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MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
HPO: HP:0040278


A benign tumor (adenoma) of the pituitary gland [from HPO]

Conditions with this feature

Multiple endocrine neoplasia, type 1
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Neoplastic Process
Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) includes varying combinations of more than 20 endocrine and non-endocrine tumors. Endocrine tumors become evident either by overproduction of hormones by the tumor or by growth of the tumor itself. Parathyroid tumors are the most common MEN1-associated endocrinopathy; onset in 90% of individuals is between ages 20 and 25 years with hypercalcemia evident by age 50 years; hypercalcemia causes lethargy, depression, confusion, anorexia, constipation, nausea, vomiting, diuresis, dehydration, hypercalciuria, kidney stones, increased bone resorption/fracture risk, hypertension, and shortened QT interval. Pituitary tumors include prolactinoma (the most common), which manifests as oligomenorrhea/amenorrhea and galactorrhea in females and sexual dysfunction in males. Well-differentiated endocrine tumors of the gastro-entero-pancreatic (GEP) tract can manifest as Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (gastrinoma); hypoglycemia (insulinoma); hyperglycemia, anorexia, glossitis, anemia, diarrhea, venous thrombosis, and skin rash (glucagonoma); and watery diarrhea, hypokalemia, and achlorhydria syndrome (vasoactive intestinal peptide [VIP]-secreting tumor). Carcinoid tumors are non-hormone-secreting and can manifest as a large mass after age 50 years. Adrenocortical tumors can be associated with primary hypercortisolism or hyperaldosteronism. Non-endocrine tumors include facial angiofibromas, collagenomas, lipomas, meningiomas, ependymomas, and leiomyomas.
Somatotroph adenoma
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Neoplastic Process
AIP familial isolated pituitary adenoma (AIP-FIPA) is defined as the presence of an AIP germline pathogenic variant in an individual with a pituitary adenoma (regardless of family history). The most commonly occurring pituitary adenomas in this disorder are growth hormone-secreting adenomas (somatotropinoma), followed by prolactin-secreting adenomas (prolactinoma), growth hormone and prolactin co-secreting adenomas (somatomammotropinoma), and nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (NFPA). Rarely TSH-secreting adenomas (thyrotropinomas) are observed. Clinical findings result from excess hormone secretion, lack of hormone secretion, and/or mass effects (e.g., headaches, visual field loss). Within the same family, pituitary adenomas can be of the same or different type. Age of onset in AIP-FIPA is usually in the second or third decade.

Professional guidelines


Giraldi E, Allen JW, Ioachimescu AG
Endocr Pract 2023 Jan;29(1):60-68. Epub 2022 Oct 18 doi: 10.1016/j.eprac.2022.10.004. PMID: 36270609
Inder WJ, Jang C
Medicina (Kaunas) 2022 Aug 13;58(8) doi: 10.3390/medicina58081095. PMID: 36013562Free PMC Article
Mehta GU, Lonser RR
Neuro Oncol 2017 Jun 1;19(6):762-773. doi: 10.1093/neuonc/now130. PMID: 27543627Free PMC Article

Recent clinical studies


Glezer A, Santana MR, Bronstein MD, Donato J Jr, Jallad RS
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2022;13:1018090. Epub 2023 Jan 10 doi: 10.3389/fendo.2022.1018090. PMID: 36704037Free PMC Article
Castinetti F, Albarel F, Amodru V, Cuny T, Dufour H, Graillon T, Morange I, Brue T
Ann Endocrinol (Paris) 2021 Feb;82(1):15-19. Epub 2020 Dec 26 doi: 10.1016/j.ando.2020.12.008. PMID: 33373604
Macotela Y, Triebel J, Clapp C
Trends Endocrinol Metab 2020 Apr;31(4):276-286. Epub 2020 Feb 7 doi: 10.1016/j.tem.2020.01.004. PMID: 32044206
Andersen M, Glintborg D
Front Horm Res 2018;49:29-47. Epub 2018 Apr 5 doi: 10.1159/000486000. PMID: 29894997
Maiter D
Ann Endocrinol (Paris) 2016 Jun;77(2):128-34. Epub 2016 Apr 26 doi: 10.1016/j.ando.2016.04.001. PMID: 27130071


Huynh PP, Ishii LE, Ishii M
JAMA 2021 Jan 12;325(2):195. doi: 10.1001/jama.2020.3744. PMID: 33433577
Grineva E
Neuroendocrinology 2019;109(1):5-6. Epub 2019 May 17 doi: 10.1159/000500723. PMID: 31167201
Shimon I
Neuroendocrinology 2019;109(1):51-56. Epub 2018 Nov 7 doi: 10.1159/000495184. PMID: 30404098
Glezer A, Bronstein MD
Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 2015 Mar;44(1):71-8. Epub 2014 Nov 6 doi: 10.1016/j.ecl.2014.11.003. PMID: 25732643
Romijn JA
Handb Clin Neurol 2014;124:185-95. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-444-59602-4.00013-7. PMID: 25248588


Urwyler SA, Karavitaki N
Pituitary 2023 Jun;26(3):273-277. Epub 2023 Mar 16 doi: 10.1007/s11102-023-01305-8. PMID: 36928728Free PMC Article
Inder WJ, Jang C
Medicina (Kaunas) 2022 Aug 13;58(8) doi: 10.3390/medicina58081095. PMID: 36013562Free PMC Article
Haider SA, Levy S, Rock JP, Craig JR
Otolaryngol Clin North Am 2022 Apr;55(2):305-314. Epub 2022 Mar 4 doi: 10.1016/j.otc.2021.12.005. PMID: 35256169
Romijn JA
Handb Clin Neurol 2014;124:185-95. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-444-59602-4.00013-7. PMID: 25248588
Prabhakar VK, Davis JR
Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol 2008 Apr;22(2):341-53. Epub 2007 Sep 21 doi: 10.1016/j.bpobgyn.2007.08.002. PMID: 17889620


Wan X, Yan Z, Tan Z, Cai Z, Qi Y, Lu L, Xu Y, Chen J, Lei T
Neuroendocrinology 2022;112(5):417-426. Epub 2021 May 25 doi: 10.1159/000517356. PMID: 34034260
Auriemma RS, Pirchio R, Pivonello R, Colao A
Maturitas 2021 Sep;151:36-40. Epub 2021 Jul 3 doi: 10.1016/j.maturitas.2021.06.014. PMID: 34446277
Daly AF, Beckers A
Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 2020 Sep;49(3):347-355. Epub 2020 Jun 10 doi: 10.1016/j.ecl.2020.04.002. PMID: 32741475
Chanson P, Maiter D
Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab 2019 Apr;33(2):101290. Epub 2019 Jul 10 doi: 10.1016/j.beem.2019.101290. PMID: 31326373
Freda PU, Beckers AM, Katznelson L, Molitch ME, Montori VM, Post KD, Vance ML; Endocrine Society
J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2011 Apr;96(4):894-904. doi: 10.1210/jc.2010-1048. PMID: 21474686Free PMC Article

Clinical prediction guides

Tritos NA, Miller KK
JAMA 2023 Apr 25;329(16):1386-1398. doi: 10.1001/jama.2023.5444. PMID: 37097352
Bonert V
Pituitary 2020 Jun;23(3):307-313. doi: 10.1007/s11102-020-01039-x. PMID: 32274622
Lopes MBS
Pituitary 2020 Feb;23(1):3-8. doi: 10.1007/s11102-019-00997-1. PMID: 31641970
Olarescu NC, Perez-Rivas LG, Gatto F, Cuny T, Tichomirowa MA, Tamagno G, Gahete MD; EYRC (ENEA Young Researcher Committee)
Neuroendocrinology 2019;109(1):57-69. Epub 2019 Jan 24 doi: 10.1159/000497205. PMID: 30677777
Molitch ME
JAMA 2017 Feb 7;317(5):516-524. doi: 10.1001/jama.2016.19699. PMID: 28170483

Recent systematic reviews

Al-Karagholi MA, Kalatharan V, Ghanizada H, Dussor G, Ashina M
Headache 2023 May;63(5):577-584. Epub 2023 Feb 8 doi: 10.1111/head.14412. PMID: 36752584
Al-Karagholi MA, Kalatharan V, Ghanizada H, Gram C, Dussor G, Ashina M
Cephalalgia 2023 Feb;43(2):3331024221136286. doi: 10.1177/03331024221136286. PMID: 36718026
Nucci D, Santangelo OE, Provenzano S, Nardi M, Firenze A, Gianfredi V
Int J Environ Res Public Health 2022 Aug 18;19(16) doi: 10.3390/ijerph191610299. PMID: 36011935Free PMC Article
Hu X, Wang X, Liang Y, Chen X, Zhou S, Fei W, Yang Y, Que H
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2022;13:937871. Epub 2022 Jul 12 doi: 10.3389/fendo.2022.937871. PMID: 35903279Free PMC Article
Kumar S, Sarathi V, Lila AR, Sehemby M, Memon SS, Karlekar M, Sankhe S, Patil VA, Shah N, Bandgar T
Pituitary 2022 Dec;25(6):819-830. Epub 2022 Jul 18 doi: 10.1007/s11102-022-01250-y. PMID: 35851929

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