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Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 29(DEE29)

MedGen UID:
908570
Concept ID:
C4225361
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: DEE29; Epileptic encephalopathy, early infantile, 29
 
Gene (location): AARS1 (16q22.1)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0014593
OMIM®: 616339

Definition

Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-29 (DEE29) is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by the onset of refractory myoclonic seizures in the first months of life. Affected individuals have poor overall growth, congenital microcephaly with cerebral atrophy and impaired myelination on brain imaging, spasticity with abnormal movements, peripheral neuropathy, and poor visual fixation (summary by Simons et al., 2015). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350. [from OMIM]

Clinical features

From HPO
Congenital vertical talus
MedGen UID:
66821
Concept ID:
C0240912
Congenital Abnormality
Congenital vertical talus (CVT), also known as 'rocker-bottom foot' deformity, is a dislocation of the talonavicular joint characterized by vertical orientation of the talus with a rigid dorsal dislocation of the navicular, equinus deformity of the calcaneus, abduction deformity of the forefoot, and contracture of the soft tissues of the hind- and mid-foot. This condition is usually associated with multiple other congenital deformities and only rarely is an isolated deformity with familial occurrence (summary by Levinsohn et al., 2004). The condition is transmitted in an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance, and sometimes shows incomplete penetrance and variable expressivity. There may be a broad spectrum of deformities, including flatfoot, talipes equinovarus (TEV or clubfoot), cavus foot, metatarsus adductus, and even hypoplasia of the tibia (summary by Dobbs et al., 2006).
Fetal growth restriction
MedGen UID:
4693
Concept ID:
C0015934
Pathologic Function
An abnormal restriction of fetal growth with fetal weight below the tenth percentile for gestational age.
Short stature
MedGen UID:
87607
Concept ID:
C0349588
Finding
A height below that which is expected according to age and gender norms. Although there is no universally accepted definition of short stature, many refer to "short stature" as height more than 2 standard deviations below the mean for age and gender (or below the 3rd percentile for age and gender dependent norms).
Failure to thrive
MedGen UID:
746019
Concept ID:
C2315100
Disease or Syndrome
Failure to thrive (FTT) refers to a child whose physical growth is substantially below the norm.
Chorea
MedGen UID:
3420
Concept ID:
C0008489
Disease or Syndrome
Chorea (Greek for 'dance') refers to widespread arrhythmic involuntary movements of a forcible, jerky and restless fashion. It is a random-appearing sequence of one or more discrete involuntary movements or movement fragments. Movements appear random because of variability in timing, duration or location. Each movement may have a distinct start and end. However, movements may be strung together and thus may appear to flow randomly from one muscle group to another. Chorea can involve the trunk, neck, face, tongue, and extremities.
Spasticity
MedGen UID:
7753
Concept ID:
C0026838
Sign or Symptom
A motor disorder characterized by a velocity-dependent increase in tonic stretch reflexes with increased muscle tone, exaggerated (hyperexcitable) tendon reflexes.
Peripheral neuropathy
MedGen UID:
18386
Concept ID:
C0031117
Disease or Syndrome
Peripheral neuropathy is a general term for any disorder of the peripheral nervous system. The main clinical features used to classify peripheral neuropathy are distribution, type (mainly demyelinating versus mainly axonal), duration, and course.
Orofacial dyskinesia
MedGen UID:
57747
Concept ID:
C0152115
Disease or Syndrome
Syndromes which feature dyskinesias as a cardinal manifestation of the disease process. Included in this category are degenerative, hereditary, post-infectious, medication-induced, post-inflammatory, and post-traumatic conditions.
Areflexia
MedGen UID:
115943
Concept ID:
C0234146
Finding
Absence of neurologic reflexes such as the knee-jerk reaction.
Cerebral atrophy
MedGen UID:
116012
Concept ID:
C0235946
Disease or Syndrome
Atrophy (wasting, decrease in size of cells or tissue) affecting the cerebrum.
Epileptic encephalopathy
MedGen UID:
452596
Concept ID:
C0543888
Disease or Syndrome
A condition in which epileptiform abnormalities are believed to contribute to the progressive disturbance in cerebral function. Epileptic encephalaopathy is characterized by (1) electrographic EEG paroxysmal activity that is often aggressive, (2) seizures that are usually multiform and intractable, (3) cognitive, behavioral and neurological deficits that may be relentless, and (4) sometimes early death.
Global developmental delay
MedGen UID:
107838
Concept ID:
C0557874
Finding
A delay in the achievement of motor or mental milestones in the domains of development of a child, including motor skills, speech and language, cognitive skills, and social and emotional skills. This term should only be used to describe children younger than five years of age.
Limb dystonia
MedGen UID:
152944
Concept ID:
C0751093
Sign or Symptom
A type of dystonia (abnormally increased muscular tone causing fixed abnormal postures) that affects muscles of the limbs.
CNS hypomyelination
MedGen UID:
892446
Concept ID:
C4025616
Finding
Reduced amount of myelin in the central nervous system resulting from defective myelinogenesis.
Myoclonic seizure
MedGen UID:
1385980
Concept ID:
C4317123
Sign or Symptom
A myoclonic seizure is a type of motor seizure characterized by sudden, brief (<100 ms) involuntary single or multiple contraction of muscles or muscle groups of variable topography (axial, proximal limb, distal). Myoclonus is less regularly repetitive and less sustained than is clonus.
Hip dislocation
MedGen UID:
42455
Concept ID:
C0019554
Injury or Poisoning
Displacement of the femur from its normal location in the hip joint.
Axial hypotonia
MedGen UID:
342959
Concept ID:
C1853743
Finding
Muscular hypotonia (abnormally low muscle tone) affecting the musculature of the trunk.
Microcephaly
MedGen UID:
1644158
Concept ID:
C4551563
Finding
Head circumference below 2 standard deviations below the mean for age and gender.
Blepharospasm
MedGen UID:
599
Concept ID:
C0005747
Disease or Syndrome
A focal dystonia that affects the muscles of the eyelids and brow, associated with involuntary recurrent spasm of both eyelids.
Nystagmus
MedGen UID:
45166
Concept ID:
C0028738
Disease or Syndrome
Rhythmic, involuntary oscillations of one or both eyes related to abnormality in fixation, conjugate gaze, or vestibular mechanisms.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Brock DC, Abbott M, Reed L, Kammeyer R, Gibbons M, Angione K, Bernard TJ, Gaskell A, Demarest S
Epilepsy Res 2023 Jul;193:107167. Epub 2023 May 12 doi: 10.1016/j.eplepsyres.2023.107167. PMID: 37230012
Cardenal-Muñoz E, Auvin S, Villanueva V, Cross JH, Zuberi SM, Lagae L, Aibar JÁ
Epilepsia Open 2022 Mar;7(1):11-26. Epub 2021 Dec 19 doi: 10.1002/epi4.12569. PMID: 34882995Free PMC Article
Coughlin CR 2nd, Tseng LA, Abdenur JE, Ashmore C, Boemer F, Bok LA, Boyer M, Buhas D, Clayton PT, Das A, Dekker H, Evangeliou A, Feillet F, Footitt EJ, Gospe SM Jr, Hartmann H, Kara M, Kristensen E, Lee J, Lilje R, Longo N, Lunsing RJ, Mills P, Papadopoulou MT, Pearl PL, Piazzon F, Plecko B, Saini AG, Santra S, Sjarif DR, Stockler-Ipsiroglu S, Striano P, Van Hove JLK, Verhoeven-Duif NM, Wijburg FA, Zuberi SM, van Karnebeek CDM
J Inherit Metab Dis 2021 Jan;44(1):178-192. Epub 2020 Dec 1 doi: 10.1002/jimd.12332. PMID: 33200442

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Knupp KG, Scheffer IE, Ceulemans B, Sullivan J, Nickels KC, Lagae L, Guerrini R, Zuberi SM, Nabbout R, Riney K, Agarwal A, Lock M, Dai D, Farfel GM, Galer BS, Gammaitoni AR, Polega S, Davis R, Gil-Nagel A
Epilepsia 2023 Jan;64(1):139-151. Epub 2022 Nov 9 doi: 10.1111/epi.17431. PMID: 36196777Free PMC Article
Moreno-De-Luca A, Millan F, Pesacreta DR, Elloumi HZ, Oetjens MT, Teigen C, Wain KE, Scuffins J, Myers SM, Torene RI, Gainullin VG, Arvai K, Kirchner HL, Ledbetter DH, Retterer K, Martin CL
JAMA 2021 Feb 2;325(5):467-475. doi: 10.1001/jama.2020.26148. PMID: 33528536Free PMC Article
Coughlin CR 2nd, Tseng LA, Abdenur JE, Ashmore C, Boemer F, Bok LA, Boyer M, Buhas D, Clayton PT, Das A, Dekker H, Evangeliou A, Feillet F, Footitt EJ, Gospe SM Jr, Hartmann H, Kara M, Kristensen E, Lee J, Lilje R, Longo N, Lunsing RJ, Mills P, Papadopoulou MT, Pearl PL, Piazzon F, Plecko B, Saini AG, Santra S, Sjarif DR, Stockler-Ipsiroglu S, Striano P, Van Hove JLK, Verhoeven-Duif NM, Wijburg FA, Zuberi SM, van Karnebeek CDM
J Inherit Metab Dis 2021 Jan;44(1):178-192. Epub 2020 Dec 1 doi: 10.1002/jimd.12332. PMID: 33200442
Bar C, Barcia G, Jennesson M, Le Guyader G, Schneider A, Mignot C, Lesca G, Breuillard D, Montomoli M, Keren B, Doummar D, Billette de Villemeur T, Afenjar A, Marey I, Gerard M, Isnard H, Poisson A, Dupont S, Berquin P, Meyer P, Genevieve D, De Saint Martin A, El Chehadeh S, Chelly J, Guët A, Scalais E, Dorison N, Myers CT, Mefford HC, Howell KB, Marini C, Freeman JL, Nica A, Terrone G, Sekhara T, Lebre AS, Odent S, Sadleir LG, Munnich A, Guerrini R, Scheffer IE, Kabashi E, Nabbout R
Hum Mutat 2020 Jan;41(1):69-80. Epub 2019 Oct 4 doi: 10.1002/humu.23915. PMID: 31513310
Veroniki AA, Rios P, Cogo E, Straus SE, Finkelstein Y, Kealey R, Reynen E, Soobiah C, Thavorn K, Hutton B, Hemmelgarn BR, Yazdi F, D'Souza J, MacDonald H, Tricco AC
BMJ Open 2017 Jul 20;7(7):e017248. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2017-017248. PMID: 28729328Free PMC Article

Diagnosis

Vezyroglou A, Akilapa R, Barwick K, Koene S, Brownstein CA, Holder-Espinasse M, Fry AE, Németh AH, Tofaris GK, Hay E, Hughes I, Mansour S, Mordekar SR, Splitt M, Turnpenny PD, Demetriou D, Koopmann TT, Ruivenkamp CAL, Agrawal PB, Carr L, Clowes V, Ghali N, Holder SE, Radley J, Male A, Sisodiya SM, Kurian MA, Cross JH, Balasubramanian M
Neurology 2022 Oct 4;99(14):e1511-e1526. Epub 2022 Jul 18 doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000200927. PMID: 36192182Free PMC Article
Cardenal-Muñoz E, Auvin S, Villanueva V, Cross JH, Zuberi SM, Lagae L, Aibar JÁ
Epilepsia Open 2022 Mar;7(1):11-26. Epub 2021 Dec 19 doi: 10.1002/epi4.12569. PMID: 34882995Free PMC Article
Cousin MA, Creighton BA, Breau KA, Spillmann RC, Torti E, Dontu S, Tripathi S, Ajit D, Edwards RJ, Afriyie S, Bay JC, Harper KM, Beltran AA, Munoz LJ, Falcon Rodriguez L, Stankewich MC, Person RE, Si Y, Normand EA, Blevins A, May AS, Bier L, Aggarwal V, Mancini GMS, van Slegtenhorst MA, Cremer K, Becker J, Engels H, Aretz S, MacKenzie JJ, Brilstra E, van Gassen KLI, van Jaarsveld RH, Oegema R, Parsons GM, Mark P, Helbig I, McKeown SE, Stratton R, Cogne B, Isidor B, Cacheiro P, Smedley D, Firth HV, Bierhals T, Kloth K, Weiss D, Fairley C, Shieh JT, Kritzer A, Jayakar P, Kurtz-Nelson E, Bernier RA, Wang T, Eichler EE, van de Laar IMBH, McConkie-Rosell A, McDonald MT, Kemppainen J, Lanpher BC, Schultz-Rogers LE, Gunderson LB, Pichurin PN, Yoon G, Zech M, Jech R, Winkelmann J; Undiagnosed Diseases Network; Genomics England Research Consortium, Beltran AS, Zimmermann MT, Temple B, Moy SS, Klee EW, Tan QK, Lorenzo DN
Nat Genet 2021 Jul;53(7):1006-1021. Epub 2021 Jul 1 doi: 10.1038/s41588-021-00886-z. PMID: 34211179Free PMC Article
Coughlin CR 2nd, Tseng LA, Abdenur JE, Ashmore C, Boemer F, Bok LA, Boyer M, Buhas D, Clayton PT, Das A, Dekker H, Evangeliou A, Feillet F, Footitt EJ, Gospe SM Jr, Hartmann H, Kara M, Kristensen E, Lee J, Lilje R, Longo N, Lunsing RJ, Mills P, Papadopoulou MT, Pearl PL, Piazzon F, Plecko B, Saini AG, Santra S, Sjarif DR, Stockler-Ipsiroglu S, Striano P, Van Hove JLK, Verhoeven-Duif NM, Wijburg FA, Zuberi SM, van Karnebeek CDM
J Inherit Metab Dis 2021 Jan;44(1):178-192. Epub 2020 Dec 1 doi: 10.1002/jimd.12332. PMID: 33200442
Bar C, Barcia G, Jennesson M, Le Guyader G, Schneider A, Mignot C, Lesca G, Breuillard D, Montomoli M, Keren B, Doummar D, Billette de Villemeur T, Afenjar A, Marey I, Gerard M, Isnard H, Poisson A, Dupont S, Berquin P, Meyer P, Genevieve D, De Saint Martin A, El Chehadeh S, Chelly J, Guët A, Scalais E, Dorison N, Myers CT, Mefford HC, Howell KB, Marini C, Freeman JL, Nica A, Terrone G, Sekhara T, Lebre AS, Odent S, Sadleir LG, Munnich A, Guerrini R, Scheffer IE, Kabashi E, Nabbout R
Hum Mutat 2020 Jan;41(1):69-80. Epub 2019 Oct 4 doi: 10.1002/humu.23915. PMID: 31513310

Therapy

Sullivan J, Gunning B, Zafar M, Guerrini R, Gecz J, Kolc KL, Zhao Y, Gasior M, Aimetti AA, Samanta D
Epilepsy Res 2023 Mar;191:107112. Epub 2023 Feb 22 doi: 10.1016/j.eplepsyres.2023.107112. PMID: 36870093
Knupp KG, Scheffer IE, Ceulemans B, Sullivan J, Nickels KC, Lagae L, Guerrini R, Zuberi SM, Nabbout R, Riney K, Agarwal A, Lock M, Dai D, Farfel GM, Galer BS, Gammaitoni AR, Polega S, Davis R, Gil-Nagel A
Epilepsia 2023 Jan;64(1):139-151. Epub 2022 Nov 9 doi: 10.1111/epi.17431. PMID: 36196777Free PMC Article
Patel AD, Mazurkiewicz-Bełdzińska M, Chin RF, Gil-Nagel A, Gunning B, Halford JJ, Mitchell W, Scott Perry M, Thiele EA, Weinstock A, Dunayevich E, Checketts D, Devinsky O
Epilepsia 2021 Sep;62(9):2228-2239. Epub 2021 Jul 20 doi: 10.1111/epi.17000. PMID: 34287833
Coughlin CR 2nd, Tseng LA, Abdenur JE, Ashmore C, Boemer F, Bok LA, Boyer M, Buhas D, Clayton PT, Das A, Dekker H, Evangeliou A, Feillet F, Footitt EJ, Gospe SM Jr, Hartmann H, Kara M, Kristensen E, Lee J, Lilje R, Longo N, Lunsing RJ, Mills P, Papadopoulou MT, Pearl PL, Piazzon F, Plecko B, Saini AG, Santra S, Sjarif DR, Stockler-Ipsiroglu S, Striano P, Van Hove JLK, Verhoeven-Duif NM, Wijburg FA, Zuberi SM, van Karnebeek CDM
J Inherit Metab Dis 2021 Jan;44(1):178-192. Epub 2020 Dec 1 doi: 10.1002/jimd.12332. PMID: 33200442
Veroniki AA, Rios P, Cogo E, Straus SE, Finkelstein Y, Kealey R, Reynen E, Soobiah C, Thavorn K, Hutton B, Hemmelgarn BR, Yazdi F, D'Souza J, MacDonald H, Tricco AC
BMJ Open 2017 Jul 20;7(7):e017248. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2017-017248. PMID: 28729328Free PMC Article

Prognosis

Koh HY, Smith L, Wiltrout KN, Podury A, Chourasia N, D'Gama AM, Park M, Knight D, Sexton EL, Koh JJ, Oby B, Pinsky R, Shao DD, French CE, Shao W, Rockowitz S, Sliz P, Zhang B, Mahida S, Moufawad El Achkar C, Yuskaitis CJ, Olson HE, Sheidley BR, Poduri AH; BCH Neurology Referral and Phenotyping Group
JAMA Netw Open 2023 Jul 3;6(7):e2324380. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2023.24380. PMID: 37471090Free PMC Article
Scheffer IE, Bennett CA, Gill D, de Silva MG, Boggs K, Marum J, Baker N; Australian Genomics DEE Flagship, Palmer EE, Howell KB
Dev Med Child Neurol 2023 Jan;65(1):50-57. Epub 2022 Jun 14 doi: 10.1111/dmcn.15308. PMID: 35701389Free PMC Article
Liu Q, Ma J, Yu G, Zhang Q, Zhu Y, Wang R, Yu H, Liu C, Sun Y, Wang W, Wang S, Ji T, Li M, Liu X, Jiang Y, Cai L, Wu Y
Seizure 2021 Nov;92:29-35. Epub 2021 Aug 14 doi: 10.1016/j.seizure.2021.08.006. PMID: 34416421
Bar C, Barcia G, Jennesson M, Le Guyader G, Schneider A, Mignot C, Lesca G, Breuillard D, Montomoli M, Keren B, Doummar D, Billette de Villemeur T, Afenjar A, Marey I, Gerard M, Isnard H, Poisson A, Dupont S, Berquin P, Meyer P, Genevieve D, De Saint Martin A, El Chehadeh S, Chelly J, Guët A, Scalais E, Dorison N, Myers CT, Mefford HC, Howell KB, Marini C, Freeman JL, Nica A, Terrone G, Sekhara T, Lebre AS, Odent S, Sadleir LG, Munnich A, Guerrini R, Scheffer IE, Kabashi E, Nabbout R
Hum Mutat 2020 Jan;41(1):69-80. Epub 2019 Oct 4 doi: 10.1002/humu.23915. PMID: 31513310
Christensen J, Grønborg TK, Sørensen MJ, Schendel D, Parner ET, Pedersen LH, Vestergaard M
JAMA 2013 Apr 24;309(16):1696-703. doi: 10.1001/jama.2013.2270. PMID: 23613074Free PMC Article

Clinical prediction guides

Maroofian R, Kaiyrzhanov R, Cali E, Zamani M, Zaki MS, Ferla M, Tortora D, Sadeghian S, Saadi SM, Abdullah U, Karimiani EG, Efthymiou S, Yeşil G, Alavi S, Al Shamsi AM, Tajsharghi H, Abdel-Hamid MS, Saadi NW, Al Mutairi F, Alabdi L, Beetz C, Ali Z, Toosi MB, Rudnik-Schöneborn S, Babaei M, Isohanni P, Muhammad J, Khan S, Al Shalan M, Hickey SE, Marom D, Elhanan E, Kurian MA, Marafi D, Saberi A, Hamid M, Spaull R, Meng L, Lalani S, Maqbool S, Rahman F, Seeger J, Palculict TB, Lau T, Murphy D, Mencacci NE, Steindl K, Begemann A, Rauch A, Akbas S, Aslanger AD, Salpietro V, Yousaf H, Ben-Shachar S, Ejeskär K, Al Aqeel AI, High FA, Armstrong-Javors AE, Zahraei SM, Seifi T, Zeighami J, Shariati G, Sedaghat A, Asl SN, Shahrooei M, Zifarelli G, Burglen L, Ravelli C, Zschocke J, Schatz UA, Ghavideldarestani M, Kamel WA, Van Esch H, Hackenberg A, Taylor JC, Al-Gazali L, Bauer P, Gleeson JJ, Alkuraya FS, Lupski JR, Galehdari H, Azizimalamiri R, Chung WK, Baig SM, Houlden H, Severino M
Brain 2023 Dec 1;146(12):5031-5043. doi: 10.1093/brain/awad257. PMID: 37517035Free PMC Article
Knupp KG, Scheffer IE, Ceulemans B, Sullivan J, Nickels KC, Lagae L, Guerrini R, Zuberi SM, Nabbout R, Riney K, Agarwal A, Lock M, Dai D, Farfel GM, Galer BS, Gammaitoni AR, Polega S, Davis R, Gil-Nagel A
Epilepsia 2023 Jan;64(1):139-151. Epub 2022 Nov 9 doi: 10.1111/epi.17431. PMID: 36196777Free PMC Article
Vezyroglou A, Akilapa R, Barwick K, Koene S, Brownstein CA, Holder-Espinasse M, Fry AE, Németh AH, Tofaris GK, Hay E, Hughes I, Mansour S, Mordekar SR, Splitt M, Turnpenny PD, Demetriou D, Koopmann TT, Ruivenkamp CAL, Agrawal PB, Carr L, Clowes V, Ghali N, Holder SE, Radley J, Male A, Sisodiya SM, Kurian MA, Cross JH, Balasubramanian M
Neurology 2022 Oct 4;99(14):e1511-e1526. Epub 2022 Jul 18 doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000200927. PMID: 36192182Free PMC Article
Patel AD, Mazurkiewicz-Bełdzińska M, Chin RF, Gil-Nagel A, Gunning B, Halford JJ, Mitchell W, Scott Perry M, Thiele EA, Weinstock A, Dunayevich E, Checketts D, Devinsky O
Epilepsia 2021 Sep;62(9):2228-2239. Epub 2021 Jul 20 doi: 10.1111/epi.17000. PMID: 34287833
Cousin MA, Creighton BA, Breau KA, Spillmann RC, Torti E, Dontu S, Tripathi S, Ajit D, Edwards RJ, Afriyie S, Bay JC, Harper KM, Beltran AA, Munoz LJ, Falcon Rodriguez L, Stankewich MC, Person RE, Si Y, Normand EA, Blevins A, May AS, Bier L, Aggarwal V, Mancini GMS, van Slegtenhorst MA, Cremer K, Becker J, Engels H, Aretz S, MacKenzie JJ, Brilstra E, van Gassen KLI, van Jaarsveld RH, Oegema R, Parsons GM, Mark P, Helbig I, McKeown SE, Stratton R, Cogne B, Isidor B, Cacheiro P, Smedley D, Firth HV, Bierhals T, Kloth K, Weiss D, Fairley C, Shieh JT, Kritzer A, Jayakar P, Kurtz-Nelson E, Bernier RA, Wang T, Eichler EE, van de Laar IMBH, McConkie-Rosell A, McDonald MT, Kemppainen J, Lanpher BC, Schultz-Rogers LE, Gunderson LB, Pichurin PN, Yoon G, Zech M, Jech R, Winkelmann J; Undiagnosed Diseases Network; Genomics England Research Consortium, Beltran AS, Zimmermann MT, Temple B, Moy SS, Klee EW, Tan QK, Lorenzo DN
Nat Genet 2021 Jul;53(7):1006-1021. Epub 2021 Jul 1 doi: 10.1038/s41588-021-00886-z. PMID: 34211179Free PMC Article

Recent systematic reviews

Rondão MBA, Hsu BRRHS, Centeno RS, de Aguiar PHP
Seizure 2023 Aug;110:58-68. Epub 2023 Jun 3 doi: 10.1016/j.seizure.2023.04.020. PMID: 37327751
Strzelczyk A, Zuberi SM, Striano P, Rosenow F, Schubert-Bast S
Orphanet J Rare Dis 2023 Mar 1;18(1):42. doi: 10.1186/s13023-023-02626-4. PMID: 36859290Free PMC Article
Coughlin CR 2nd, Tseng LA, Abdenur JE, Ashmore C, Boemer F, Bok LA, Boyer M, Buhas D, Clayton PT, Das A, Dekker H, Evangeliou A, Feillet F, Footitt EJ, Gospe SM Jr, Hartmann H, Kara M, Kristensen E, Lee J, Lilje R, Longo N, Lunsing RJ, Mills P, Papadopoulou MT, Pearl PL, Piazzon F, Plecko B, Saini AG, Santra S, Sjarif DR, Stockler-Ipsiroglu S, Striano P, Van Hove JLK, Verhoeven-Duif NM, Wijburg FA, Zuberi SM, van Karnebeek CDM
J Inherit Metab Dis 2021 Jan;44(1):178-192. Epub 2020 Dec 1 doi: 10.1002/jimd.12332. PMID: 33200442
Veroniki AA, Rios P, Cogo E, Straus SE, Finkelstein Y, Kealey R, Reynen E, Soobiah C, Thavorn K, Hutton B, Hemmelgarn BR, Yazdi F, D'Souza J, MacDonald H, Tricco AC
BMJ Open 2017 Jul 20;7(7):e017248. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2017-017248. PMID: 28729328Free PMC Article
Nevalainen O, Ansakorpi H, Simola M, Raitanen J, Isojärvi J, Artama M, Auvinen A
Neurology 2014 Nov 18;83(21):1968-77. Epub 2014 Oct 22 doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000001005. PMID: 25339211

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