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Acute flaccid myelitis

MedGen UID:
927532
Concept ID:
C4290000
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: acute flaccid myelitis; AFM syndrome
SNOMED CT: Acute flaccid myelitis (897031002)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0100115
Orphanet: ORPHA623801

Definition

An acute onset of focal limb weakness that is associated mainly with gray matter abnormalities or CSF pleocytosis, but which is without an apparent cause. [from NCI]

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • CROGVAcute flaccid myelitis

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Tisavipat N, Flanagan EP
Expert Rev Neurother 2023 Apr;23(4):389-411. Epub 2023 Apr 7 doi: 10.1080/14737175.2023.2195095. PMID: 37026545
Zhang C, Xu C, Dai W, Wang Y, Liu Z, Zhang X, Wang X, Wang H, Gong S, Cong Y, Huang Z
Nat Commun 2021 May 18;12(1):2904. doi: 10.1038/s41467-021-23199-5. PMID: 34006855Free PMC Article
Murphy OC, Messacar K, Benson L, Bove R, Carpenter JL, Crawford T, Dean J, DeBiasi R, Desai J, Elrick MJ, Farias-Moeller R, Gombolay GY, Greenberg B, Harmelink M, Hong S, Hopkins SE, Oleszek J, Otten C, Sadowsky CL, Schreiner TL, Thakur KT, Van Haren K, Carballo CM, Chong PF, Fall A, Gowda VK, Helfferich J, Kira R, Lim M, Lopez EL, Wells EM, Yeh EA, Pardo CA; AFM working group
Lancet 2021 Jan 23;397(10271):334-346. Epub 2020 Dec 23 doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)32723-9. PMID: 33357469Free PMC Article

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Bhattacharyya S, Bradshaw MJ
Continuum (Minneap Minn) 2021 Aug 1;27(4):887-920. doi: 10.1212/CON.0000000000001031. PMID: 34623097
Nosadini M, Eyre M, Molteni E, Thomas T, Irani SR, Dalmau J, Dale RC, Lim M; International NMDAR Antibody Encephalitis Consensus Group, Anlar B, Armangue T, Benseler S, Cellucci T, Deiva K, Gallentine W, Gombolay G, Gorman MP, Hacohen Y, Jiang Y, Lim BC, Muscal E, Ndondo A, Neuteboom R, Rostásy K, Sakuma H, Sartori S, Sharma S, Tenembaum SN, Van Mater HA, Wells E, Wickstrom R, Yeshokumar AK
JAMA Neurol 2021 Nov 1;78(11):1333-1344. doi: 10.1001/jamaneurol.2021.3188. PMID: 34542573Free PMC Article
Murphy OC, Messacar K, Benson L, Bove R, Carpenter JL, Crawford T, Dean J, DeBiasi R, Desai J, Elrick MJ, Farias-Moeller R, Gombolay GY, Greenberg B, Harmelink M, Hong S, Hopkins SE, Oleszek J, Otten C, Sadowsky CL, Schreiner TL, Thakur KT, Van Haren K, Carballo CM, Chong PF, Fall A, Gowda VK, Helfferich J, Kira R, Lim M, Lopez EL, Wells EM, Yeh EA, Pardo CA; AFM working group
Lancet 2021 Jan 23;397(10271):334-346. Epub 2020 Dec 23 doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)32723-9. PMID: 33357469Free PMC Article
Isada CM, Miller R
Curr Opin Infect Dis 2020 Jun;33(3):251-258. doi: 10.1097/QCO.0000000000000650. PMID: 32332224
Dubey D, Pittock SJ, Krecke KN, Morris PP, Sechi E, Zalewski NL, Weinshenker BG, Shosha E, Lucchinetti CF, Fryer JP, Lopez-Chiriboga AS, Chen JC, Jitprapaikulsan J, McKeon A, Gadoth A, Keegan BM, Tillema JM, Naddaf E, Patterson MC, Messacar K, Tyler KL, Flanagan EP
JAMA Neurol 2019 Mar 1;76(3):301-309. doi: 10.1001/jamaneurol.2018.4053. PMID: 30575890Free PMC Article

Diagnosis

Bhattacharyya S, Bradshaw MJ
Continuum (Minneap Minn) 2021 Aug 1;27(4):887-920. doi: 10.1212/CON.0000000000001031. PMID: 34623097
Ide W, Melicosta M, Trovato MK
Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am 2021 Aug;32(3):477-491. Epub 2021 May 20 doi: 10.1016/j.pmr.2021.02.004. PMID: 34175008
Murphy OC, Messacar K, Benson L, Bove R, Carpenter JL, Crawford T, Dean J, DeBiasi R, Desai J, Elrick MJ, Farias-Moeller R, Gombolay GY, Greenberg B, Harmelink M, Hong S, Hopkins SE, Oleszek J, Otten C, Sadowsky CL, Schreiner TL, Thakur KT, Van Haren K, Carballo CM, Chong PF, Fall A, Gowda VK, Helfferich J, Kira R, Lim M, Lopez EL, Wells EM, Yeh EA, Pardo CA; AFM working group
Lancet 2021 Jan 23;397(10271):334-346. Epub 2020 Dec 23 doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)32723-9. PMID: 33357469Free PMC Article
Isada CM, Miller R
Curr Opin Infect Dis 2020 Jun;33(3):251-258. doi: 10.1097/QCO.0000000000000650. PMID: 32332224
Dubey D, Pittock SJ, Krecke KN, Morris PP, Sechi E, Zalewski NL, Weinshenker BG, Shosha E, Lucchinetti CF, Fryer JP, Lopez-Chiriboga AS, Chen JC, Jitprapaikulsan J, McKeon A, Gadoth A, Keegan BM, Tillema JM, Naddaf E, Patterson MC, Messacar K, Tyler KL, Flanagan EP
JAMA Neurol 2019 Mar 1;76(3):301-309. doi: 10.1001/jamaneurol.2018.4053. PMID: 30575890Free PMC Article

Therapy

Nejati A, Soheili P, Yousefipoor S, Zahraei SM, Mahmoudi S, Yousefi M, Mollaei-Kandelous Y, Samimi-Rad K, Tabatabaie H, Khodakhah F, Shahmahmoodi S
Arch Virol 2022 Mar;167(3):891-899. Epub 2022 Feb 11 doi: 10.1007/s00705-022-05359-0. PMID: 35147803
Nosadini M, Eyre M, Molteni E, Thomas T, Irani SR, Dalmau J, Dale RC, Lim M; International NMDAR Antibody Encephalitis Consensus Group, Anlar B, Armangue T, Benseler S, Cellucci T, Deiva K, Gallentine W, Gombolay G, Gorman MP, Hacohen Y, Jiang Y, Lim BC, Muscal E, Ndondo A, Neuteboom R, Rostásy K, Sakuma H, Sartori S, Sharma S, Tenembaum SN, Van Mater HA, Wells E, Wickstrom R, Yeshokumar AK
JAMA Neurol 2021 Nov 1;78(11):1333-1344. doi: 10.1001/jamaneurol.2021.3188. PMID: 34542573Free PMC Article
Zhang C, Xu C, Dai W, Wang Y, Liu Z, Zhang X, Wang X, Wang H, Gong S, Cong Y, Huang Z
Nat Commun 2021 May 18;12(1):2904. doi: 10.1038/s41467-021-23199-5. PMID: 34006855Free PMC Article
Jheng JR, Chen YS, Horng JT
Antiviral Res 2021 Apr;188:105019. Epub 2021 Jan 20 doi: 10.1016/j.antiviral.2021.105019. PMID: 33484748
Gill PJ, Bitnun A, Yeh EA
CMAJ 2018 Dec 3;190(48):E1418. doi: 10.1503/cmaj.181442. PMID: 30510047Free PMC Article

Prognosis

Rosenfeld AB, Shen EQL, Melendez M, Mishra N, Lipkin WI, Racaniello VR
mBio 2022 Feb 22;13(1):e0366021. Epub 2022 Jan 18 doi: 10.1128/mbio.03660-21. PMID: 35038922Free PMC Article
Nosadini M, Eyre M, Molteni E, Thomas T, Irani SR, Dalmau J, Dale RC, Lim M; International NMDAR Antibody Encephalitis Consensus Group, Anlar B, Armangue T, Benseler S, Cellucci T, Deiva K, Gallentine W, Gombolay G, Gorman MP, Hacohen Y, Jiang Y, Lim BC, Muscal E, Ndondo A, Neuteboom R, Rostásy K, Sakuma H, Sartori S, Sharma S, Tenembaum SN, Van Mater HA, Wells E, Wickstrom R, Yeshokumar AK
JAMA Neurol 2021 Nov 1;78(11):1333-1344. doi: 10.1001/jamaneurol.2021.3188. PMID: 34542573Free PMC Article
Murphy OC, Messacar K, Benson L, Bove R, Carpenter JL, Crawford T, Dean J, DeBiasi R, Desai J, Elrick MJ, Farias-Moeller R, Gombolay GY, Greenberg B, Harmelink M, Hong S, Hopkins SE, Oleszek J, Otten C, Sadowsky CL, Schreiner TL, Thakur KT, Van Haren K, Carballo CM, Chong PF, Fall A, Gowda VK, Helfferich J, Kira R, Lim M, Lopez EL, Wells EM, Yeh EA, Pardo CA; AFM working group
Lancet 2021 Jan 23;397(10271):334-346. Epub 2020 Dec 23 doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)32723-9. PMID: 33357469Free PMC Article
Uprety P, Graf EH
Curr Opin Virol 2020 Feb;40:55-60. Epub 2020 Jul 22 doi: 10.1016/j.coviro.2020.06.006. PMID: 32711392
Dubey D, Pittock SJ, Krecke KN, Morris PP, Sechi E, Zalewski NL, Weinshenker BG, Shosha E, Lucchinetti CF, Fryer JP, Lopez-Chiriboga AS, Chen JC, Jitprapaikulsan J, McKeon A, Gadoth A, Keegan BM, Tillema JM, Naddaf E, Patterson MC, Messacar K, Tyler KL, Flanagan EP
JAMA Neurol 2019 Mar 1;76(3):301-309. doi: 10.1001/jamaneurol.2018.4053. PMID: 30575890Free PMC Article

Clinical prediction guides

Rosenfeld AB, Shen EQL, Melendez M, Mishra N, Lipkin WI, Racaniello VR
mBio 2022 Feb 22;13(1):e0366021. Epub 2022 Jan 18 doi: 10.1128/mbio.03660-21. PMID: 35038922Free PMC Article
Nosadini M, Eyre M, Molteni E, Thomas T, Irani SR, Dalmau J, Dale RC, Lim M; International NMDAR Antibody Encephalitis Consensus Group, Anlar B, Armangue T, Benseler S, Cellucci T, Deiva K, Gallentine W, Gombolay G, Gorman MP, Hacohen Y, Jiang Y, Lim BC, Muscal E, Ndondo A, Neuteboom R, Rostásy K, Sakuma H, Sartori S, Sharma S, Tenembaum SN, Van Mater HA, Wells E, Wickstrom R, Yeshokumar AK
JAMA Neurol 2021 Nov 1;78(11):1333-1344. doi: 10.1001/jamaneurol.2021.3188. PMID: 34542573Free PMC Article
Richter J, Tryfonos C, Christodoulou C
PLoS One 2019;14(8):e0220938. Epub 2019 Aug 8 doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0220938. PMID: 31393960Free PMC Article
Dubey D, Pittock SJ, Krecke KN, Morris PP, Sechi E, Zalewski NL, Weinshenker BG, Shosha E, Lucchinetti CF, Fryer JP, Lopez-Chiriboga AS, Chen JC, Jitprapaikulsan J, McKeon A, Gadoth A, Keegan BM, Tillema JM, Naddaf E, Patterson MC, Messacar K, Tyler KL, Flanagan EP
JAMA Neurol 2019 Mar 1;76(3):301-309. doi: 10.1001/jamaneurol.2018.4053. PMID: 30575890Free PMC Article
McCoy DB, Talbott JF, Wilson M, Mamlouk MD, Cohen-Adad J, Wilson M, Narvid J
AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2017 Feb;38(2):410-417. Epub 2016 Dec 15 doi: 10.3174/ajnr.A5044. PMID: 27979798Free PMC Article

Recent systematic reviews

Kozlowski J, Linzey JR, Muhlestein WE, Smith BW, Chang KW, Yang LJ
Plast Reconstr Surg 2023 Jan 1;151(1):85e-98e. Epub 2022 Oct 11 doi: 10.1097/PRS.0000000000009788. PMID: 36219869
Young M, Goldman-Yassen A, Anderson M, Thakral A, Dutt M, Wolf D, Morris M, Gombolay G
J Neuroimmunol 2022 Oct 15;371:577938. Epub 2022 Aug 1 doi: 10.1016/j.jneuroim.2022.577938. PMID: 35944453Free PMC Article
Gombolay GY, Dutt M, Tyor W
Ann Clin Transl Neurol 2022 Aug;9(8):1321-1331. Epub 2022 Jul 19 doi: 10.1002/acn3.51628. PMID: 35852423Free PMC Article
Fall A, Kenmoe S, Ebogo-Belobo JT, Mbaga DS, Bowo-Ngandji A, Foe-Essomba JR, Tchatchouang S, Amougou Atsama M, Yéngué JF, Kenfack-Momo R, Feudjio AF, Nka AD, Mbongue Mikangue CA, Taya-Fokou JB, Magoudjou-Pekam JN, Noura EA, Zemnou-Tepap C, Meta-Djomsi D, Maïdadi-Foudi M, Kame-Ngasse GI, Nyebe I, Djukouo LG, Kengne Gounmadje L, Tchami Ngongang D, Oyono MG, Demeni Emoh CP, Tazokong HR, Mahamat G, Kengne-Ndé C, Sadeuh-Mba SA, Dia N, La Rosa G, Ndip L, Njouom R
PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2022 Feb;16(2):e0010073. Epub 2022 Feb 8 doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0010073. PMID: 35134062Free PMC Article
Texakalidis P, Xenos D, Murthy NK, Karras CL, Trybula SJ, Behbahani M, DeCuypere MG, Lam SK, Alden TD
Childs Nerv Syst 2022 Mar;38(3):521-526. Epub 2022 Jan 4 doi: 10.1007/s00381-021-05419-x. PMID: 34982205

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