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Trident hand

MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Congenital Abnormality; Finding
Synonyms: trident abnormality; trident deformity
SNOMED CT: Trident hand (249755001)
HPO: HP:0004060


A hand in which the fingers are of nearly equal length and deflected at the first interphalangeal joint, so as to give a forklike shape consisting of separation of the first and second as well as the third and fourth digits. [from HPO]

Term Hierarchy

Conditions with this feature

MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Congenital Abnormality
Achondroplasia is the most common cause of disproportionate short stature. Affected individuals have rhizomelic shortening of the limbs, macrocephaly, and characteristic facial features with frontal bossing and midface retrusion. In infancy, hypotonia is typical, and acquisition of developmental motor milestones is often both aberrant in pattern and delayed. Intelligence and life span are usually near normal, although craniocervical junction compression increases the risk of death in infancy. Additional complications include obstructive sleep apnea, middle ear dysfunction, kyphosis, and spinal stenosis.
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Congenital Abnormality
Hypochondroplasia is a skeletal dysplasia characterized by short stature; stocky build; disproportionately short arms and legs; broad, short hands and feet; mild joint laxity; and macrocephaly. Radiologic features include shortening of long bones with mild metaphyseal flare; narrowing of the inferior lumbar interpedicular distances; short, broad femoral neck; and squared, shortened ilia. The skeletal features are very similar to those seen in achondroplasia but tend to be milder. Medical complications common to achondroplasia (e.g., spinal stenosis, tibial bowing, obstructive apnea) occur less frequently in hypochondroplasia but intellectual disability and epilepsy may be more prevalent. Children usually present as toddlers or at early school age with decreased growth velocity leading to short stature and limb disproportion. Other features also become more prominent over time.
Anauxetic dysplasia 3
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Anauxetic dysplasia-3 (ANXD3) is characterized by severe short stature, brachydactyly, skin laxity, joint hypermobility, and joint dislocations. Radiographs show short metacarpals, broad middle phalanges, and metaphyseal irregularities. Most patients also exhibit motor and cognitive delays (Narayanan et al., 2019). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of anauxetic dysplasia, see ANXD1 (607095).

Recent clinical studies


Rypens F, Dubois J, Garel L, Fournet JC, Michaud JL, Grignon A
Radiographics 2006 May-Jun;26(3):811-29; discussion 830-1. doi: 10.1148/rg.263055113. PMID: 16702456


Bouali H, Latrech H
Pediatr Endocrinol Rev 2015 Jun;12(4):388-95. PMID: 26182483


Rypens F, Dubois J, Garel L, Fournet JC, Michaud JL, Grignon A
Radiographics 2006 May-Jun;26(3):811-29; discussion 830-1. doi: 10.1148/rg.263055113. PMID: 16702456

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