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Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 46(DEE46)

MedGen UID:
934654
Concept ID:
C4310687
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: DEE46; Epileptic encephalopathy, early infantile, 46
 
Gene (location): GRIN2D (19q13.33)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0014947
OMIM®: 617162

Disease characteristics

GRIN2D-related developmental and epileptic encephalopathy (GRIN2D-related DEE) is characterized by mild-to-profound developmental delay or intellectual disability, epilepsy, abnormal muscle tone (hypotonia and spasticity), movement disorders (dystonia, dyskinesia, chorea), autism spectrum disorder, and cortical visual impairment. Additional findings can include sleep disorders and feeding difficulties. To date 22 individuals with GRIN2D-related DEE have been reported. [from GeneReviews]
Authors:
Konrad Platzer  |  Ilona Krey  |  Johannes R Lemke   view full author information

Additional description

From OMIM
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-46 (DEE46) is a neurologic disorder characterized by the onset of intractable seizures in the first months or years of life. Affected individuals show global developmental delay with failure to thrive, hypotonia, and hyperreflexia with variably impaired intellectual development. More severely affected individuals have almost no developmental progress and are unable to sit or speak, whereas others may achieve some milestones (summary by Tsuchida et al., 2018). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.  http://www.omim.org/entry/617162

Clinical features

From HPO
Pes planus
MedGen UID:
42034
Concept ID:
C0016202
Anatomical Abnormality
A foot where the longitudinal arch of the foot is in contact with the ground or floor when the individual is standing; or, in a patient lying supine, a foot where the arch is in contact with the surface of a flat board pressed against the sole of the foot by the examiner with a pressure similar to that expected from weight bearing; or, the height of the arch is reduced.
Limb hypertonia
MedGen UID:
333083
Concept ID:
C1838391
Finding
Failure to thrive
MedGen UID:
746019
Concept ID:
C2315100
Disease or Syndrome
Failure to thrive (FTT) refers to a child whose physical growth is substantially below the norm.
Dysphagia
MedGen UID:
41440
Concept ID:
C0011168
Disease or Syndrome
Difficulty in swallowing.
Feeding difficulties
MedGen UID:
65429
Concept ID:
C0232466
Finding
Impaired ability to eat related to problems gathering food and getting ready to suck, chew, or swallow it.
Seizure
MedGen UID:
20693
Concept ID:
C0036572
Sign or Symptom
A seizure is an intermittent abnormality of nervous system physiology characterized by a transient occurrence of signs and/or symptoms due to abnormal excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.
Tremor
MedGen UID:
21635
Concept ID:
C0040822
Sign or Symptom
An unintentional, oscillating to-and-fro muscle movement about a joint axis.
Generalized-onset seizure
MedGen UID:
115963
Concept ID:
C0234533
Disease or Syndrome
A generalized-onset seizure is a type of seizure originating at some point within, and rapidly engaging, bilaterally distributed networks. The networks may include cortical and subcortical structures but not necessarily the entire cortex.
Cerebral atrophy
MedGen UID:
116012
Concept ID:
C0235946
Disease or Syndrome
Atrophy (wasting, decrease in size of cells or tissue) affecting the cerebrum.
Epileptic encephalopathy
MedGen UID:
452596
Concept ID:
C0543888
Disease or Syndrome
A condition in which epileptiform abnormalities are believed to contribute to the progressive disturbance in cerebral function. Epileptic encephalaopathy is characterized by (1) electrographic EEG paroxysmal activity that is often aggressive, (2) seizures that are usually multiform and intractable, (3) cognitive, behavioral and neurological deficits that may be relentless, and (4) sometimes early death.
Global developmental delay
MedGen UID:
107838
Concept ID:
C0557874
Finding
A delay in the achievement of motor or mental milestones in the domains of development of a child, including motor skills, speech and language, cognitive skills, and social and emotional skills. This term should only be used to describe children younger than five years of age.
Hypsarrhythmia
MedGen UID:
195766
Concept ID:
C0684276
Finding
Hypsarrhythmia is abnormal interictal high amplitude waves and a background of irregular spikes. There is continuous (during wakefulness), high-amplitude (>200 Hz), generalized polymorphic slowing with no organized background and multifocal spikes demonstrated by electroencephalography (EEG).
Absent speech
MedGen UID:
340737
Concept ID:
C1854882
Finding
Complete lack of development of speech and language abilities.
Axial hypotonia
MedGen UID:
342959
Concept ID:
C1853743
Finding
Muscular hypotonia (abnormally low muscle tone) affecting the musculature of the trunk.
Microcephaly
MedGen UID:
1644158
Concept ID:
C4551563
Finding
Head circumference below 2 standard deviations below the mean for age and gender.
Drooling
MedGen UID:
8484
Concept ID:
C0013132
Finding
Habitual flow of saliva out of the mouth.
Decreased fetal movement
MedGen UID:
68618
Concept ID:
C0235659
Finding
An abnormal reduction in quantity or strength of fetal movements.
Cerebral visual impairment
MedGen UID:
890568
Concept ID:
C4048268
Pathologic Function
A form of loss of vision caused by damage to the visual cortex rather than a defect in the eye.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

D'Gama AM, Mulhern S, Sheidley BR, Boodhoo F, Buts S, Chandler NJ, Cobb J, Curtis M, Higginbotham EJ, Holland J, Khan T, Koh J, Liang NSY, McRae L, Nesbitt SE, Oby BT, Paternoster B, Patton A, Rose G, Scotchman E, Valentine R, Wiltrout KN; Gene-STEPS Study Group; IPCHiP Executive Committee, Hayeems RZ, Jain P, Lunke S, Marshall CR, Rockowitz S, Sebire NJ, Stark Z, White SM, Chitty LS, Cross JH, Scheffer IE, Chau V, Costain G, Poduri A, Howell KB, McTague A
Lancet Neurol 2023 Sep;22(9):812-825. doi: 10.1016/S1474-4422(23)00246-6. PMID: 37596007
Engel C, Valence S, Delplancq G, Maroofian R, Accogli A, Agolini E, Alkuraya FS, Baglioni V, Bagnasco I, Becmeur-Lefebvre M, Bertini E, Borggraefe I, Brischoux-Boucher E, Bruel AL, Brusco A, Bubshait DK, Cabrol C, Cilio MR, Cornet MC, Coubes C, Danhaive O, Delague V, Denommé-Pichon AS, Di Giacomo MC, Doco-Fenzy M, Engels H, Cremer K, Gérard M, Gleeson JG, Heron D, Goffeney J, Guimier A, Harms FL, Houlden H, Iacomino M, Kaiyrzhanov R, Kamien B, Karimiani EG, Kraus D, Kuentz P, Kutsche K, Lederer D, Massingham L, Mignot C, Morris-Rosendahl D, Nagarajan L, Odent S, Ormières C, Partlow JN, Pasquier L, Penney L, Philippe C, Piccolo G, Poulton C, Putoux A, Rio M, Rougeot C, Salpietro V, Scheffer I, Schneider A, Srivastava S, Straussberg R, Striano P, Valente EM, Venot P, Villard L, Vitobello A, Wagner J, Wagner M, Zaki MS, Zara F, Lesca G, Yassaee VR, Miryounesi M, Hashemi-Gorji F, Beiraghi M, Ashrafzadeh F, Galehdari H, Walsh C, Novelli A, Tacke M, Sadykova D, Maidyrov Y, Koneev K, Shashkin C, Capra V, Zamani M, Van Maldergem L, Burglen L, Piard J
Eur J Hum Genet 2023 Sep;31(9):1023-1031. Epub 2023 Jun 21 doi: 10.1038/s41431-023-01410-z. PMID: 37344571Free PMC Article
Harvey S, Allen NM, King MD, Lynch B, Lynch SA, O'Regan M, O'Rourke D, Shahwan A, Webb D, Gorman KM; Irish Paediatric Neurology Group
Dev Med Child Neurol 2022 Jun;64(6):780-788. Epub 2022 Jan 29 doi: 10.1111/dmcn.15153. PMID: 35092693Free PMC Article

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Dreier JW, Bjørk MH, Alvestad S, Gissler M, Igland J, Leinonen MK, Sun Y, Zoega H, Cohen JM, Furu K, Tomson T, Christensen J
JAMA Neurol 2023 Jun 1;80(6):568-577. doi: 10.1001/jamaneurol.2023.0674. PMID: 37067807Free PMC Article
Knupp KG, Scheffer IE, Ceulemans B, Sullivan JE, Nickels KC, Lagae L, Guerrini R, Zuberi SM, Nabbout R, Riney K, Shore S, Agarwal A, Lock M, Farfel GM, Galer BS, Gammaitoni AR, Davis R, Gil-Nagel A
JAMA Neurol 2022 Jun 1;79(6):554-564. doi: 10.1001/jamaneurol.2022.0829. PMID: 35499850Free PMC Article
Salpietro V, Dixon CL, Guo H, Bello OD, Vandrovcova J, Efthymiou S, Maroofian R, Heimer G, Burglen L, Valence S, Torti E, Hacke M, Rankin J, Tariq H, Colin E, Procaccio V, Striano P, Mankad K, Lieb A, Chen S, Pisani L, Bettencourt C, Männikkö R, Manole A, Brusco A, Grosso E, Ferrero GB, Armstrong-Moron J, Gueden S, Bar-Yosef O, Tzadok M, Monaghan KG, Santiago-Sim T, Person RE, Cho MT, Willaert R, Yoo Y, Chae JH, Quan Y, Wu H, Wang T, Bernier RA, Xia K, Blesson A, Jain M, Motazacker MM, Jaeger B, Schneider AL, Boysen K, Muir AM, Myers CT, Gavrilova RH, Gunderson L, Schultz-Rogers L, Klee EW, Dyment D, Osmond M, Parellada M, Llorente C, Gonzalez-Peñas J, Carracedo A, Van Haeringen A, Ruivenkamp C, Nava C, Heron D, Nardello R, Iacomino M, Minetti C, Skabar A, Fabretto A; SYNAPS Study Group, Raspall-Chaure M, Chez M, Tsai A, Fassi E, Shinawi M, Constantino JN, De Zorzi R, Fortuna S, Kok F, Keren B, Bonneau D, Choi M, Benzeev B, Zara F, Mefford HC, Scheffer IE, Clayton-Smith J, Macaya A, Rothman JE, Eichler EE, Kullmann DM, Houlden H
Nat Commun 2019 Jul 12;10(1):3094. doi: 10.1038/s41467-019-10910-w. PMID: 31300657Free PMC Article
Veroniki AA, Rios P, Cogo E, Straus SE, Finkelstein Y, Kealey R, Reynen E, Soobiah C, Thavorn K, Hutton B, Hemmelgarn BR, Yazdi F, D'Souza J, MacDonald H, Tricco AC
BMJ Open 2017 Jul 20;7(7):e017248. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2017-017248. PMID: 28729328Free PMC Article
Cox DM, Butler MG
Int J Mol Sci 2015 Feb 13;16(2):4068-82. doi: 10.3390/ijms16024068. PMID: 25689425Free PMC Article

Diagnosis

Dreier JW, Bjørk MH, Alvestad S, Gissler M, Igland J, Leinonen MK, Sun Y, Zoega H, Cohen JM, Furu K, Tomson T, Christensen J
JAMA Neurol 2023 Jun 1;80(6):568-577. doi: 10.1001/jamaneurol.2023.0674. PMID: 37067807Free PMC Article
Kaya Özçora GD, Söbü E, Gümüş U
Neurol Res 2023 Mar;45(3):226-233. Epub 2023 Feb 2 doi: 10.1080/01616412.2023.2170917. PMID: 36731496
Knupp KG, Scheffer IE, Ceulemans B, Sullivan JE, Nickels KC, Lagae L, Guerrini R, Zuberi SM, Nabbout R, Riney K, Shore S, Agarwal A, Lock M, Farfel GM, Galer BS, Gammaitoni AR, Davis R, Gil-Nagel A
JAMA Neurol 2022 Jun 1;79(6):554-564. doi: 10.1001/jamaneurol.2022.0829. PMID: 35499850Free PMC Article
Berg AT, Mahida S, Poduri A
Ann Clin Transl Neurol 2021 Mar;8(3):666-676. Epub 2021 Feb 22 doi: 10.1002/acn3.51316. PMID: 33616268Free PMC Article
Christensen J, Grønborg TK, Sørensen MJ, Schendel D, Parner ET, Pedersen LH, Vestergaard M
JAMA 2013 Apr 24;309(16):1696-703. doi: 10.1001/jama.2013.2270. PMID: 23613074Free PMC Article

Therapy

Dreier JW, Bjørk MH, Alvestad S, Gissler M, Igland J, Leinonen MK, Sun Y, Zoega H, Cohen JM, Furu K, Tomson T, Christensen J
JAMA Neurol 2023 Jun 1;80(6):568-577. doi: 10.1001/jamaneurol.2023.0674. PMID: 37067807Free PMC Article
Knupp KG, Scheffer IE, Ceulemans B, Sullivan JE, Nickels KC, Lagae L, Guerrini R, Zuberi SM, Nabbout R, Riney K, Shore S, Agarwal A, Lock M, Farfel GM, Galer BS, Gammaitoni AR, Davis R, Gil-Nagel A
JAMA Neurol 2022 Jun 1;79(6):554-564. doi: 10.1001/jamaneurol.2022.0829. PMID: 35499850Free PMC Article
Brunklaus A, Du J, Steckler F, Ghanty II, Johannesen KM, Fenger CD, Schorge S, Baez-Nieto D, Wang HR, Allen A, Pan JQ, Lerche H, Heyne H, Symonds JD, Zuberi SM, Sanders S, Sheidley BR, Craiu D, Olson HE, Weckhuysen S, DeJonge P, Helbig I, Van Esch H, Busa T, Milh M, Isidor B, Depienne C, Poduri A, Campbell AJ, Dimidschstein J, Møller RS, Lal D
Epilepsia 2020 Mar;61(3):387-399. Epub 2020 Feb 23 doi: 10.1111/epi.16438. PMID: 32090326
Veroniki AA, Rios P, Cogo E, Straus SE, Finkelstein Y, Kealey R, Reynen E, Soobiah C, Thavorn K, Hutton B, Hemmelgarn BR, Yazdi F, D'Souza J, MacDonald H, Tricco AC
BMJ Open 2017 Jul 20;7(7):e017248. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2017-017248. PMID: 28729328Free PMC Article
Christensen J, Grønborg TK, Sørensen MJ, Schendel D, Parner ET, Pedersen LH, Vestergaard M
JAMA 2013 Apr 24;309(16):1696-703. doi: 10.1001/jama.2013.2270. PMID: 23613074Free PMC Article

Prognosis

Dreier JW, Bjørk MH, Alvestad S, Gissler M, Igland J, Leinonen MK, Sun Y, Zoega H, Cohen JM, Furu K, Tomson T, Christensen J
JAMA Neurol 2023 Jun 1;80(6):568-577. doi: 10.1001/jamaneurol.2023.0674. PMID: 37067807Free PMC Article
Bayat A, de Valles-Ibáñez G, Pendziwiat M, Knaus A, Alt K, Biamino E, Bley A, Calvert S, Carney P, Caro-Llopis A, Ceulemans B, Cousin J, Davis S, des Portes V, Edery P, England E, Ferreira C, Freeman J, Gener B, Gorce M, Heron D, Hildebrand MS, Jezela-Stanek A, Jouk PS, Keren B, Kloth K, Kluger G, Kuhn M, Lemke JR, Li H, Martinez F, Maxton C, Mefford HC, Merla G, Mierzewska H, Muir A, Monfort S, Nicolai J, Norman J, O'Grady G, Oleksy B, Orellana C, Orec LE, Peinhardt C, Pronicka E, Rosello M, Santos-Simarro F, Schwaibold EMC, Stegmann APA, Stumpel CT, Szczepanik E, Terczyńska I, Thevenon J, Tzschach A, Van Bogaert P, Vittorini R, Walsh S, Weckhuysen S, Weissman B, Wolfe L, Reymond A, De Nittis P, Poduri A, Olson H, Striano P, Lesca G, Scheffer IE, Møller RS, Sadleir LG
Epilepsia 2022 Apr;63(4):974-991. Epub 2022 Feb 18 doi: 10.1111/epi.17173. PMID: 35179230
Boets S, Johannesen KM, Destree A, Manti F, Ramantani G, Lesca G, Vercueil L, Koenig MK, Striano P, Møller RS, Cooper E, Weckhuysen S
J Med Genet 2022 Jun;59(6):528-535. Epub 2021 Apr 2 doi: 10.1136/jmedgenet-2020-107449. PMID: 33811133
Rosenfeld JA, Xiao R, Bekheirnia MR, Kanani F, Parker MJ, Koenig MK, van Haeringen A, Ruivenkamp C, Rosmaninho-Salgado J, Almeida PM, Sá J, Pinto Basto J, Palen E, Oetjens KF, Burrage LC, Xia F, Liu P, Eng CM; Undiagnosed Diseases Network, Yang Y, Posey JE, Lee BH
Am J Med Genet A 2021 Jul;185(7):2037-2045. Epub 2021 Apr 13 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.62201. PMID: 33847457
Christensen J, Grønborg TK, Sørensen MJ, Schendel D, Parner ET, Pedersen LH, Vestergaard M
JAMA 2013 Apr 24;309(16):1696-703. doi: 10.1001/jama.2013.2270. PMID: 23613074Free PMC Article

Clinical prediction guides

Knupp KG, Scheffer IE, Ceulemans B, Sullivan JE, Nickels KC, Lagae L, Guerrini R, Zuberi SM, Nabbout R, Riney K, Shore S, Agarwal A, Lock M, Farfel GM, Galer BS, Gammaitoni AR, Davis R, Gil-Nagel A
JAMA Neurol 2022 Jun 1;79(6):554-564. doi: 10.1001/jamaneurol.2022.0829. PMID: 35499850Free PMC Article
Bayat A, de Valles-Ibáñez G, Pendziwiat M, Knaus A, Alt K, Biamino E, Bley A, Calvert S, Carney P, Caro-Llopis A, Ceulemans B, Cousin J, Davis S, des Portes V, Edery P, England E, Ferreira C, Freeman J, Gener B, Gorce M, Heron D, Hildebrand MS, Jezela-Stanek A, Jouk PS, Keren B, Kloth K, Kluger G, Kuhn M, Lemke JR, Li H, Martinez F, Maxton C, Mefford HC, Merla G, Mierzewska H, Muir A, Monfort S, Nicolai J, Norman J, O'Grady G, Oleksy B, Orellana C, Orec LE, Peinhardt C, Pronicka E, Rosello M, Santos-Simarro F, Schwaibold EMC, Stegmann APA, Stumpel CT, Szczepanik E, Terczyńska I, Thevenon J, Tzschach A, Van Bogaert P, Vittorini R, Walsh S, Weckhuysen S, Weissman B, Wolfe L, Reymond A, De Nittis P, Poduri A, Olson H, Striano P, Lesca G, Scheffer IE, Møller RS, Sadleir LG
Epilepsia 2022 Apr;63(4):974-991. Epub 2022 Feb 18 doi: 10.1111/epi.17173. PMID: 35179230
Rosenfeld JA, Xiao R, Bekheirnia MR, Kanani F, Parker MJ, Koenig MK, van Haeringen A, Ruivenkamp C, Rosmaninho-Salgado J, Almeida PM, Sá J, Pinto Basto J, Palen E, Oetjens KF, Burrage LC, Xia F, Liu P, Eng CM; Undiagnosed Diseases Network, Yang Y, Posey JE, Lee BH
Am J Med Genet A 2021 Jul;185(7):2037-2045. Epub 2021 Apr 13 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.62201. PMID: 33847457
Brunklaus A, Du J, Steckler F, Ghanty II, Johannesen KM, Fenger CD, Schorge S, Baez-Nieto D, Wang HR, Allen A, Pan JQ, Lerche H, Heyne H, Symonds JD, Zuberi SM, Sanders S, Sheidley BR, Craiu D, Olson HE, Weckhuysen S, DeJonge P, Helbig I, Van Esch H, Busa T, Milh M, Isidor B, Depienne C, Poduri A, Campbell AJ, Dimidschstein J, Møller RS, Lal D
Epilepsia 2020 Mar;61(3):387-399. Epub 2020 Feb 23 doi: 10.1111/epi.16438. PMID: 32090326
Cox DM, Butler MG
Int J Mol Sci 2015 Feb 13;16(2):4068-82. doi: 10.3390/ijms16024068. PMID: 25689425Free PMC Article

Recent systematic reviews

Rondão MBA, Hsu BRRHS, Centeno RS, de Aguiar PHP
Seizure 2023 Aug;110:58-68. Epub 2023 Jun 3 doi: 10.1016/j.seizure.2023.04.020. PMID: 37327751
Frank NA, Greuter L, Guzman R, Soleman J
Childs Nerv Syst 2023 Mar;39(3):677-688. Epub 2022 Oct 11 doi: 10.1007/s00381-022-05699-x. PMID: 36219224
Sharawat IK, Panda PK, Kasinathan A, Panda P, Dawman L, Joshi K
Seizure 2021 Feb;85:119-126. Epub 2021 Jan 11 doi: 10.1016/j.seizure.2020.12.016. PMID: 33461030
Dunbar MJ, Woodward K, Leijser LM, Kirton A
Dev Med Child Neurol 2021 Feb;63(2):144-155. Epub 2020 Oct 22 doi: 10.1111/dmcn.14713. PMID: 33094492
Veroniki AA, Rios P, Cogo E, Straus SE, Finkelstein Y, Kealey R, Reynen E, Soobiah C, Thavorn K, Hutton B, Hemmelgarn BR, Yazdi F, D'Souza J, MacDonald H, Tricco AC
BMJ Open 2017 Jul 20;7(7):e017248. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2017-017248. PMID: 28729328Free PMC Article

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