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Mucopolysaccharidosis, MPS-I-H/S(MPS1-HS)

MedGen UID:
88566
Concept ID:
C0086431
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: Hurler-Scheie Syndrome; MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDOSIS TYPE IH/S
SNOMED CT: Mucopolysaccharidosis type I-H/S (26745009); Mucopolysaccharidosis, MPS-I-H/S (26745009); Hurler-Scheie syndrome (26745009); L-iduronidase deficiency, Hurler-Scheie type (26745009); Hurler-Scheie disease MPS type 1H/S (26745009)
Modes of inheritance:
Autosomal recessive inheritance
MedGen UID:
141025
Concept ID:
C0441748
Intellectual Product
Source: Orphanet
A mode of inheritance that is observed for traits related to a gene encoded on one of the autosomes (i.e., the human chromosomes 1-22) in which a trait manifests in individuals with two pathogenic alleles, either homozygotes (two copies of the same mutant allele) or compound heterozygotes (whereby each copy of a gene has a distinct mutant allele).
 
Gene (location): IDUA (4p16.3)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0011759
OMIM®: 607015
Orphanet: ORPHA93476

Disease characteristics

Excerpted from the GeneReview: Mucopolysaccharidosis Type I
Mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I) is a progressive multisystem disorder with features ranging over a continuum of severity. While affected individuals have traditionally been classified as having one of three MPS I syndromes (Hurler syndrome, Hurler-Scheie syndrome, or Scheie syndrome), no easily measurable biochemical differences have been identified and the clinical findings overlap. Affected individuals are best described as having either a phenotype consistent with either severe (Hurler syndrome) or attenuated MPS I, a distinction that influences therapeutic options. Severe MPS I. Infants appear normal at birth. Typical early manifestations are nonspecific (e.g., umbilical or inguinal hernia, frequent upper respiratory tract infections before age 1 year). Coarsening of the facial features may not become apparent until after age one year. Gibbus deformity of the lower spine is common and often noted within the first year. Progressive skeletal dysplasia (dysostosis multiplex) involving all bones is universal, as is progressive arthropathy involving most joints. By age three years, linear growth decreases. Intellectual disability is progressive and profound but may not be readily apparent in the first year of life. Progressive cardiorespiratory involvement, hearing loss, and corneal clouding are common. Without treatment, death (typically from cardiorespiratory failure) usually occurs within the first ten years of life. Attenuated MPS I. Clinical onset is usually between ages three and ten years. The severity and rate of disease progression range from serious life-threatening complications leading to death in the second to third decade, to a normal life span complicated by significant disability from progressive joint manifestations and cardiorespiratory disease. While some individuals have no neurologic involvement and psychomotor development may be normal in early childhood, learning disabilities and psychiatric manifestations can be present later in life. Hearing loss, cardiac valvular disease, respiratory involvement, and corneal clouding are common. [from GeneReviews]
Authors:
Lorne A Clarke   view full author information

Additional description

From OMIM
The mucopolysaccharidoses are a group of inherited disorders caused by a lack of specific lysosomal enzymes involved in the degradation of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), or mucopolysaccharides. The accumulation of partially degraded GAGs causes interference with cell, tissue, and organ function. Deficiency of alpha-L-iduronidase can result in a wide range of phenotypic involvement with 3 major recognized clinical entities: Hurler (MPS IH; 607014), Scheie (MPS IS; 607016), and Hurler-Scheie (MPS IH/S) syndromes. Hurler and Scheie syndromes represent phenotypes at the severe and mild ends of the MPS I clinical spectrum, respectively, and the Hurler-Scheie syndrome is intermediate in phenotypic expression (McKusick, 1972). Roubicek et al. (1985) presented 5 patients with alpha-L-iduronidase deficiency and a phenotype atypical for both Hurler and Scheie syndromes. They felt that the genetic compound explanation was acceptable for some cases, but that others must represent different mutations.  http://www.omim.org/entry/607015

Clinical features

From HPO
Hand pain
MedGen UID:
536933
Concept ID:
C0239833
Sign or Symptom
An unpleasant sensation characterized by physical discomfort localized to the hand.
Dermatan sulfate excretion in urine
MedGen UID:
343207
Concept ID:
C1854774
Finding
An increased concentration of dermatan sulfate in the urine.
Heparan sulfate excretion in urine
MedGen UID:
340721
Concept ID:
C1854827
Finding
An increased concentration of heparan sulfates in the urine.
Aortic regurgitation
MedGen UID:
8153
Concept ID:
C0003504
Disease or Syndrome
An insufficiency of the aortic valve, leading to regurgitation (backward flow) of blood from the aorta into the left ventricle.
Mitral regurgitation
MedGen UID:
7670
Concept ID:
C0026266
Disease or Syndrome
An abnormality of the mitral valve characterized by insufficiency or incompetence of the mitral valve resulting in retrograde leaking of blood through the mitral valve upon ventricular contraction.
Pulmonary arterial hypertension
MedGen UID:
425404
Concept ID:
C2973725
Disease or Syndrome
Pulmonary hypertension is defined mean pulmonary artery pressure of 25mmHg or more and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure of 15mmHg or less when measured by right heart catheterisation at rest and in a supine position.
Short stature
MedGen UID:
87607
Concept ID:
C0349588
Finding
A height below that which is expected according to age and gender norms. Although there is no universally accepted definition of short stature, many refer to "short stature" as height more than 2 standard deviations below the mean for age and gender (or below the 3rd percentile for age and gender dependent norms).
Growth delay
MedGen UID:
99124
Concept ID:
C0456070
Pathologic Function
A deficiency or slowing down of growth pre- and postnatally.
Hepatomegaly
MedGen UID:
42428
Concept ID:
C0019209
Finding
Abnormally increased size of the liver.
Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome
MedGen UID:
101045
Concept ID:
C0520679
Disease or Syndrome
Obstructive sleep apnea is a common, chronic, complex disease associated with serious cardiovascular and neuropsychologic sequelae and with substantial social and economic costs (Palmer et al., 2003).
Inguinal hernia
MedGen UID:
6817
Concept ID:
C0019294
Finding
Protrusion of the contents of the abdominal cavity through the inguinal canal.
Umbilical hernia
MedGen UID:
9232
Concept ID:
C0019322
Anatomical Abnormality
Protrusion of abdominal contents through a defect in the abdominal wall musculature around the umbilicus. Skin and subcutaneous tissue overlie the defect.
Kyphosis
MedGen UID:
44042
Concept ID:
C0022821
Anatomical Abnormality
Exaggerated anterior convexity of the thoracic vertebral column.
Micrognathia
MedGen UID:
44428
Concept ID:
C0025990
Congenital Abnormality
Developmental hypoplasia of the mandible.
Scoliosis
MedGen UID:
11348
Concept ID:
C0036439
Disease or Syndrome
The presence of an abnormal lateral curvature of the spine.
Hurler syndrome
MedGen UID:
39698
Concept ID:
C0086795
Disease or Syndrome
Mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I) is a progressive multisystem disorder with features ranging over a continuum of severity. While affected individuals have traditionally been classified as having one of three MPS I syndromes (Hurler syndrome, Hurler-Scheie syndrome, or Scheie syndrome), no easily measurable biochemical differences have been identified and the clinical findings overlap. Affected individuals are best described as having either a phenotype consistent with either severe (Hurler syndrome) or attenuated MPS I, a distinction that influences therapeutic options. Severe MPS I. Infants appear normal at birth. Typical early manifestations are nonspecific (e.g., umbilical or inguinal hernia, frequent upper respiratory tract infections before age 1 year). Coarsening of the facial features may not become apparent until after age one year. Gibbus deformity of the lower spine is common and often noted within the first year. Progressive skeletal dysplasia (dysostosis multiplex) involving all bones is universal, as is progressive arthropathy involving most joints. By age three years, linear growth decreases. Intellectual disability is progressive and profound but may not be readily apparent in the first year of life. Progressive cardiorespiratory involvement, hearing loss, and corneal clouding are common. Without treatment, death (typically from cardiorespiratory failure) usually occurs within the first ten years of life. Attenuated MPS I. Clinical onset is usually between ages three and ten years. The severity and rate of disease progression range from serious life-threatening complications leading to death in the second to third decade, to a normal life span complicated by significant disability from progressive joint manifestations and cardiorespiratory disease. While some individuals have no neurologic involvement and psychomotor development may be normal in early childhood, learning disabilities and psychiatric manifestations can be present later in life. Hearing loss, cardiac valvular disease, respiratory involvement, and corneal clouding are common.
Joint stiffness
MedGen UID:
56403
Concept ID:
C0162298
Sign or Symptom
Joint stiffness is a perceived sensation of tightness in a joint or joints when attempting to move them after a period of inactivity. Joint stiffness typically subsides over time.
Camptodactyly of finger
MedGen UID:
98041
Concept ID:
C0409348
Finding
The distal interphalangeal joint and/or the proximal interphalangeal joint of the fingers cannot be extended to 180 degrees by either active or passive extension.
Thenar muscle atrophy
MedGen UID:
355274
Concept ID:
C1864715
Finding
Wasting of thenar muscles, which are located on palm of the hand at the base of the thumb.
Contracture of the distal interphalangeal joint of the fingers
MedGen UID:
869800
Concept ID:
C4024230
Finding
Chronic loss of joint motion in one or more distal interphalangeal joints of the fingers.
Tracheal stenosis
MedGen UID:
21227
Concept ID:
C0040583
Disease or Syndrome
Narrowing of the lumen of the trachea.
Recurrent respiratory infections
MedGen UID:
812812
Concept ID:
C3806482
Finding
An increased susceptibility to respiratory infections as manifested by a history of recurrent respiratory infections.
Splenomegaly
MedGen UID:
52469
Concept ID:
C0038002
Finding
Abnormal increased size of the spleen.
Depressed nasal bridge
MedGen UID:
373112
Concept ID:
C1836542
Finding
Posterior positioning of the nasal root in relation to the overall facial profile for age.
Thick vermilion border
MedGen UID:
332232
Concept ID:
C1836543
Finding
Increased width of the skin of vermilion border region of upper lip.
Hirsutism
MedGen UID:
42461
Concept ID:
C0019572
Disease or Syndrome
Abnormally increased hair growth referring to a male pattern of body hair (androgenic hair).
Thickened skin
MedGen UID:
66024
Concept ID:
C0241165
Finding
Laminar thickening of skin.
Corneal opacity
MedGen UID:
40485
Concept ID:
C0010038
Finding
A reduction of corneal clarity.

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
Follow this link to review classifications for Mucopolysaccharidosis, MPS-I-H/S in Orphanet.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Arunkumar N, Langan TJ, Stapleton M, Kubaski F, Mason RW, Singh R, Kobayashi H, Yamaguchi S, Suzuki Y, Orii K, Orii T, Fukao T, Tomatsu S
J Hum Genet 2020 Jul;65(7):557-567. Epub 2020 Apr 10 doi: 10.1038/s10038-020-0744-8. PMID: 32277174
Clarke LA, Giugliani R, Guffon N, Jones SA, Keenan HA, Munoz-Rojas MV, Okuyama T, Viskochil D, Whitley CB, Wijburg FA, Muenzer J
Clin Genet 2019 Oct;96(4):281-289. Epub 2019 Jul 2 doi: 10.1111/cge.13583. PMID: 31194252Free PMC Article
Donati MA, Pasquini E, Spada M, Polo G, Burlina A
Ital J Pediatr 2018 Nov 16;44(Suppl 2):126. doi: 10.1186/s13052-018-0552-3. PMID: 30442156Free PMC Article

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