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Hypercapnia

MedGen UID:
9359
Concept ID:
C0020440
Finding; Sign or Symptom
Synonyms: High blood carbon dioxide level; Hypercapnemia; Hypercarbia
SNOMED CT: Hypercapnia (29596007); Hypercapnemia (29596007); Hypercarbia (29596007)
 
HPO: HP:0012416

Definition

Abnormally elevated blood carbon dioxide (CO2) level. [from HPO]

Term Hierarchy

Conditions with this feature

Bailey-Bloch congenital myopathy
MedGen UID:
340586
Concept ID:
C1850625
Disease or Syndrome
STAC3 disorder is characterized by congenital myopathy, musculoskeletal involvement of the trunk and extremities, feeding difficulties, and delayed motor milestones. Most affected individuals have weakness with myopathic facies, scoliosis, kyphosis or kyphoscoliosis, and contractures. Other common findings are ptosis, abnormalities of the palate (including cleft palate), and short stature. Risk for malignant hyperthermia susceptibility and restrictive lung disease are increased. Intellect is typically normal. Originally described in individuals from the Lumbee Native American tribe (an admixture of Cheraw Indian, English, and African American ancestry) in the state of North Carolina and reported as Native American myopathy, STAC3 disorder has now been identified in numerous other populations worldwide.
Malignant hyperthermia, susceptibility to, 5
MedGen UID:
356151
Concept ID:
C1866077
Finding
Malignant hyperthermia susceptibility (MHS) is a pharmacogenetic disorder of skeletal muscle calcium regulation associated with uncontrolled skeletal muscle hypermetabolism. Manifestations of malignant hyperthermia (MH) are precipitated by certain volatile anesthetics (i.e., halothane, isoflurane, sevoflurane, desflurane, enflurane), either alone or in conjunction with a depolarizing muscle relaxant (specifically, succinylcholine). The triggering substances cause uncontrolled release of calcium from the sarcoplasmic reticulum and may promote entry of extracellular calcium into the myoplasm, causing contracture of skeletal muscles, glycogenolysis, and increased cellular metabolism, resulting in production of heat and excess lactate. Affected individuals experience acidosis, hypercapnia, tachycardia, hyperthermia, muscle rigidity, compartment syndrome, rhabdomyolysis with subsequent increase in serum creatine kinase (CK) concentration, hyperkalemia with a risk for cardiac arrhythmia or even cardiac arrest, and myoglobinuria with a risk for renal failure. In nearly all cases, the first manifestations of MH (tachycardia and tachypnea) occur in the operating room; however, MH may also occur in the early postoperative period. There is mounting evidence that some individuals with MHS will also develop MH with exercise and/or on exposure to hot environments. Without proper and prompt treatment with dantrolene sodium, mortality is extremely high.
Mitochondrial complex 1 deficiency, nuclear type 2
MedGen UID:
1648466
Concept ID:
C4748737
Disease or Syndrome
Oculopharyngodistal myopathy 1
MedGen UID:
1684682
Concept ID:
C5231388
Disease or Syndrome
Oculopharyngodistal myopathy-1 (OPDM1) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by adult-onset ptosis, external ophthalmoplegia, facial muscle weakness, distal limb muscle weakness and atrophy, and pharyngeal involvement, resulting in dysphagia and dysarthria. Skeletal muscle biopsy shows myopathic changes with rimmed vacuoles. There are variable manifestations of the disorder regarding muscle involvement and severity (summary by Ishiura et al., 2019). Genetic Heterogeneity of Oculopharyngodistal Myopathy See also OPDM2 (618940), caused by trinucleotide repeat expansion in the GIPC1 gene (605072) on chromosome 19p13; OPDM3 (619473), caused by trinucleotide repeat expansion in the NOTCH2NLC gene (618025) on chromosome 1q21; and OPDM4 (619790), caused by trinucleotide repeat expansion in the RILPL1 gene (614092) on chromosome 12q24. Oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD; 164300) is a similar disorder with overlapping features. It is caused by a similar heterozygous trinucleotide repeat expansion in the PABPN1 gene (602279) (summary by Durmus et al., 2011).
Central hypoventilation syndrome, congenital, 1, with or without Hirschsprung disease
MedGen UID:
1794285
Concept ID:
C5562075
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS) represents the extreme manifestation of autonomic nervous system dysregulation (ANSD) with the hallmark of disordered respiratory control. The age of initial recognition of CCHS ranges from neonatal onset (i.e., in the first 30 days of life) to (less commonly) later onset (from 1 month to adulthood). Neonatal-onset CCHS is characterized by apparent hypoventilation with monotonous respiratory rates and shallow breathing either during sleep only or while awake as well as asleep; ANSD including decreased heart rate beat-to-beat variability and sinus pauses; altered temperature regulation; and altered pupillary response to light. Some children have altered development of neural crest-derived structures (i.e., Hirschsprung disease, altered esophageal motility/dysphagia, and severe constipation even in the absence of Hirschsprung disease) and/or tumors of neural crest origin (neuroblastoma, ganglioneuroma, and ganglioneuroblastoma). Neurocognitive delay is variable, and possibly influenced by cyanotic breath holding, prolonged sinus pauses, need for 24-hour/day artificial ventilation, and seizures. Later-onset CCHS is characterized by alveolar hypoventilation during sleep and attenuated manifestations of ANSD.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Olofsson P
Am J Obstet Gynecol 2023 May;228(5S):S1222-S1240. Epub 2023 Mar 19 doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2022.07.001. PMID: 37164495
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Recent clinical studies

Etiology

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Diagnosis

Zhang L, Wang Y, Ye Y, Gao J, Zhu F, Min L
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis 2023;18:895-906. Epub 2023 May 16 doi: 10.2147/COPD.S402506. PMID: 37215746Free PMC Article
Feng Z, Zhang L, Yu H, Su X, Shuai T, Zhu L, Chen D, Liu J
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis 2022;17:1987-1999. Epub 2022 Aug 30 doi: 10.2147/COPD.S375107. PMID: 36065316Free PMC Article
Masa JF, Pépin JL, Borel JC, Mokhlesi B, Murphy PB, Sánchez-Quiroga MÁ
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Therapy

Xu C, Yang F, Wang Q, Gao W
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis 2023;18:955-973. Epub 2023 May 22 doi: 10.2147/COPD.S410958. PMID: 37251703Free PMC Article
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Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis 2022;17:1987-1999. Epub 2022 Aug 30 doi: 10.2147/COPD.S375107. PMID: 36065316Free PMC Article
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Prognosis

Berbenetz N, Wang Y, Brown J, Godfrey C, Ahmad M, Vital FM, Lambiase P, Banerjee A, Bakhai A, Chong M
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Clinical prediction guides

Campaña-Duel E, Ceccato A, Morales-Quinteros L, Camprubí-Rimblas M, Artigas A
Expert Rev Respir Med 2024 Jan-Feb;18(1-2):41-47. Epub 2024 Mar 19 doi: 10.1080/17476348.2024.2331767. PMID: 38489161
Chong WH, Saha BK, Medarov BI
Anesth Analg 2021 Aug 1;133(2):374-378. doi: 10.1213/ANE.0000000000005501. PMID: 33780397
Dave C, Wharton S, Mukherjee R, Faqihi BM, Stockley RA, Turner AM
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Hetzer S, Dittmann F, Bormann K, Hirsch S, Lipp A, Wang DJ, Braun J, Sack I
J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 2019 Dec;39(12):2445-2455. Epub 2018 Sep 5 doi: 10.1177/0271678X18799241. PMID: 30182788Free PMC Article
Kavanagh B
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Recent systematic reviews

Feng Z, Zhang L, Yu H, Su X, Shuai T, Zhu L, Chen D, Liu J
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis 2022;17:1987-1999. Epub 2022 Aug 30 doi: 10.2147/COPD.S375107. PMID: 36065316Free PMC Article
Li Y, Gao H, Zhao L, Wang J
Clin Respir J 2022 Jul;16(7):487-496. Epub 2022 Jun 10 doi: 10.1111/crj.13514. PMID: 35688435Free PMC Article
Bhandari AP, Nnate DA, Vasanthan L, Konstantinidis M, Thompson J
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2022 Jun 6;6(6):CD003645. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD003645.pub4. PMID: 35661343Free PMC Article
Raveling T, Vonk J, Struik FM, Goldstein R, Kerstjens HA, Wijkstra PJ, Duiverman ML
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2021 Aug 9;8(8):CD002878. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD002878.pub3. PMID: 34368950Free PMC Article
Pisani L, Astuto M, Prediletto I, Longhini F
Pulmonology 2019 Nov-Dec;25(6):348-354. Epub 2019 Oct 5 doi: 10.1016/j.pulmoe.2019.08.001. PMID: 31591056

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