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Mucopolysaccharidosis, MPS-III-D(MPS3D)

MedGen UID:
88602
Concept ID:
C0086650
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: MPS 3D; MPS III D; MPS3D; Mucopoly-saccharidosis type 3D; MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDOSIS, TYPE IIID; N-ACETYLGLUCOSAMINE-6-SULFATASE DEFICIENCY; N-acetylglucosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase deficiency; Sanfilippo syndrome D
SNOMED CT: Mucopolysaccharidosis, MPS-III-D (15892005); Sanfilippo syndrome, type D (15892005); N-acetylglucosamine-6-sulfatase deficiency (15892005); MPSIIID - Mucopolysaccharidosis type IIID (15892005); MPS III-D - Mucopolysaccharidosis III-D (15892005); Mucopolysaccharidosis type IIID (15892005); Sanfilippo syndrome D (15892005); Mucopolysaccharidosis III-D (15892005); Deficiency of N-acetylglucosamine-6-sulfatase (15892005)
Modes of inheritance:
Autosomal recessive inheritance
MedGen UID:
141025
Concept ID:
C0441748
Intellectual Product
Source: Orphanet
A mode of inheritance that is observed for traits related to a gene encoded on one of the autosomes (i.e., the human chromosomes 1-22) in which a trait manifests in individuals with two pathogenic alleles, either homozygotes (two copies of the same mutant allele) or compound heterozygotes (whereby each copy of a gene has a distinct mutant allele).
 
Gene (location): GNS (12q14.3)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0009658
OMIM®: 252940
Orphanet: ORPHA79272

Disease characteristics

Excerpted from the GeneReview: Mucopolysaccharidosis Type III
Mucopolysaccharidosis type III (MPS III) is a multisystem lysosomal storage disease characterized by progressive central nervous system degeneration manifest as severe intellectual disability (ID), developmental regression, and other neurologic manifestations including autism spectrum disorder (ASD), behavioral problems, and sleep disturbances. Disease onset is typically before age ten years. Disease course may be rapidly or slowly progressive; some individuals with an extremely attenuated disease course present in mid-to-late adulthood with early-onset dementia with or without a history of ID. Systemic manifestations can include musculoskeletal problems (joint stiffness, contractures, scoliosis, and hip dysplasia), hearing loss, respiratory tract and sinopulmonary infections, and cardiac disease (valvular thickening, defects in the cardiac conduction system). Neurologic decline is seen in all affected individuals; however, clinical severity varies within and among the four MPS III subtypes (defined by the enzyme involved) and even among members of the same family. Death usually occurs in the second or third decade of life secondary to neurologic regression or respiratory tract infections. [from GeneReviews]
Authors:
Victoria F Wagner  |  Hope Northrup   view full author information

Additional descriptions

From OMIM
The mucopolysaccharidoses are a family of lysosomal storage diseases caused by deficiencies of enzymes required for the catabolism of glycosaminoglycans. The defects result in accumulation of excessive intralysosomal glycosoaminoglycans (mucopolysaccharides) in various tissues, causing distended lysosomes to accumulate in the cell and interfere with cell function. Multiple types have been described (Mok et al., 2003).  http://www.omim.org/entry/252940
From MedlinePlus Genetics
MPS III is divided into types IIIA, IIIB, IIIC, and IIID, which are distinguished by their genetic cause. The different types of MPS III have similar signs and symptoms, although the features of MPS IIIA typically appear earlier in life and progress more rapidly. People with MPS III usually live into adolescence or early to mid-adulthood.

People with MPS III often have a slightly enlarged liver (mild hepatomegaly) or spleen (mild splenomegaly), and a soft out-pouching around the belly-button (umbilical hernia) or lower abdomen (inguinal hernia). Cardiac abnormalities may also occur in this condition, including weakening of the heart muscle (cardiomyopathy), disruption of the heart's normal rhythm (arrhythmia), or problems with the heart's valves. Affected individuals often experience chronic diarrhea and recurrent upper respiratory and ear infections. People with MPS III may also have hearing loss and vision problems.

The physical features of MPS III are less pronounced than those of other types of mucopolysaccharidosis. Individuals with MPS III typically have mildly "coarse" facial features, a prominent forehead, a large head (macrocephaly), and thick hair and eyebrows. Some people with MPS III have short stature, joint stiffness, or mild dysostosis multiplex, which refers to multiple skeletal abnormalities seen on x-ray. 

People with MPS III generally do not display any features of the condition at birth, but they begin to show signs and symptoms of the disorder during early childhood. Early signs and symptoms of MPS III can include frequent ear and throat infections or bowel problems, though most common are mild developmental delay or delayed speech. Behavioral problems often worsen with affected children becoming restless, hyperactive, destructive, anxious, impulsive, fearless, or aggressive. Some affected children display features of autism spectrum disorder, which is a condition characterized by difficulty with social interactions and communication. Children with MPS III may have an increased tendency to chew on objects or put things in their mouth (be hyperoral). Sleep disturbances are also very common in children with MPS III. This condition causes progressive intellectual disability and the loss of previously acquired skills (developmental regression or dementia). In later stages of the disorder, people with MPS III may develop seizures, loss of mobility, and movement disorders.

Mucopolysaccharidosis type III (MPS III), also known as Sanfilippo syndrome, is a disorder that primarily affects the brain and spinal cord (central nervous system). It is characterized by deterioration of neurological function (neurodegeneration), resulting in many of the features of the condition. Other body systems can also be involved, although the physical features are usually mild in the early stages.  https://medlineplus.gov/genetics/condition/mucopolysaccharidosis-type-iii

Clinical features

From HPO
Heparan sulfate excretion in urine
MedGen UID:
340721
Concept ID:
C1854827
Finding
An increased concentration of heparan sulfates in the urine.
Broad palm
MedGen UID:
75535
Concept ID:
C0264142
Congenital Abnormality
For children from birth to 4 years of age the palm width is more than 2 SD above the mean; for children from 4 to 16 years of age the palm width is above the 95th centile; or, the width of the palm appears disproportionately wide for the length.
Pes cavus
MedGen UID:
675590
Concept ID:
C0728829
Congenital Abnormality
An increase in height of the medial longitudinal arch of the foot that does not flatten on weight bearing (i.e., a distinctly hollow form of the sole of the foot when it is bearing weight).
Mitral regurgitation
MedGen UID:
7670
Concept ID:
C0026266
Disease or Syndrome
An abnormality of the mitral valve characterized by insufficiency or incompetence of the mitral valve resulting in retrograde leaking of blood through the mitral valve upon ventricular contraction.
Asymmetric septal hypertrophy
MedGen UID:
104705
Concept ID:
C0205700
Disease or Syndrome
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with an asymmetrical pattern of hypertrophy, with a predilection for the interventricular septum and myocyte disarray.
Growth abnormality
MedGen UID:
808205
Concept ID:
C0262361
Finding
Short stature
MedGen UID:
87607
Concept ID:
C0349588
Finding
A height below that which is expected according to age and gender norms. Although there is no universally accepted definition of short stature, many refer to "short stature" as height more than 2 standard deviations below the mean for age and gender (or below the 3rd percentile for age and gender dependent norms).
Dysphagia
MedGen UID:
41440
Concept ID:
C0011168
Disease or Syndrome
Difficulty in swallowing.
Diarrhea
MedGen UID:
8360
Concept ID:
C0011991
Sign or Symptom
Abnormally increased frequency (usually defined as three or more) loose or watery bowel movements a day.
Tube feeding
MedGen UID:
8641
Concept ID:
C0014327
Therapeutic or Preventive Procedure
Feeding problem necessitating food and nutrient delivery via a tube.
Hepatomegaly
MedGen UID:
42428
Concept ID:
C0019209
Finding
Abnormally increased size of the liver.
Low-set ears
MedGen UID:
65980
Concept ID:
C0239234
Congenital Abnormality
Upper insertion of the ear to the scalp below an imaginary horizontal line drawn between the inner canthi of the eye and extending posteriorly to the ear.
Hearing impairment
MedGen UID:
235586
Concept ID:
C1384666
Disease or Syndrome
A decreased magnitude of the sensory perception of sound.
Aggressive behavior
MedGen UID:
1375
Concept ID:
C0001807
Individual Behavior
Behavior or an act aimed at harming a person, animal, or physical property (e.g., acts of physical violence; shouting, swearing, and using harsh language; slashing someone's tires).
Dysarthria
MedGen UID:
8510
Concept ID:
C0013362
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Dysarthric speech is a general description referring to a neurological speech disorder characterized by poor articulation. Depending on the involved neurological structures, dysarthria may be further classified as spastic, flaccid, ataxic, hyperkinetic and hypokinetic, or mixed.
Oppositional defiant disorder
MedGen UID:
18178
Concept ID:
C0029121
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
An enduring pattern of uncooperative, defiant, and hostile behavior towards authority figures that does not involve major antisocial violations, is not accounted for by the child's developmental stage, and results in significant functional impairment. A certain level of oppositional behavior is common in children and adolescents.
Seizure
MedGen UID:
20693
Concept ID:
C0036572
Sign or Symptom
A seizure is an intermittent abnormality of nervous system physiology characterized by a transient occurrence of signs and/or symptoms due to abnormal excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.
Sleep abnormality
MedGen UID:
52372
Concept ID:
C0037317
Finding
An abnormal pattern in the quality, quantity, or characteristics of sleep.
Agitation
MedGen UID:
88447
Concept ID:
C0085631
Sign or Symptom
A state of extreme restlessness and excessive motor activity is associated with mental distress or a feeling of inner tension.
Sleep-wake inversion
MedGen UID:
572593
Concept ID:
C0338497
Disease or Syndrome
A reversal of sleeping habits, with a tendency to sleep during the day and be awake at night.
Sleep onset insomnia
MedGen UID:
98288
Concept ID:
C0393760
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Difficulty initiating sleep, that is, increased sleep onset latency, refers to the condition where it takes 30 minutes or more to fall asleep.
Hyperactivity
MedGen UID:
98406
Concept ID:
C0424295
Finding
Hyperactivity is a condition characterized by constant and unusually high levels of activity, even in situations where it is deemed inappropriate.
Delayed speech and language development
MedGen UID:
105318
Concept ID:
C0454644
Finding
A degree of language development that is significantly below the norm for a child of a specified age.
Global developmental delay
MedGen UID:
107838
Concept ID:
C0557874
Finding
A delay in the achievement of motor or mental milestones in the domains of development of a child, including motor skills, speech and language, cognitive skills, and social and emotional skills. This term should only be used to describe children younger than five years of age.
Cerebellar atrophy
MedGen UID:
196624
Concept ID:
C0740279
Disease or Syndrome
Cerebellar atrophy is defined as a cerebellum with initially normal structures, in a posterior fossa with normal size, which displays enlarged fissures (interfolial spaces) in comparison to the foliae secondary to loss of tissue. Cerebellar atrophy implies irreversible loss of tissue and result from an ongoing progressive disease until a final stage is reached or a single injury, e.g. an intoxication or infectious event.
Absent speech
MedGen UID:
340737
Concept ID:
C1854882
Finding
Complete lack of development of speech and language abilities.
Brisk reflexes
MedGen UID:
382164
Concept ID:
C2673700
Finding
Tendon reflexes that are noticeably more active than usual (conventionally denoted 3+ on clinical examination). Brisk reflexes may or may not indicate a neurological lesion. They are distinguished from hyperreflexia by the fact that hyerreflexia is characterized by hyperactive repeating (clonic) reflexes, which are considered to be always abnormal.
Intellectual disability
MedGen UID:
811461
Concept ID:
C3714756
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Intellectual disability, previously referred to as mental retardation, is characterized by subnormal intellectual functioning that occurs during the developmental period. It is defined by an IQ score below 70.
Restlessness
MedGen UID:
854457
Concept ID:
C3887611
Sign or Symptom
A state of unease is characterized by diffuse motor activity or motion, which is subject to limited control, nonproductive, or disorganized behavior.
Inguinal hernia
MedGen UID:
6817
Concept ID:
C0019294
Finding
Protrusion of the contents of the abdominal cavity through the inguinal canal.
Cyst - pilonidal
MedGen UID:
19314
Concept ID:
C0031925
Anatomical Abnormality
A sinus in the coccygeal region (the region of the intergluteal cleft). A pilonidal sinus often contains hair and skin debris.
Joint stiffness
MedGen UID:
56403
Concept ID:
C0162298
Sign or Symptom
Joint stiffness is a perceived sensation of tightness in a joint or joints when attempting to move them after a period of inactivity. Joint stiffness typically subsides over time.
Frontal bossing
MedGen UID:
67453
Concept ID:
C0221354
Congenital Abnormality
Bilateral bulging of the lateral frontal bone prominences with relative sparing of the midline.
Difficulty walking
MedGen UID:
86319
Concept ID:
C0311394
Finding
Reduced ability to walk (ambulate).
Epiphyseal dysplasia
MedGen UID:
95932
Concept ID:
C0392476
Congenital Abnormality
Elbow flexion contracture
MedGen UID:
98367
Concept ID:
C0409338
Acquired Abnormality
An elbow contracture that limits the ability of the elbow joint to be extended (straightened), meaning that the elbow is fixed in an flexed (bent) position.
Achilles tendon contracture
MedGen UID:
98052
Concept ID:
C0410264
Anatomical Abnormality
A contracture of the Achilles tendon.
Thickened ribs
MedGen UID:
98096
Concept ID:
C0426820
Finding
Increased thickness (diameter) of ribs.
Thoracic scoliosis
MedGen UID:
387910
Concept ID:
C1857790
Anatomical Abnormality
Hypoplastic vertebral bodies
MedGen UID:
354963
Concept ID:
C1863353
Congenital Abnormality
Ovoid thoracolumbar vertebrae
MedGen UID:
401469
Concept ID:
C1868556
Finding
Macrocephaly
MedGen UID:
745757
Concept ID:
C2243051
Finding
Occipitofrontal (head) circumference greater than 97th centile compared to appropriate, age matched, sex-matched normal standards. Alternatively, a apparently increased size of the cranium.
Developmental dysplasia of the hip
MedGen UID:
1640560
Concept ID:
C4551649
Congenital Abnormality
Congenital dysplasia of the hip (CDH) is an abnormality of the seating of the femoral head in the acetabulum. Its severity ranges from mild instability of the femoral head with slight capsular laxity, through moderate lateral displacement of the femoral head, without loss of contact of the head with the acetabulum, up to complete dislocation of the femoral head from the acetabulum. It is one of the most common skeletal congenital anomalies (summary by Sollazzo et al., 2000). Acetabular dysplasia is an idiopathic, localized developmental dysplasia of the hip that is characterized by a shallow hip socket and decreased coverage of the femoral head. Its radiologic criteria include the center-edge angle of Wiberg, the Sharp angle, and the acetabular roof obliquity. Most patients with acetabular dysplasia develop osteoarthritis (165720) after midlife, and even mild acetabular dysplasia can cause hip osteoarthritis (summary by Mabuchi et al., 2006). CDH occurs as an isolated anomaly or with more general disorders represented by several syndromes and with chromosomal abnormalities such as trisomy 18 (Wynne-Davies, 1970). Genetic Heterogeneity of Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip Developmental dysplasia of the hip-1 (DDH1) maps to chromosome 13q22; DDH2 (615612) maps to chromosome 3p21. DDH3 (620690) is caused by mutation in the LRP1 gene (107770) on chromosome 12q13.
Dysostosis multiplex
MedGen UID:
1851010
Concept ID:
C5848292
Disease or Syndrome
Recurrent upper respiratory tract infections
MedGen UID:
154380
Concept ID:
C0581381
Disease or Syndrome
An increased susceptibility to upper respiratory tract infections as manifested by a history of recurrent upper respiratory tract infections (running ears - otitis, sinusitis, pharyngitis, tonsillitis).
Splenomegaly
MedGen UID:
52469
Concept ID:
C0038002
Finding
Abnormal increased size of the spleen.
Recurrent otitis media
MedGen UID:
155436
Concept ID:
C0747085
Disease or Syndrome
Increased susceptibility to otitis media, as manifested by recurrent episodes of otitis media.
Reduced acetylglucosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase activity in cultured fibroblasts
MedGen UID:
1052346
Concept ID:
CN375669
Finding
Concentration or activity of N-acetylglucosamine-6-sulfatase (EC 3.1.6.14) as measured in cultured fibroblasts is below the limits of normal. N-acetylglucosamine-6-sulfatase hydrolyzes heparan sulfate and keratan sulfate.
Drooling
MedGen UID:
8484
Concept ID:
C0013132
Finding
Habitual flow of saliva out of the mouth.
Macroglossia
MedGen UID:
44236
Concept ID:
C0024421
Disease or Syndrome
Increased length and width of the tongue.
Wide mouth
MedGen UID:
44238
Concept ID:
C0024433
Congenital Abnormality
Distance between the oral commissures more than 2 SD above the mean. Alternatively, an apparently increased width of the oral aperture (subjective).
Short neck
MedGen UID:
99267
Concept ID:
C0521525
Finding
Diminished length of the neck.
Depressed nasal bridge
MedGen UID:
373112
Concept ID:
C1836542
Finding
Posterior positioning of the nasal root in relation to the overall facial profile for age.
Thick vermilion border
MedGen UID:
332232
Concept ID:
C1836543
Finding
Increased width of the skin of vermilion border region of upper lip.
Prominent forehead
MedGen UID:
373291
Concept ID:
C1837260
Finding
Forward prominence of the entire forehead, due to protrusion of the frontal bone.
Thick lower lip vermilion
MedGen UID:
326567
Concept ID:
C1839739
Finding
Increased thickness of the lower lip, leading to a prominent appearance of the lower lip. The height of the vermilion of the lower lip in the midline is more than 2 SD above the mean. Alternatively, an apparently increased height of the vermilion of the lower lip in the frontal view (subjective).
Anteverted nares
MedGen UID:
326648
Concept ID:
C1840077
Finding
Anteriorly-facing nostrils viewed with the head in the Frankfurt horizontal and the eyes of the observer level with the eyes of the subject. This gives the appearance of an upturned nose (upturned nasal tip).
Coarse facial features
MedGen UID:
335284
Concept ID:
C1845847
Finding
Absence of fine and sharp appearance of brows, nose, lips, mouth, and chin, usually because of rounded and heavy features or thickened skin with or without thickening of subcutaneous and bony tissues.
Thick eyebrow
MedGen UID:
377914
Concept ID:
C1853487
Finding
Increased density/number and/or increased diameter of eyebrow hairs.
Broad alveolar ridges
MedGen UID:
347470
Concept ID:
C1857500
Finding
Hirsutism
MedGen UID:
42461
Concept ID:
C0019572
Disease or Syndrome
Abnormally increased hair growth referring to a male pattern of body hair (androgenic hair).
Coarse hair
MedGen UID:
124454
Concept ID:
C0277959
Finding
Hair shafts are rough in texture.
Synophrys
MedGen UID:
98132
Concept ID:
C0431447
Congenital Abnormality
Meeting of the medial eyebrows in the midline.
Facial hirsutism
MedGen UID:
337950
Concept ID:
C1850041
Finding
Excess facial hair.
Hypertelorism
MedGen UID:
9373
Concept ID:
C0020534
Finding
Although hypertelorism means an excessive distance between any paired organs (e.g., the nipples), the use of the word has come to be confined to ocular hypertelorism. Hypertelorism occurs as an isolated feature and is also a feature of many syndromes, e.g., Opitz G syndrome (see 300000), Greig cephalopolysyndactyly (175700), and Noonan syndrome (163950) (summary by Cohen et al., 1995).
Night blindness
MedGen UID:
10349
Concept ID:
C0028077
Disease or Syndrome
Inability to see well at night or in poor light.
Deeply set eye
MedGen UID:
473112
Concept ID:
C0423224
Finding
An eye that is more deeply recessed into the plane of the face than is typical.
Visual impairment
MedGen UID:
777085
Concept ID:
C3665347
Finding
Visual impairment (or vision impairment) is vision loss (of a person) to such a degree as to qualify as an additional support need through a significant limitation of visual capability resulting from either disease, trauma, or congenital or degenerative conditions that cannot be corrected by conventional means, such as refractive correction, medication, or surgery.
Cellular metachromasia
MedGen UID:
871114
Concept ID:
C4025583
Finding
Metachromasia (also known as metachromacy) is a characteristic color change which certain aniline dyes exhibit when bound to particular substances or when concentrated in solution. For example, the basic dye toluidine blue becomes distinctly pink when bound to cartilage matrix. In the sense used here, the metachromasia refers to a change in color not observed with normal tissues, anomalous staining with the cationic dyes toluidine blue O and Alcian blue resulting from excessive amounts of the polyanionic glycosaminoglycans.

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
Follow this link to review classifications for Mucopolysaccharidosis, MPS-III-D in Orphanet.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Muschol N, Giugliani R, Jones SA, Muenzer J, Smith NJC, Whitley CB, Donnell M, Drake E, Elvidge K, Melton L, O'Neill C; MPS III Guideline Development Group
Orphanet J Rare Dis 2022 Oct 27;17(1):391. doi: 10.1186/s13023-022-02484-6. PMID: 36303195Free PMC Article
Spahiu L, Behluli E, Peterlin B, Nefic H, Hadziselimovic R, Liehr T, Temaj G
Pediatr Endocrinol Diabetes Metab 2021;27(3):201-208. doi: 10.5114/pedm.2021.109270. PMID: 34743503Free PMC Article
Sawamoto K, Álvarez González JV, Piechnik M, Otero FJ, Couce ML, Suzuki Y, Tomatsu S
Int J Mol Sci 2020 Feb 23;21(4) doi: 10.3390/ijms21041517. PMID: 32102177Free PMC Article

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Muschol N, Giugliani R, Jones SA, Muenzer J, Smith NJC, Whitley CB, Donnell M, Drake E, Elvidge K, Melton L, O'Neill C; MPS III Guideline Development Group
Orphanet J Rare Dis 2022 Oct 27;17(1):391. doi: 10.1186/s13023-022-02484-6. PMID: 36303195Free PMC Article
Nicolas-Jilwan M, AlSayed M
Pediatr Radiol 2018 Sep;48(10):1503-1520. Epub 2018 May 11 doi: 10.1007/s00247-018-4139-3. PMID: 29752520
Khan SA, Peracha H, Ballhausen D, Wiesbauer A, Rohrbach M, Gautschi M, Mason RW, Giugliani R, Suzuki Y, Orii KE, Orii T, Tomatsu S
Mol Genet Metab 2017 Jul;121(3):227-240. Epub 2017 May 26 doi: 10.1016/j.ymgme.2017.05.016. PMID: 28595941Free PMC Article
Janzen D, Delaney KA, Shapiro EG
Mol Genet Metab 2017 Jun;121(2):57-69. Epub 2017 May 8 doi: 10.1016/j.ymgme.2017.05.005. PMID: 28506702
Vargas-Gamarra MF, de Paula-Vernetta C, Vitoria Miñana I, Ibañez-Alcañiz I, Cavallé-Garrido L, Alamar-Velazquez A
Acta Otorrinolaringol Esp (Engl Ed) 2017 Sep-Oct;68(5):262-268. Epub 2017 Feb 21 doi: 10.1016/j.otorri.2016.11.004. PMID: 28223066

Diagnosis

Muschol N, Giugliani R, Jones SA, Muenzer J, Smith NJC, Whitley CB, Donnell M, Drake E, Elvidge K, Melton L, O'Neill C; MPS III Guideline Development Group
Orphanet J Rare Dis 2022 Oct 27;17(1):391. doi: 10.1186/s13023-022-02484-6. PMID: 36303195Free PMC Article
Spahiu L, Behluli E, Peterlin B, Nefic H, Hadziselimovic R, Liehr T, Temaj G
Pediatr Endocrinol Diabetes Metab 2021;27(3):201-208. doi: 10.5114/pedm.2021.109270. PMID: 34743503Free PMC Article
Okuyama T, Eto Y, Sakai N, Nakamura K, Yamamoto T, Yamaoka M, Ikeda T, So S, Tanizawa K, Sonoda H, Sato Y
Mol Ther 2021 Feb 3;29(2):671-679. Epub 2020 Sep 30 doi: 10.1016/j.ymthe.2020.09.039. PMID: 33038326Free PMC Article
Sawamoto K, Álvarez González JV, Piechnik M, Otero FJ, Couce ML, Suzuki Y, Tomatsu S
Int J Mol Sci 2020 Feb 23;21(4) doi: 10.3390/ijms21041517. PMID: 32102177Free PMC Article
Ahn J, Lee JJ, Park SI, Cho SY, Jin DK, Cho YS, Chung WH, Hong SH, Moon IJ
Otol Neurotol 2019 Dec;40(10):e955-e961. doi: 10.1097/MAO.0000000000002422. PMID: 31634273

Therapy

Bugiani M, Abbink TEM, Edridge AWD, van der Hoek L, Hillen AEJ, van Til NP, Hu-A-Ng GV, Breur M, Aiach K, Drevot P, Hocquemiller M, Laufer R, Wijburg FA, van der Knaap MS
Ann Clin Transl Neurol 2023 Jun;10(6):904-917. Epub 2023 May 11 doi: 10.1002/acn3.51772. PMID: 37165777Free PMC Article
Okuyama T, Eto Y, Sakai N, Nakamura K, Yamamoto T, Yamaoka M, Ikeda T, So S, Tanizawa K, Sonoda H, Sato Y
Mol Ther 2021 Feb 3;29(2):671-679. Epub 2020 Sep 30 doi: 10.1016/j.ymthe.2020.09.039. PMID: 33038326Free PMC Article
Parini R, Deodato F
Int J Mol Sci 2020 Apr 23;21(8) doi: 10.3390/ijms21082975. PMID: 32340185Free PMC Article
Janzen D, Delaney KA, Shapiro EG
Mol Genet Metab 2017 Jun;121(2):57-69. Epub 2017 May 8 doi: 10.1016/j.ymgme.2017.05.005. PMID: 28506702
BioDrugs 2002;16(4):316-8. doi: 10.2165/00063030-200216040-00009. PMID: 12196045

Prognosis

Wijburg FA, Aiach K, Chakrapani A, Eisengart JB, Giugliani R, Héron B, Muschol N, O'Neill C, Olivier S, Parker S
Mol Genet Metab 2022 Feb;135(2):133-142. Epub 2021 Dec 10 doi: 10.1016/j.ymgme.2021.12.002. PMID: 34991944
Shapiro EG, Eisengart JB
Mol Genet Metab 2021 May;133(1):8-34. Epub 2021 Mar 11 doi: 10.1016/j.ymgme.2021.03.002. PMID: 33741271
Parini R, Deodato F
Int J Mol Sci 2020 Apr 23;21(8) doi: 10.3390/ijms21082975. PMID: 32340185Free PMC Article
Khan SA, Peracha H, Ballhausen D, Wiesbauer A, Rohrbach M, Gautschi M, Mason RW, Giugliani R, Suzuki Y, Orii KE, Orii T, Tomatsu S
Mol Genet Metab 2017 Jul;121(3):227-240. Epub 2017 May 26 doi: 10.1016/j.ymgme.2017.05.016. PMID: 28595941Free PMC Article
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Clinical prediction guides

Ashby FJ, Castillo EJ, Ludwig Y, Andraka NK, Chen C, Jamieson JC, Kabbej N, Sommerville JD, Aguirre JI, Heldermon CD
Int J Mol Sci 2023 Sep 12;24(18) doi: 10.3390/ijms241813988. PMID: 37762291Free PMC Article
Minami K, Morimoto H, Morioka H, Imakiire A, Kinoshita M, Yamamoto R, Hirato T, Sonoda H
Int J Mol Sci 2022 Oct 3;23(19) doi: 10.3390/ijms231911724. PMID: 36233030Free PMC Article
Díaz-Flores L, Gutiérrez R, García MP, Gayoso S, Gutiérrez E, Díaz-Flores L Jr, Carrasco JL
Int J Mol Sci 2020 Jun 17;21(12) doi: 10.3390/ijms21124320. PMID: 32560571Free PMC Article
Parini R, Deodato F
Int J Mol Sci 2020 Apr 23;21(8) doi: 10.3390/ijms21082975. PMID: 32340185Free PMC Article
Tanwar H, Kumar DT, Doss CGP, Zayed H
Metab Brain Dis 2019 Dec;34(6):1577-1594. Epub 2019 Aug 5 doi: 10.1007/s11011-019-00465-6. PMID: 31385193Free PMC Article

Recent systematic reviews

Kong W, Wu S, Zhang J, Lu C, Ding Y, Meng Y
J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2021 Oct 26;34(10):1225-1235. Epub 2021 Jul 19 doi: 10.1515/jpem-2020-0742. PMID: 34271605
Kuiper GA, Nijmeijer SCM, Roelofs MJM, van der Lee JH, Hollak CEM, Bosch AM
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Mov Disord 2019 May;34(5):614-624. Epub 2019 Feb 6 doi: 10.1002/mds.27631. PMID: 30726573Free PMC Article
Clark BM, Sprung J, Weingarten TN, Warner ME
Bosn J Basic Med Sci 2018 Feb 20;18(1):1-7. doi: 10.17305/bjbms.2017.2201. PMID: 28590232Free PMC Article
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Health Technol Assess 2006 Jun;10(20):iii-iv, ix-113. doi: 10.3310/hta10200. PMID: 16729919

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