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Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 50(DEE50)

MedGen UID:
904125
Concept ID:
C4225320
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: DEE50; Epileptic encephalopathy, early infantile, 50
SNOMED CT: Carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase 2, aspartate transcarbamylase, and dihydroorotase congenital disorder of glycosylation (1237417007); CAD-CDG - carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase 2, aspartate transcarbamylase, and dihydroorotase congenital disorder of glycosylation (1237417007); Carbohydrate deficient glycoprotein syndrome type Iz (1237417007); Congenital disorder of glycosylation type 1z (1237417007)
Modes of inheritance:
Autosomal recessive inheritance
MedGen UID:
141025
Concept ID:
C0441748
Intellectual Product
Source: Orphanet
A mode of inheritance that is observed for traits related to a gene encoded on one of the autosomes (i.e., the human chromosomes 1-22) in which a trait manifests in individuals with two pathogenic alleles, either homozygotes (two copies of the same mutant allele) or compound heterozygotes (whereby each copy of a gene has a distinct mutant allele).
 
Gene (location): CAD (2p23.3)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0014647
OMIM®: 616457
Orphanet: ORPHA448010

Definition

Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-50 (DEE50) is an autosomal recessive progressive neurodegenerative neurometabolic disorder characterized by delayed psychomotor development, early-onset refractory seizures, severe developmental regression, and normocytic anemia. Onset is within the first months or years of life. Evidence suggests that affected children can have a favorable response to treatment with uridine (summary by Koch et al., 2017). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350. [from OMIM]

Clinical features

From HPO
Orotic aciduria
MedGen UID:
78642
Concept ID:
C0268128
Finding
Orotic aciduria is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by megaloblastic anemia and orotic acid crystalluria that is frequently associated with some degree of physical and mental retardation. These features respond to appropriate pyrimidine replacement therapy, and most cases appear to have a good prognosis. A minority of cases have additional features, particularly congenital malformations and immune deficiencies, which may adversely affect this prognosis (summary by Webster et al., 2001). Bailey (2009) stated that only 2 cases of orotic aciduria without megaloblastic anemia (OAWA) had been reported.
Failure to thrive
MedGen UID:
746019
Concept ID:
C2315100
Disease or Syndrome
Failure to thrive (FTT) refers to a child whose physical growth is substantially below the norm.
Dysphagia
MedGen UID:
41440
Concept ID:
C0011168
Disease or Syndrome
Difficulty in swallowing.
Diarrhea
MedGen UID:
8360
Concept ID:
C0011991
Sign or Symptom
Abnormally increased frequency (usually defined as three or more) loose or watery bowel movements a day.
Seizure
MedGen UID:
20693
Concept ID:
C0036572
Sign or Symptom
A seizure is an intermittent abnormality of nervous system physiology characterized by a transient occurrence of signs and/or symptoms due to abnormal excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.
Status epilepticus
MedGen UID:
11586
Concept ID:
C0038220
Disease or Syndrome
Status epilepticus is a type of prolonged seizure resulting either from the failure of the mechanisms responsible for seizure termination or from the initiation of mechanisms which lead to abnormally prolonged seizures (after time point t1). It is a condition that can have long-term consequences (after time point t2), including neuronal death, neuronal injury, and alteration of neuronal networks, depending on the type and duration of seizures.
Global brain atrophy
MedGen UID:
66840
Concept ID:
C0241816
Pathologic Function
Unlocalized atrophy of the brain with decreased total brain matter volume and increased ventricular size.
Epileptic encephalopathy
MedGen UID:
452596
Concept ID:
C0543888
Disease or Syndrome
A condition in which epileptiform abnormalities are believed to contribute to the progressive disturbance in cerebral function. Epileptic encephalaopathy is characterized by (1) electrographic EEG paroxysmal activity that is often aggressive, (2) seizures that are usually multiform and intractable, (3) cognitive, behavioral and neurological deficits that may be relentless, and (4) sometimes early death.
Global developmental delay
MedGen UID:
107838
Concept ID:
C0557874
Finding
A delay in the achievement of motor or mental milestones in the domains of development of a child, including motor skills, speech and language, cognitive skills, and social and emotional skills. This term should only be used to describe children younger than five years of age.
Broad-based gait
MedGen UID:
167799
Concept ID:
C0856863
Finding
An abnormal gait pattern in which persons stand and walk with their feet spaced widely apart. This is often a component of cerebellar ataxia.
Developmental regression
MedGen UID:
324613
Concept ID:
C1836830
Disease or Syndrome
Loss of developmental skills, as manifested by loss of developmental milestones.
Poor speech
MedGen UID:
341172
Concept ID:
C1848207
Finding
Anemia
MedGen UID:
1526
Concept ID:
C0002871
Disease or Syndrome
A reduction in erythrocytes volume or hemoglobin concentration.
Schistocytosis
MedGen UID:
576247
Concept ID:
C0344386
Laboratory or Test Result
The presence of an abnormal number of fragmented red blood cells (schistocytes) in the blood.
Acanthocytosis
MedGen UID:
195801
Concept ID:
C0687751
Disease or Syndrome
Acanthocytosis is a type of poikilocytosis characterized by the presence of spikes on the cell surface. The cells have an irregular shape resembling many-pointed stars.
Anisopoikilocytosis
MedGen UID:
436556
Concept ID:
C2675920
Finding
A type of poikilocytosis characterized by the presence in the blood of erythrocytes of varying sizes and abnormal shapes.
Hypotonia
MedGen UID:
10133
Concept ID:
C0026827
Finding
Hypotonia is an abnormally low muscle tone (the amount of tension or resistance to movement in a muscle). Even when relaxed, muscles have a continuous and passive partial contraction which provides some resistance to passive stretching. Hypotonia thus manifests as diminished resistance to passive stretching. Hypotonia is not the same as muscle weakness, although the two conditions can co-exist.
Renal tubular acidosis
MedGen UID:
90
Concept ID:
C0001126
Disease or Syndrome
Acidosis owing to malfunction of the kidney tubules with accumulation of metabolic acids and hyperchloremia, potentially leading to complications including hypokalemia, hypercalcinuria, nephrolithiasis and nephrocalcinosis.
Abnormal glycosylation
MedGen UID:
868547
Concept ID:
C4022946
Finding
An anomaly of a glycosylation process, i.e., a process involved in the covalent attachment of a glycosyl residue to a substrate molecule.
Hyperammonemia
MedGen UID:
1802066
Concept ID:
C5574662
Laboratory or Test Result
An increased concentration of ammonia in the blood.

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • CROGVDevelopmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 50

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Lattanzi S, Trinka E, Striano P, Rocchi C, Salvemini S, Silvestrini M, Brigo F
CNS Drugs 2021 Mar;35(3):265-281. Epub 2021 Mar 22 doi: 10.1007/s40263-021-00807-y. PMID: 33754312Free PMC Article
Strzelczyk A, Schubert-Bast S
CNS Drugs 2021 Jan;35(1):61-83. Epub 2021 Jan 21 doi: 10.1007/s40263-020-00784-8. PMID: 33479851Free PMC Article
Hebbar M, Mefford HC
F1000Res 2020;9 Epub 2020 Mar 12 doi: 10.12688/f1000research.21366.1. PMID: 32201576Free PMC Article

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Bonardi CM, Heyne HO, Fiannacca M, Fitzgerald MP, Gardella E, Gunning B, Olofsson K, Lesca G, Verbeek N, Stamberger H, Striano P, Zara F, Mancardi MM, Nava C, Syrbe S, Buono S, Baulac S, Coppola A, Weckhuysen S, Schoonjans AS, Ceulemans B, Sarret C, Baumgartner T, Muhle H, Portes VD, Toulouse J, Nougues MC, Rossi M, Demarquay G, Ville D, Hirsch E, Maurey H, Willems M, de Bellescize J, Altuzarra CD, Villeneuve N, Bartolomei F, Picard F, Hornemann F, Koolen DA, Kroes HY, Reale C, Fenger CD, Tan WH, Dibbens L, Bearden DR, Møller RS, Rubboli G
Brain 2021 Dec 31;144(12):3635-3650. doi: 10.1093/brain/awab219. PMID: 34114611
Hebbar M, Mefford HC
F1000Res 2020;9 Epub 2020 Mar 12 doi: 10.12688/f1000research.21366.1. PMID: 32201576Free PMC Article
Vlaskamp DRM, Shaw BJ, Burgess R, Mei D, Montomoli M, Xie H, Myers CT, Bennett MF, XiangWei W, Williams D, Maas SM, Brooks AS, Mancini GMS, van de Laar IMBH, van Hagen JM, Ware TL, Webster RI, Malone S, Berkovic SF, Kalnins RM, Sicca F, Korenke GC, van Ravenswaaij-Arts CMA, Hildebrand MS, Mefford HC, Jiang Y, Guerrini R, Scheffer IE
Neurology 2019 Jan 8;92(2):e96-e107. Epub 2018 Dec 12 doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000006729. PMID: 30541864Free PMC Article
Graham HK, Rosenbaum P, Paneth N, Dan B, Lin JP, Damiano DL, Becher JG, Gaebler-Spira D, Colver A, Reddihough DS, Crompton KE, Lieber RL
Nat Rev Dis Primers 2016 Jan 7;2:15082. doi: 10.1038/nrdp.2015.82. PMID: 27188686Free PMC Article
Cox DM, Butler MG
Int J Mol Sci 2015 Feb 13;16(2):4068-82. doi: 10.3390/ijms16024068. PMID: 25689425Free PMC Article

Diagnosis

Das Pektezel L, Tezer FI, Saygi S
J Clin Neurophysiol 2023 Mar 1;40(3):244-249. Epub 2021 Jul 6 doi: 10.1097/WNP.0000000000000880. PMID: 34280943
Wirrell EC, Nabbout R, Scheffer IE, Alsaadi T, Bogacz A, French JA, Hirsch E, Jain S, Kaneko S, Riney K, Samia P, Snead OC, Somerville E, Specchio N, Trinka E, Zuberi SM, Balestrini S, Wiebe S, Cross JH, Perucca E, Moshé SL, Tinuper P
Epilepsia 2022 Jun;63(6):1333-1348. Epub 2022 May 3 doi: 10.1111/epi.17237. PMID: 35503715
Knupp KG, Scheffer IE, Ceulemans B, Sullivan JE, Nickels KC, Lagae L, Guerrini R, Zuberi SM, Nabbout R, Riney K, Shore S, Agarwal A, Lock M, Farfel GM, Galer BS, Gammaitoni AR, Davis R, Gil-Nagel A
JAMA Neurol 2022 Jun 1;79(6):554-564. doi: 10.1001/jamaneurol.2022.0829. PMID: 35499850Free PMC Article
Hebbar M, Mefford HC
F1000Res 2020;9 Epub 2020 Mar 12 doi: 10.12688/f1000research.21366.1. PMID: 32201576Free PMC Article
Takata A, Nakashima M, Saitsu H, Mizuguchi T, Mitsuhashi S, Takahashi Y, Okamoto N, Osaka H, Nakamura K, Tohyama J, Haginoya K, Takeshita S, Kuki I, Okanishi T, Goto T, Sasaki M, Sakai Y, Miyake N, Miyatake S, Tsuchida N, Iwama K, Minase G, Sekiguchi F, Fujita A, Imagawa E, Koshimizu E, Uchiyama Y, Hamanaka K, Ohba C, Itai T, Aoi H, Saida K, Sakaguchi T, Den K, Takahashi R, Ikeda H, Yamaguchi T, Tsukamoto K, Yoshitomi S, Oboshi T, Imai K, Kimizu T, Kobayashi Y, Kubota M, Kashii H, Baba S, Iai M, Kira R, Hara M, Ohta M, Miyata Y, Miyata R, Takanashi JI, Matsui J, Yokochi K, Shimono M, Amamoto M, Takayama R, Hirabayashi S, Aiba K, Matsumoto H, Nabatame S, Shiihara T, Kato M, Matsumoto N
Nat Commun 2019 Jun 7;10(1):2506. doi: 10.1038/s41467-019-10482-9. PMID: 31175295Free PMC Article

Therapy

Nissenkorn A, Kluger G, Schubert-Bast S, Bayat A, Bobylova M, Bonanni P, Ceulemans B, Coppola A, Di Bonaventura C, Feucht M, Fuchs A, Gröppel G, Heimer G, Herdt B, Kulikova S, Mukhin K, Nicassio S, Orsini A, Panagiotou M, Pringsheim M, Puest B, Pylaeva O, Ramantani G, Tsekoura M, Ricciardelli P, Lerman Sagie T, Stark B, Striano P, van Baalen A, De Wachter M, Cerulli Irelli E, Cuccurullo C, von Stülpnagel C, Russo A
Epilepsia 2023 Apr;64(4):866-874. Epub 2023 Feb 20 doi: 10.1111/epi.17530. PMID: 36734057
Wirrell EC, Nabbout R, Scheffer IE, Alsaadi T, Bogacz A, French JA, Hirsch E, Jain S, Kaneko S, Riney K, Samia P, Snead OC, Somerville E, Specchio N, Trinka E, Zuberi SM, Balestrini S, Wiebe S, Cross JH, Perucca E, Moshé SL, Tinuper P
Epilepsia 2022 Jun;63(6):1333-1348. Epub 2022 May 3 doi: 10.1111/epi.17237. PMID: 35503715
Knupp KG, Scheffer IE, Ceulemans B, Sullivan JE, Nickels KC, Lagae L, Guerrini R, Zuberi SM, Nabbout R, Riney K, Shore S, Agarwal A, Lock M, Farfel GM, Galer BS, Gammaitoni AR, Davis R, Gil-Nagel A
JAMA Neurol 2022 Jun 1;79(6):554-564. doi: 10.1001/jamaneurol.2022.0829. PMID: 35499850Free PMC Article
Strzelczyk A, Schubert-Bast S
CNS Drugs 2021 Jan;35(1):61-83. Epub 2021 Jan 21 doi: 10.1007/s40263-020-00784-8. PMID: 33479851Free PMC Article
Vlaskamp DRM, Shaw BJ, Burgess R, Mei D, Montomoli M, Xie H, Myers CT, Bennett MF, XiangWei W, Williams D, Maas SM, Brooks AS, Mancini GMS, van de Laar IMBH, van Hagen JM, Ware TL, Webster RI, Malone S, Berkovic SF, Kalnins RM, Sicca F, Korenke GC, van Ravenswaaij-Arts CMA, Hildebrand MS, Mefford HC, Jiang Y, Guerrini R, Scheffer IE
Neurology 2019 Jan 8;92(2):e96-e107. Epub 2018 Dec 12 doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000006729. PMID: 30541864Free PMC Article

Prognosis

Stamberger H, Crosiers D, Balagura G, Bonardi CM, Basu A, Cantalupo G, Chiesa V, Christensen J, Dalla Bernardina B, Ellis CA, Furia F, Gardiner F, Giron C, Guerrini R, Klein KM, Korff C, Krijtova H, Leffler M, Lerche H, Lesca G, Lewis-Smith D, Marini C, Marjanovic D, Mazzola L, McKeown Ruggiero S, Mochel F, Ramond F, Reif PS, Richard-Mornas A, Rosenow F, Schropp C, Thomas RH, Vignoli A, Weber Y, Palmer E, Helbig I, Scheffer IE, Striano P, Møller RS, Gardella E, Weckhuysen S
Neurology 2022 Jul 19;99(3):e221-e233. Epub 2022 Jun 3 doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000200715. PMID: 35851549Free PMC Article
Wirrell EC, Nabbout R, Scheffer IE, Alsaadi T, Bogacz A, French JA, Hirsch E, Jain S, Kaneko S, Riney K, Samia P, Snead OC, Somerville E, Specchio N, Trinka E, Zuberi SM, Balestrini S, Wiebe S, Cross JH, Perucca E, Moshé SL, Tinuper P
Epilepsia 2022 Jun;63(6):1333-1348. Epub 2022 May 3 doi: 10.1111/epi.17237. PMID: 35503715
Hebbar M, Mefford HC
F1000Res 2020;9 Epub 2020 Mar 12 doi: 10.12688/f1000research.21366.1. PMID: 32201576Free PMC Article
Kobow K, Blümcke I
Neurosci Lett 2018 Feb 22;667:40-46. Epub 2017 Jan 19 doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2017.01.012. PMID: 28111355
Christensen J, Grønborg TK, Sørensen MJ, Schendel D, Parner ET, Pedersen LH, Vestergaard M
JAMA 2013 Apr 24;309(16):1696-703. doi: 10.1001/jama.2013.2270. PMID: 23613074Free PMC Article

Clinical prediction guides

Knupp KG, Scheffer IE, Ceulemans B, Sullivan JE, Nickels KC, Lagae L, Guerrini R, Zuberi SM, Nabbout R, Riney K, Shore S, Agarwal A, Lock M, Farfel GM, Galer BS, Gammaitoni AR, Davis R, Gil-Nagel A
JAMA Neurol 2022 Jun 1;79(6):554-564. doi: 10.1001/jamaneurol.2022.0829. PMID: 35499850Free PMC Article
Bonardi CM, Heyne HO, Fiannacca M, Fitzgerald MP, Gardella E, Gunning B, Olofsson K, Lesca G, Verbeek N, Stamberger H, Striano P, Zara F, Mancardi MM, Nava C, Syrbe S, Buono S, Baulac S, Coppola A, Weckhuysen S, Schoonjans AS, Ceulemans B, Sarret C, Baumgartner T, Muhle H, Portes VD, Toulouse J, Nougues MC, Rossi M, Demarquay G, Ville D, Hirsch E, Maurey H, Willems M, de Bellescize J, Altuzarra CD, Villeneuve N, Bartolomei F, Picard F, Hornemann F, Koolen DA, Kroes HY, Reale C, Fenger CD, Tan WH, Dibbens L, Bearden DR, Møller RS, Rubboli G
Brain 2021 Dec 31;144(12):3635-3650. doi: 10.1093/brain/awab219. PMID: 34114611
Strzelczyk A, Schubert-Bast S
CNS Drugs 2021 Jan;35(1):61-83. Epub 2021 Jan 21 doi: 10.1007/s40263-020-00784-8. PMID: 33479851Free PMC Article
Pop-Jordanova N
Pril (Makedon Akad Nauk Umet Odd Med Nauki) 2019 May 1;40(1):5-40. doi: 10.2478/prilozi-2019-0001. PMID: 31152643
Cox DM, Butler MG
Int J Mol Sci 2015 Feb 13;16(2):4068-82. doi: 10.3390/ijms16024068. PMID: 25689425Free PMC Article

Recent systematic reviews

Lattanzi S, Trinka E, Russo E, Del Giovane C, Matricardi S, Meletti S, Striano P, Damavandi PT, Silvestrini M, Brigo F
Drugs 2023 Oct;83(15):1409-1424. Epub 2023 Sep 11 doi: 10.1007/s40265-023-01936-y. PMID: 37695433Free PMC Article
Vasilica AM, Winsor A, Chari A, Scott R, Baldeweg T, Tisdall M
Epilepsy Res 2023 May;192:107132. Epub 2023 Mar 30 doi: 10.1016/j.eplepsyres.2023.107132. PMID: 37023554
Lattanzi S, Trinka E, Striano P, Rocchi C, Salvemini S, Silvestrini M, Brigo F
CNS Drugs 2021 Mar;35(3):265-281. Epub 2021 Mar 22 doi: 10.1007/s40263-021-00807-y. PMID: 33754312Free PMC Article
Sharawat IK, Panda PK, Kasinathan A, Panda P, Dawman L, Joshi K
Seizure 2021 Feb;85:119-126. Epub 2021 Jan 11 doi: 10.1016/j.seizure.2020.12.016. PMID: 33461030
Veroniki AA, Rios P, Cogo E, Straus SE, Finkelstein Y, Kealey R, Reynen E, Soobiah C, Thavorn K, Hutton B, Hemmelgarn BR, Yazdi F, D'Souza J, MacDonald H, Tricco AC
BMJ Open 2017 Jul 20;7(7):e017248. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2017-017248. PMID: 28729328Free PMC Article

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