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Vascular calcification

MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: Calcification, Vascular; Calcinosis, Vascular; Vascular Calcification; Vascular Calcifications; Vascular Calcinoses; Vascular Calcinosis
SNOMED CT: Vascular calcification (237897009)
HPO: HP:0004934


Abnormal calcification of the vasculature. [from HPO]

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • CROGVVascular calcification

Conditions with this feature

Gaucher disease type III
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Gaucher disease (GD) encompasses a continuum of clinical findings from a perinatal lethal disorder to an asymptomatic type. The identification of three major clinical types (1, 2, and 3) and two other subtypes (perinatal-lethal and cardiovascular) is useful in determining prognosis and management. GD type 1 is characterized by the presence of clinical or radiographic evidence of bone disease (osteopenia, focal lytic or sclerotic lesions, and osteonecrosis), hepatosplenomegaly, anemia and thrombocytopenia, lung disease, and the absence of primary central nervous system disease. GD types 2 and 3 are characterized by the presence of primary neurologic disease; in the past, they were distinguished by age of onset and rate of disease progression, but these distinctions are not absolute. Disease with onset before age two years, limited psychomotor development, and a rapidly progressive course with death by age two to four years is classified as GD type 2. Individuals with GD type 3 may have onset before age two years, but often have a more slowly progressive course, with survival into the third or fourth decade. The perinatal-lethal form is associated with ichthyosiform or collodion skin abnormalities or with nonimmune hydrops fetalis. The cardiovascular form is characterized by calcification of the aortic and mitral valves, mild splenomegaly, corneal opacities, and supranuclear ophthalmoplegia. Cardiopulmonary complications have been described with all the clinical subtypes, although varying in frequency and severity.
Tumoral calcinosis, hyperphosphatemic, familial, 1
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Hyperphosphatemic familial tumoral calcinosis (HFTC) is characterized by: Ectopic calcifications (tumoral calcinosis) typically found in periarticular soft tissues exposed to repetitive trauma or prolonged pressure (e.g., hips, elbows, and shoulders); and Painful swellings (referred to as hyperostosis) in the areas overlying the diaphyses of the tibiae (and less often the ulna, metacarpal bones, and radius). The dental phenotype unique to HFTC includes enamel hypoplasia, short and bulbous roots, obliteration of pulp chambers and canals, and pulp stones. Less common are large and small vessel calcifications that are often asymptomatic incidental findings on radiologic studies but can also cause peripheral vascular insufficiency (e.g., pain, cold extremities, and decreased peripheral pulses). Less frequently reported findings include testicular microlithiasis and angioid streaks of the retina.

Professional guidelines


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Chang JJ
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Recent clinical studies


Lanzer P, Hannan FM, Lanzer JD, Janzen J, Raggi P, Furniss D, Schuchardt M, Thakker R, Fok PW, Saez-Rodriguez J, Millan A, Sato Y, Ferraresi R, Virmani R, St Hilaire C
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Lee SJ, Lee IK, Jeon JH
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Ma WQ, Sun XJ, Zhu Y, Liu NF
Free Radic Biol Med 2021 Mar;165:229-242. Epub 2021 Jan 26 doi: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2021.01.033. PMID: 33513420
Lee SJ, Lee IK, Jeon JH
Int J Mol Sci 2020 Apr 13;21(8) doi: 10.3390/ijms21082685. PMID: 32294899Free PMC Article
Makowski GS
Adv Clin Chem 2020;95:xi-xii. doi: 10.1016/S0065-2423(20)30032-9. PMID: 32122526
Chang JJ
Adv Skin Wound Care 2019 May;32(5):205-215. doi: 10.1097/01.ASW.0000554443.14002.13. PMID: 31008757
Nakahara T, Dweck MR, Narula N, Pisapia D, Narula J, Strauss HW
JACC Cardiovasc Imaging 2017 May;10(5):582-593. doi: 10.1016/j.jcmg.2017.03.005. PMID: 28473100


Sakaguchi Y
Clin Exp Nephrol 2022 May;26(5):379-384. Epub 2022 Jan 25 doi: 10.1007/s10157-022-02182-4. PMID: 35076791Free PMC Article
Ogata H, Fukagawa M, Hirakata H, Kagimura T, Fukushima M, Akizawa T; LANDMARK Investigators and Committees
JAMA 2021 May 18;325(19):1946-1954. doi: 10.1001/jama.2021.4807. PMID: 34003226Free PMC Article
Liu X, Chen A, Liang Q, Yang X, Dong Q, Fu M, Wang S, Li Y, Ye Y, Lan Z, Chen Y, Ou JS, Yang P, Lu L, Yan J
Aging Cell 2021 Jun;20(6):e13377. Epub 2021 May 9 doi: 10.1111/acel.13377. PMID: 33969611Free PMC Article
Sanchez-Lozada LG, Rodriguez-Iturbe B, Kelley EE, Nakagawa T, Madero M, Feig DI, Borghi C, Piani F, Cara-Fuentes G, Bjornstad P, Lanaspa MA, Johnson RJ
Am J Hypertens 2020 Jul 18;33(7):583-594. doi: 10.1093/ajh/hpaa044. PMID: 32179896Free PMC Article
Reiss AB, Miyawaki N, Moon J, Kasselman LJ, Voloshyna I, D'Avino R Jr, De Leon J
Atherosclerosis 2018 Nov;278:49-59. Epub 2018 Aug 30 doi: 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2018.08.046. PMID: 30253289


Kakani E, Elyamny M, Ayach T, El-Husseini A
Semin Dial 2019 Nov;32(6):553-561. Epub 2019 Aug 29 doi: 10.1111/sdi.12840. PMID: 31464003
Mitchell JD, Fergestrom N, Gage BF, Paisley R, Moon P, Novak E, Cheezum M, Shaw LJ, Villines TC
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Budoff MJ, Young R, Burke G, Jeffrey Carr J, Detrano RC, Folsom AR, Kronmal R, Lima JAC, Liu KJ, McClelland RL, Michos E, Post WS, Shea S, Watson KE, Wong ND
Eur Heart J 2018 Jul 1;39(25):2401-2408. doi: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehy217. PMID: 29688297Free PMC Article
Gungor O, Kocyigit I, Yilmaz MI, Sezer S
Semin Dial 2018 Jan;31(1):72-81. Epub 2017 Jun 13 doi: 10.1111/sdi.12616. PMID: 28608927
Nigwekar SU
Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens 2017 Jul;26(4):276-281. doi: 10.1097/MNH.0000000000000328. PMID: 28375870Free PMC Article

Clinical prediction guides

Budoff MJ, Kinninger A, Gransar H, Achenbach S, Al-Mallah M, Bax JJ, Berman DS, Cademartiri F, Callister TQ, Chang HJ, Chow BJW, Cury RC, Feuchtner G, Hadamitzky M, Hausleiter J, Kaufmann PA, Leipsic J, Lin FY, Kim YJ, Marques H, Pontone G, Rubinshtein R, Shaw LJ, Villines TC, Min JK; CONFIRM Investigators
JACC Cardiovasc Imaging 2023 Sep;16(9):1181-1189. Epub 2023 May 24 doi: 10.1016/j.jcmg.2023.03.008. PMID: 37227328
Bell KJL, White S, Hassan O, Zhu L, Scott AM, Clark J, Glasziou P
JAMA Intern Med 2022 Jun 1;182(6):634-642. doi: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2022.1262. PMID: 35467692Free PMC Article
Lee H, Martin S, Burt JR, Bagherzadeh PS, Rapaka S, Gray HN, Leonard TJ, Schwemmer C, Schoepf UJ
Curr Cardiol Rep 2020 Jul 9;22(9):90. doi: 10.1007/s11886-020-01337-7. PMID: 32647932
Wang Y, Osborne MT, Tung B, Li M, Li Y
J Am Heart Assoc 2018 Jun 28;7(13) doi: 10.1161/JAHA.118.008564. PMID: 29954746Free PMC Article
Fujino A, Mintz GS, Matsumura M, Lee T, Kim SY, Hoshino M, Usui E, Yonetsu T, Haag ES, Shlofmitz RA, Kakuta T, Maehara A
EuroIntervention 2018 Apr 6;13(18):e2182-e2189. doi: 10.4244/EIJ-D-17-00962. PMID: 29400655

Recent systematic reviews

Avvisato R, Jankauskas SS, Varzideh F, Kansakar U, Mone P, Santulli G
Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens 2023 Mar 1;32(2):134-140. Epub 2022 Dec 23 doi: 10.1097/MNH.0000000000000866. PMID: 36683537Free PMC Article
Xu C, Smith ER, Tiong MK, Ruderman I, Toussaint ND
J Am Soc Nephrol 2022 May;33(5):1011-1032. Epub 2022 Mar 1 doi: 10.1681/ASN.2021101327. PMID: 35232774Free PMC Article
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Nutrients 2020 Sep 23;12(10) doi: 10.3390/nu12102909. PMID: 32977548Free PMC Article
Jiang B, Guo N, Ge Y, Zhang L, Oudkerk M, Xie X
Br J Radiol 2020 Sep 1;93(1113):20190812. Epub 2020 Feb 6 doi: 10.1259/bjr.20190812. PMID: 32017605Free PMC Article
Caffarelli C, Montagnani A, Nuti R, Gonnelli S
Clin Interv Aging 2017;12:1819-1828. Epub 2017 Oct 30 doi: 10.2147/CIA.S138002. PMID: 29133976Free PMC Article

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