. PMID: 25416649

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Cooke G, Watson C, Deckx L, Pirotta M, Smith J, van Driel ML
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2022 Jan 10;1(1):CD009151. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD009151.pub2. PMID: 35005777Free PMC Article
Lírio J, Giraldo PC, Amaral RL, Sarmento ACA, Costa APF, Gonçalves AK
BMJ Open 2019 May 22;9(5):e027489. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2018-027489. PMID: 31122991Free PMC Article
Russo R, Superti F, Karadja E, De Seta F
Mycoses 2019 Apr;62(4):328-335. Epub 2019 Feb 20 doi: 10.1111/myc.12883. PMID: 30565745
Denning DW, Kneale M, Sobel JD, Rautemaa-Richardson R
Lancet Infect Dis 2018 Nov;18(11):e339-e347. Epub 2018 Aug 2 doi: 10.1016/S1473-3099(18)30103-8. PMID: 30078662
Sobel JD
Am J Obstet Gynecol 2016 Jan;214(1):15-21. Epub 2015 Jul 9 doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2015.06.067. PMID: 26164695

Diagnosis

Cooke G, Watson C, Deckx L, Pirotta M, Smith J, van Driel ML
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2022 Jan 10;1(1):CD009151. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD009151.pub2. PMID: 35005777Free PMC Article
Lírio J, Giraldo PC, Amaral RL, Sarmento ACA, Costa APF, Gonçalves AK
BMJ Open 2019 May 22;9(5):e027489. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2018-027489. PMID: 31122991Free PMC Article
Blostein F, Levin-Sparenberg E, Wagner J, Foxman B
Ann Epidemiol 2017 Sep;27(9):575-582.e3. Epub 2017 Aug 15 doi: 10.1016/j.annepidem.2017.08.010. PMID: 28927765
Sobel JD
Am J Obstet Gynecol 2016 Jan;214(1):15-21. Epub 2015 Jul 9 doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2015.06.067. PMID: 26164695
van Schalkwyk J, Yudin MH; INFECTIOUS DISEASE COMMITTEE
J Obstet Gynaecol Can 2015 Mar;37(3):266-274. doi: 10.1016/S1701-2163(15)30316-9. PMID: 26001874

Therapy

Cooke G, Watson C, Deckx L, Pirotta M, Smith J, van Driel ML
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2022 Jan 10;1(1):CD009151. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD009151.pub2. PMID: 35005777Free PMC Article
Lírio J, Giraldo PC, Amaral RL, Sarmento ACA, Costa APF, Gonçalves AK
BMJ Open 2019 May 22;9(5):e027489. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2018-027489. PMID: 31122991Free PMC Article
Russo R, Superti F, Karadja E, De Seta F
Mycoses 2019 Apr;62(4):328-335. Epub 2019 Feb 20 doi: 10.1111/myc.12883. PMID: 30565745
Sobel JD
Am J Obstet Gynecol 2016 Jan;214(1):15-21. Epub 2015 Jul 9 doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2015.06.067. PMID: 26164695
van Schalkwyk J, Yudin MH; INFECTIOUS DISEASE COMMITTEE
J Obstet Gynaecol Can 2015 Mar;37(3):266-274. doi: 10.1016/S1701-2163(15)30316-9. PMID: 26001874

Prognosis

Hoy SM
Drugs 2022 Jun;82(9):1017-1023. doi: 10.1007/s40265-022-01734-y. PMID: 35713845
Denning DW, Kneale M, Sobel JD, Rautemaa-Richardson R
Lancet Infect Dis 2018 Nov;18(11):e339-e347. Epub 2018 Aug 2 doi: 10.1016/S1473-3099(18)30103-8. PMID: 30078662
Blostein F, Levin-Sparenberg E, Wagner J, Foxman B
Ann Epidemiol 2017 Sep;27(9):575-582.e3. Epub 2017 Aug 15 doi: 10.1016/j.annepidem.2017.08.010. PMID: 28927765
Alvarez Duarte E, Denning DW
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2017 Jun;36(6):983-986. Epub 2017 Feb 10 doi: 10.1007/s10096-017-2925-8. PMID: 28188493Free PMC Article
van Schalkwyk J, Yudin MH; INFECTIOUS DISEASE COMMITTEE
J Obstet Gynaecol Can 2015 Mar;37(3):266-274. doi: 10.1016/S1701-2163(15)30316-9. PMID: 26001874

Clinical prediction guides

Manolea MM, Istrate-Ofiţeru AM, Săndulescu MS, Camen IV, Piciu IA, Dijmărescu AL, Vrabie SC, Neamţu SD, Obleagă CV, Siminel MA
Rom J Morphol Embryol 2022 Jul-Sep;63(3):511-520. doi: 10.47162/RJME.63.3.05. PMID: 36588489Free PMC Article
Martens MG, Maximos B, Degenhardt T, Person K, Curelop S, Ghannoum M, Flynt A, Brand SR
Am J Obstet Gynecol 2022 Dec;227(6):880.e1-880.e11. Epub 2022 Jul 19 doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2022.07.023. PMID: 35863457
Denning DW, Kneale M, Sobel JD, Rautemaa-Richardson R
Lancet Infect Dis 2018 Nov;18(11):e339-e347. Epub 2018 Aug 2 doi: 10.1016/S1473-3099(18)30103-8. PMID: 30078662
van Schalkwyk J, Yudin MH; INFECTIOUS DISEASE COMMITTEE
J Obstet Gynaecol Can 2015 Mar;37(3):266-274. doi: 10.1016/S1701-2163(15)30316-9. PMID: 26001874
Spence D
BMJ Clin Evid 2010 Jan 5;2010 PMID: 21718579Free PMC Article

Recent systematic reviews

Cooke G, Watson C, Deckx L, Pirotta M, Smith J, van Driel ML
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2022 Jan 10;1(1):CD009151. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD009151.pub2. PMID: 35005777Free PMC Article
Denning DW, Kneale M, Sobel JD, Rautemaa-Richardson R
Lancet Infect Dis 2018 Nov;18(11):e339-e347. Epub 2018 Aug 2 doi: 10.1016/S1473-3099(18)30103-8. PMID: 30078662
Rosa MI, Silva BR, Pires PS, Silva FR, Silva NC, Silva FR, Souza SL, Madeira K, Panatto AP, Medeiros LR
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2013 Apr;167(2):132-6. Epub 2012 Dec 29 doi: 10.1016/j.ejogrb.2012.12.001. PMID: 23280281
Spence D
BMJ Clin Evid 2010 Jan 5;2010 PMID: 21718579Free PMC Article
Spence D
BMJ Clin Evid 2007 Feb 1;2007 PMID: 19454049

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