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Abnormality of the vertebral column

MedGen UID:
892426
Concept ID:
C4021789
Anatomical Abnormality
Synonyms: Abnormal spine; Abnormal vertebral column; Abnormality of the backbone; Abnormality of the spine
 
HPO: HP:0000925

Definition

Any abnormality of the vertebral column. [from HPO]

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • Abnormality of the vertebral column

Conditions with this feature

Hypertelorism, microtia, facial clefting syndrome
MedGen UID:
113104
Concept ID:
C0220742
Disease or Syndrome
A very rare syndrome with characteristics of the combination of hypertelorism, cleft lip and palate and microtia. Nine cases have been reported in the literature in seven families. Some patients have associated cardiac or renal congenital malformations. Short stature and intellectual deficiency are common. The reported cases support autosomal recessive inheritance.
Beta-hydroxyisobutyryl-CoA deacylase deficiency
MedGen UID:
83349
Concept ID:
C0342738
Disease or Syndrome
3-Hydroxyisobutyryl-CoA hydrolase deficiency (HIBCHD) is an autosomal recessive inborn error of metabolism characterized by severely delayed psychomotor development, neurodegeneration, increased lactic acid, and brain lesions in the basal ganglia (summary by Ferdinandusse et al., 2013).
Intradural spinal arachnoid cyst
MedGen UID:
83372
Concept ID:
C0344485
Disease or Syndrome
Spinal intradural arachnoid cysts are cerebrospinal fluid -filled sacs that are located between the spinal cord and the arachnoid membrane (one of the three membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord). The signs and symptoms of the condition vary based on the size and location of the cysts. Some affected people may have no suspicious symptoms while others experience progressive back and leg pain; tingling or numbness in the hands or feet; weakness of the legs; and involuntary muscle spasms (spasticity) that result in slow, stiff movements of the legs. When present, symptoms usually occur when the cysts compress the spinal cord or other nearby nerves. Spinal intradural arachnoid cysts are often present at birth and arecaused by developmental abnormalities in the spinal cord that occur during the pregnancy. They can also result from a previous infection or injury and develop later in life. Although there is disagreement in the medical community regarding when to treat spinal intradural arachnoid cysts, the need for treatment generally depends on the size and location of the cyst and whether or not it is causing symptoms. When indicated, the cysts are typically treated with surgery.
3MC syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
167115
Concept ID:
C0796279
Disease or Syndrome
The term '3MC syndrome' encompasses 4 rare autosomal recessive disorders that were previously designated the Carnevale, Mingarelli, Malpuech, and Michels syndromes, respectively. The main features of these syndromes are facial dysmorphism that includes hypertelorism, blepharophimosis, blepharoptosis, and highly arched eyebrows, which are present in 70 to 95% of cases. Cleft lip and palate, postnatal growth deficiency, cognitive impairment, and hearing loss are also consistent findings, occurring in 40 to 68% of cases. Craniosynostosis, radioulnar synostosis, and genital and vesicorenal anomalies occur in 20 to 30% of cases. Rare features include anterior chamber defects, cardiac anomalies, caudal appendage, umbilical hernia (omphalocele), and diastasis recti (summary by Rooryck et al., 2011). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of 3MC syndrome, see 3MC1 (257920).
Metaphyseal dysplasia without hypotrichosis
MedGen UID:
320444
Concept ID:
C1834821
Disease or Syndrome
The cartilage-hair hypoplasia – anauxetic dysplasia (CHH-AD) spectrum disorders are a continuum that includes the following phenotypes: Metaphyseal dysplasia without hypotrichosis (MDWH). Cartilage-hair hypoplasia (CHH). Anauxetic dysplasia (AD). CHH-AD spectrum disorders are characterized by severe disproportionate (short-limb) short stature that is usually recognized in the newborn, and occasionally prenatally because of the short extremities. Other findings include joint hypermobility, fine silky hair, immunodeficiency, anemia, increased risk for malignancy, gastrointestinal dysfunction, and impaired spermatogenesis. The most severe phenotype, AD, has the most pronounced skeletal phenotype, may be associated with atlantoaxial subluxation in the newborn, and may include cognitive deficiency. The clinical manifestations of the CHH-AD spectrum disorders are variable, even within the same family.
Autosomal dominant osteopetrosis 1
MedGen UID:
335932
Concept ID:
C1843330
Disease or Syndrome
The osteopetroses are a heterogeneous group of genetic disorders characterized by increased bone density due to impaired bone resorption by osteoclasts. Autosomal dominant osteopetrosis-1 (OPTA1) is characterized by generalized osteosclerosis most pronounced in the cranial vault. Patients are often asymptomatic, but some suffer from pain and hearing loss. It appears to be the only type of osteopetrosis not associated with an increased fracture rate (summary by Van Hul et al., 2002). Genetic Heterogeneity of Autosomal Dominant Osteopetrosis Autosomal dominant osteopetrosis-2 (OPTA2; 166600) is caused by mutation in the CLCN7 gene (602727) on chromosome 16p13. Autosomal dominant osteopetrosis-3 (OPTA3; 618107) is caused by mutation in the PLEKHM1 gene (611466) on chromosome 17q21.
VACTERL with hydrocephalus
MedGen UID:
376400
Concept ID:
C1848599
Disease or Syndrome
VACTERL describes a constellation of congenital anomalies, including vertebral anomalies, anal atresia, congenital cardiac disease, tracheoesophageal fistula, renal anomalies, radial dysplasia, and other limb defects; see 192350. Cases of familial VACTERL with hydrocephalus (H) have been reported with suggestion of autosomal recessive or X-linked inheritance (see 314390). Other patients thought to have VACTERL-H, including 2 unrelated infants reported by Porteous et al. (1992), had been found to have Fanconi anemia (see 227650). Porteous et al. (1992) suggested that chromosomal breakage studies should be performed in all cases of VACTERL/VACTERL-H to rule out Fanconi anemia. Alter et al. (2007) noted that a VATER phenotype had been reported in Fanconi anemia of complementation groups A (227650), C (227645), D1 (605724), E (600901), F (603467), and G (614082). X-linked VACTERL-H is also associated with mutations in the FANCB gene (300515).
Craniometaphyseal dysplasia, autosomal dominant
MedGen UID:
338945
Concept ID:
C1852502
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal dominant craniometaphyseal dysplasia (designated AD-CMD in this review) is characterized by progressive diffuse hyperostosis of cranial bones evident clinically as wide nasal bridge, paranasal bossing, widely spaced eyes with an increase in bizygomatic width, and prominent mandible. Development of dentition may be delayed and teeth may fail to erupt as a result of hyperostosis and sclerosis of alveolar bone. Progressive thickening of craniofacial bones continues throughout life, often resulting in narrowing of the cranial foramina, including the foramen magnum. If untreated, compression of cranial nerves can lead to disabling conditions such as facial palsy, blindness, or deafness (conductive and/or sensorineural hearing loss). In individuals with typical uncomplicated AD-CMD life expectancy is normal; in those with severe AD-CMD life expectancy can be reduced as a result of compression of the foramen magnum.
Cerebrooculofacioskeletal syndrome 4
MedGen UID:
342798
Concept ID:
C1853100
Disease or Syndrome
Cerebrooculofacioskeletal syndrome-4 (COFS4) is a severe autosomal recessive disorder characterized by growth retardation, dysmorphic facial features, arthrogryposis, and neurologic abnormalities. Cellular studies show a defect in both transcription-coupled and global genome nucleotide excision repair (TC-NER and GG-NER) (summary by Jaspers et al., 2007 and Kashiyama et al., 2013). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of cerebrooculofacioskeletal syndrome, see 214150.
Ulna metaphyseal dysplasia syndrome
MedGen UID:
348149
Concept ID:
C1860615
Disease or Syndrome
Ulna metaphyseal dysplasia syndrome is a rare primary bone dysplasia characterized by dysplasia of the distal ulnar metaphyses, as well as metacarpal/metatarsal dysplasia and metaphyseal changes resembling enchondromata. Patients usually present bony swelling of the wrists with or without pain (knees and ankles may also be affected). Other variably associated features include platyspondyly, skeletal development delay, short stature and coxa valga.
Cervical vertebral Bridge
MedGen UID:
348426
Concept ID:
C1861694
Congenital Abnormality
Osebold-Remondini syndrome
MedGen UID:
350598
Concept ID:
C1862130
Disease or Syndrome
The Osebold-Remondini syndrome is a bone dysplasia with mesomelic shortness of limbs and, hence, shortness of stature, absence or hypoplasia of second phalanges with synostosis of the remaining phalanges, carpal and tarsal coalitions, and apparently no other anomalies (summary by Opitz and Gilbert, 1985). See 602875 for a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal recessive acromesomelic dysplasia.
Axenfeld-Rieger anomaly with partially absent eye muscles, distinctive face, hydrocephaly, and skeletal abnormalities
MedGen UID:
349489
Concept ID:
C1862373
Disease or Syndrome
Ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament of the spine
MedGen UID:
355447
Concept ID:
C1865343
Disease or Syndrome
Ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament of the spine (OPLL) is a common degenerative spinal disorder that causes severe neurologic dysfunction in middle-aged and elderly populations. This ectopic ossification results in compression of the spinal cord and nerve root by the ossified ligament. Histologic studies of OPLL suggest that OPLL develops through a process of endochondral ossification (summary by Nakajima et al., 2016).
Holoprosencephaly-radial heart renal anomalies syndrome
MedGen UID:
401047
Concept ID:
C1866649
Disease or Syndrome
This syndrome has characteristics of holoprosencephaly, predominantly radial limb deficiency (absent thumbs, phocomelia), heart defects, kidney malformations and absence of gallbladder. It has been described in two families (with at least seven affected persons). Variable manifestations include vertebral anomalies, cleft lip/palate, microphthalmia, absent nose, dysplastic ears, hearing loss, colobomas of the iris and retina and/or bifid uvula. Inheritance is likely to be autosomal dominant with variable expressivity.
VACTERL association, X-linked, with or without hydrocephalus
MedGen UID:
419019
Concept ID:
C2931228
Disease or Syndrome
VACTERL is an acronym for vertebral anomalies (similar to those of spondylocostal dysplasia), anal atresia, cardiac malformations, tracheoesophageal fistula, renal anomalies (urethral atresia with hydronephrosis), and limb anomalies (hexadactyly, humeral hypoplasia, radial aplasia, and proximally placed thumb; see 192350). Some patients may have hydrocephalus, which is referred to as VACTERL-H (Briard et al., 1984).
X-linked chondrodysplasia punctata 1
MedGen UID:
777171
Concept ID:
C3669395
Disease or Syndrome
X-linked chondrodysplasia punctata 1 (CDPX1) is characterized by chondrodysplasia punctata (stippled epiphyses), brachytelephalangy (shortening of the distal phalanges), and nasomaxillary hypoplasia. Although most affected males have minimal morbidity and skeletal findings that improve by adulthood, some have significant medical problems including respiratory involvement, cervical spine stenosis and instability, mixed conductive and sensorineural hearing loss, and intellectual disability.
Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome type 2
MedGen UID:
931237
Concept ID:
C4305568
Disease or Syndrome
Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome type 2, a form of MRKH syndrome (see this term), is characterized by congenital aplasia of the uterus and upper 2/3 of the vagina that is associated with at least one other malformation such as renal, vertebral, or, less commonly, auditory and cardiac defects. The acronym MURCS (MÜllerian duct aplasia, Renal dysplasia, Cervical Somite anomalies) is also used.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Gartenberg A, Nessim A, Cho W
Eur Spine J 2021 Oct;30(10):2936-2943. Epub 2021 Jul 16 doi: 10.1007/s00586-021-06927-9. PMID: 34272605
Cunin V
Orthop Traumatol Surg Res 2015 Feb;101(1 Suppl):S109-18. Epub 2015 Jan 23 doi: 10.1016/j.otsr.2014.06.032. PMID: 25623270
Cox BW, Spratt DE, Lovelock M, Bilsky MH, Lis E, Ryu S, Sheehan J, Gerszten PC, Chang E, Gibbs I, Soltys S, Sahgal A, Deasy J, Flickinger J, Quader M, Mindea S, Yamada Y
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2012 Aug 1;83(5):e597-605. Epub 2012 May 19 doi: 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2012.03.009. PMID: 22608954

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

White C, Milla SS, Maloney JA, Neuberger I
Clin Perinatol 2022 Sep;49(3):623-640. doi: 10.1016/j.clp.2022.05.003. PMID: 36113926
Solomon BD
Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet 2018 Dec;178(4):440-446. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.c.31664. PMID: 30580478
Nakhal RS, Creighton SM
J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol 2012 Dec;25(6):352-7. Epub 2011 Aug 27 doi: 10.1016/j.jpag.2011.06.003. PMID: 21872517
Arlet V, Odent T, Aebi M
Eur Spine J 2003 Oct;12(5):456-63. Epub 2003 Jun 14 doi: 10.1007/s00586-003-0555-6. PMID: 14618384Free PMC Article
Weprin BE, Oakes WJ
Pediatrics 2000 May;105(5):E69. doi: 10.1542/peds.105.5.e69. PMID: 10799633

Diagnosis

White C, Milla SS, Maloney JA, Neuberger I
Clin Perinatol 2022 Sep;49(3):623-640. doi: 10.1016/j.clp.2022.05.003. PMID: 36113926
Frikha R
Clin Dysmorphol 2020 Jan;29(1):35-37. doi: 10.1097/MCD.0000000000000301. PMID: 31577545
Obstet Gynecol 2017 Dec;130(6):e279-e290. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000002412. PMID: 29189693
Solomon BD
Orphanet J Rare Dis 2011 Aug 16;6:56. doi: 10.1186/1750-1172-6-56. PMID: 21846383Free PMC Article
Kjaer I
Crit Rev Oral Biol Med 1998;9(2):224-44. doi: 10.1177/10454411980090020501. PMID: 9603237

Therapy

Obstet Gynecol 2017 Dec;130(6):e279-e290. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000002412. PMID: 29189693
Murphy RF, Mooney JF 3rd
J Am Acad Orthop Surg 2017 Sep;25(9):e185-e193. doi: 10.5435/JAAOS-D-16-00584. PMID: 28837459
Guyer RD, Ohnmeiss DD; NASS
Spine J 2003 May-Jun;3(3 Suppl):11S-27S. doi: 10.1016/s1529-9430(02)00563-6. PMID: 14589214
Jensen MC, Brant-Zawadzki MN, Obuchowski N, Modic MT, Malkasian D, Ross JS
N Engl J Med 1994 Jul 14;331(2):69-73. doi: 10.1056/NEJM199407143310201. PMID: 8208267
Dauphinee K
Emerg Med Clin North Am 1988 Nov;6(4):699-713. PMID: 3056706

Prognosis

Courvoisier A
Orthop Traumatol Surg Res 2023 Feb;109(1S):103459. Epub 2022 Oct 24 doi: 10.1016/j.otsr.2022.103459. PMID: 36302448
Frikha R
Clin Dysmorphol 2020 Jan;29(1):35-37. doi: 10.1097/MCD.0000000000000301. PMID: 31577545
Mendoza N, Motos MA
Gynecol Endocrinol 2013 Jan;29(1):1-5. Epub 2012 Jul 20 doi: 10.3109/09513590.2012.705378. PMID: 22812659
Solomon BD
Orphanet J Rare Dis 2011 Aug 16;6:56. doi: 10.1186/1750-1172-6-56. PMID: 21846383Free PMC Article
Kjaer I
Crit Rev Oral Biol Med 1998;9(2):224-44. doi: 10.1177/10454411980090020501. PMID: 9603237

Clinical prediction guides

Rebello D, Wohler E, Erfani V, Li G, Aguilera AN, Santiago-Cornier A, Zhao S, Hwang SW, Steiner RD, Zhang TJ, Gurnett CA, Raggio C, Wu N, Sobreira N, Giampietro PF, Ciruna B
Hum Mol Genet 2023 Sep 16;32(19):2913-2928. doi: 10.1093/hmg/ddad117. PMID: 37462524Free PMC Article
Litrenta J, Bi AS, Dryer JW
J Am Acad Orthop Surg 2021 Nov 15;29(22):951-960. doi: 10.5435/JAAOS-D-21-00190. PMID: 34288888
Mendoza N, Motos MA
Gynecol Endocrinol 2013 Jan;29(1):1-5. Epub 2012 Jul 20 doi: 10.3109/09513590.2012.705378. PMID: 22812659
Arlet V, Odent T, Aebi M
Eur Spine J 2003 Oct;12(5):456-63. Epub 2003 Jun 14 doi: 10.1007/s00586-003-0555-6. PMID: 14618384Free PMC Article
Weprin BE, Oakes WJ
Pediatrics 2000 May;105(5):E69. doi: 10.1542/peds.105.5.e69. PMID: 10799633

Recent systematic reviews

Asimakidou E, Meszaros LT, Anestis DM, Tsitsopoulos PP
Eur Spine J 2022 Nov;31(11):3119-3129. Epub 2022 Aug 6 doi: 10.1007/s00586-022-07332-6. PMID: 35931791
Dwan K, Phillipi CA, Steiner RD, Basel D
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2016 Oct 19;10(10):CD005088. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD005088.pub4. PMID: 27760454Free PMC Article
Goubert D, Oosterwijck JV, Meeus M, Danneels L
Pain Physician 2016 Sep-Oct;19(7):E985-E1000. PMID: 27676689
Atta CA, Fiest KM, Frolkis AD, Jette N, Pringsheim T, St Germaine-Smith C, Rajapakse T, Kaplan GG, Metcalfe A
Am J Public Health 2016 Jan;106(1):e24-34. Epub 2015 Nov 12 doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2015.302902. PMID: 26562127Free PMC Article
Tripathy SK, Goyal T, Sen RK
Eur J Trauma Emerg Surg 2015 Aug;41(4):335-42. Epub 2014 Nov 4 doi: 10.1007/s00068-014-0461-0. PMID: 26037993

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