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Ventricular ectopy

MedGen UID:
988082
Concept ID:
CN303301
Finding
HPO: HP:0034041

Definition

Ventricular ectopics, also known as ventricular extrasystoles, premature ventricular contractions or complexes (PVC) and ventricular premature depolarisations (VPD) are beats arising from within the ventricles. When they occur in groupings such as bigeminy, trigeminy, couplets and triplets they are referred to as ventricular ectopy. [from HPO]

Conditions with this feature

Long QT syndrome 15
MedGen UID:
864132
Concept ID:
C4015695
Disease or Syndrome
Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is a cardiac electrophysiologic disorder, characterized by QT prolongation and T-wave abnormalities on the EKG that are associated with tachyarrhythmias, typically the ventricular tachycardia torsade de pointes (TdP). TdP is usually self-terminating, thus causing a syncopal event, the most common symptom in individuals with LQTS. Such cardiac events typically occur during exercise and emotional stress, less frequently during sleep, and usually without warning. In some instances, TdP degenerates to ventricular fibrillation and causes aborted cardiac arrest (if the individual is defibrillated) or sudden death. Approximately 50% of untreated individuals with a pathogenic variant in one of the genes associated with LQTS have symptoms, usually one to a few syncopal events. While cardiac events may occur from infancy through middle age, they are most common from the preteen years through the 20s. Some types of LQTS are associated with a phenotype extending beyond cardiac arrhythmia. In addition to the prolonged QT interval, associations include muscle weakness and facial dysmorphism in Andersen-Tawil syndrome (LQTS type 7); hand/foot, facial, and neurodevelopmental features in Timothy syndrome (LQTS type 8); and profound sensorineural hearing loss in Jervell and Lange-Nielson syndrome.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

De Silva K, Haqqani H, Mahajan R, Qian P, Chik W, Voskoboinik A, Kistler PM, Lee G, Jackson N, Kumar S
JACC Clin Electrophysiol 2023 Jun;9(6):873-885. Epub 2023 Mar 22 doi: 10.1016/j.jacep.2023.01.035. PMID: 37380322
Orgeron GM, Calkins H
Curr Cardiol Rep 2016 Jun;18(6):53. doi: 10.1007/s11886-016-0732-y. PMID: 27108363
McCollam PL, Parker RB
Clin Pharm 1991 Mar;10(3):195-205. PMID: 2040126

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Apte N, Kalra DK
Cardiology 2023;148(2):119-130. Epub 2023 Mar 6 doi: 10.1159/000529670. PMID: 36878200
Essayagh B, Sabbag A, Antoine C, Benfari G, Yang LT, Maalouf J, Asirvatham S, Michelena H, Enriquez-Sarano M
J Am Coll Cardiol 2020 Aug 11;76(6):637-649. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2020.06.029. PMID: 32762897
Lee A, Walters TE, Gerstenfeld EP, Haqqani HM
Heart Lung Circ 2019 Jan;28(1):178-190. Epub 2018 Oct 4 doi: 10.1016/j.hlc.2018.09.009. PMID: 30322758
Miller MA, Dukkipati SR, Turagam M, Liao SL, Adams DH, Reddy VY
J Am Coll Cardiol 2018 Dec 11;72(23 Pt A):2904-2914. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2018.09.048. PMID: 30522653
Echt DS, Liebson PR, Mitchell LB, Peters RW, Obias-Manno D, Barker AH, Arensberg D, Baker A, Friedman L, Greene HL
N Engl J Med 1991 Mar 21;324(12):781-8. doi: 10.1056/NEJM199103213241201. PMID: 1900101

Diagnosis

Essayagh B, Sabbag A, Antoine C, Benfari G, Yang LT, Maalouf J, Asirvatham S, Michelena H, Enriquez-Sarano M
J Am Coll Cardiol 2020 Aug 11;76(6):637-649. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2020.06.029. PMID: 32762897
Mond HG, Haqqani HM
Heart Lung Circ 2020 Jul;29(7):988-999. Epub 2020 Jan 30 doi: 10.1016/j.hlc.2020.01.002. PMID: 32063472
Lee A, Walters TE, Gerstenfeld EP, Haqqani HM
Heart Lung Circ 2019 Jan;28(1):178-190. Epub 2018 Oct 4 doi: 10.1016/j.hlc.2018.09.009. PMID: 30322758
Miller MA, Dukkipati SR, Turagam M, Liao SL, Adams DH, Reddy VY
J Am Coll Cardiol 2018 Dec 11;72(23 Pt A):2904-2914. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2018.09.048. PMID: 30522653
Flinders DC, Roberts SD
Prim Care 2000 Sep;27(3):709-24;vii. doi: 10.1016/s0095-4543(05)70170-6. PMID: 10918676

Therapy

Apte N, Kalra DK
Cardiology 2023;148(2):119-130. Epub 2023 Mar 6 doi: 10.1159/000529670. PMID: 36878200
Creta A, Earley MJ, Schilling RJ, Finlay M, Sporton S, Dhinoja M, Hunter RJ, Papageorgiou N, Ang R, Chow A, Lowe M, Segal OR, Lambiase PD, Providência R
J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 2022 Mar;33(3):510-526. Epub 2022 Jan 5 doi: 10.1111/jce.15336. PMID: 34921464
Roush GC, Sica DA
Am J Hypertens 2016 Oct;29(10):1130-7. Epub 2016 Apr 5 doi: 10.1093/ajh/hpw030. PMID: 27048970
Flinders DC, Roberts SD
Prim Care 2000 Sep;27(3):709-24;vii. doi: 10.1016/s0095-4543(05)70170-6. PMID: 10918676
Echt DS, Liebson PR, Mitchell LB, Peters RW, Obias-Manno D, Barker AH, Arensberg D, Baker A, Friedman L, Greene HL
N Engl J Med 1991 Mar 21;324(12):781-8. doi: 10.1056/NEJM199103213241201. PMID: 1900101

Prognosis

Cohen MI
Curr Opin Cardiol 2019 Jan;34(1):65-72. doi: 10.1097/HCO.0000000000000581. PMID: 30407229
Lee A, Walters TE, Gerstenfeld EP, Haqqani HM
Heart Lung Circ 2019 Jan;28(1):178-190. Epub 2018 Oct 4 doi: 10.1016/j.hlc.2018.09.009. PMID: 30322758
Echt DS, Liebson PR, Mitchell LB, Peters RW, Obias-Manno D, Barker AH, Arensberg D, Baker A, Friedman L, Greene HL
N Engl J Med 1991 Mar 21;324(12):781-8. doi: 10.1056/NEJM199103213241201. PMID: 1900101
Rapaport E
Am J Cardiol 1988 Nov 3;62(14):3I-6I. doi: 10.1016/0002-9149(88)91340-9. PMID: 3055917
Schmieder RE, Messerli FH
Med Clin North Am 1987 Sep;71(5):991-1001. doi: 10.1016/s0025-7125(16)30822-7. PMID: 3306213

Clinical prediction guides

Apte N, Kalra DK
Cardiology 2023;148(2):119-130. Epub 2023 Mar 6 doi: 10.1159/000529670. PMID: 36878200
Refaat MM, Gharios C, Moorthy MV, Abdulhai F, Blumenthal RS, Jaffa MA, Mora S
J Am Coll Cardiol 2021 Dec 7;78(23):2267-2277. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2021.09.1366. PMID: 34857087Free PMC Article
Williams CB, Andrade JG, Hawkins NM, Cheung C, Krahn A, Laksman ZW, Bennett MT, Heilbron B, Chakrabarti S, Yeung-Lai-Wah JA, Deyell MW
Heart 2020 Nov;106(22):1732-1739. Epub 2020 Jul 20 doi: 10.1136/heartjnl-2020-316925. PMID: 32690622
Dabbagh GS, Bogun F
Curr Cardiol Rep 2017 Sep;19(9):80. doi: 10.1007/s11886-017-0887-1. PMID: 28752278
Schmieder RE, Messerli FH
Med Clin North Am 1987 Sep;71(5):991-1001. doi: 10.1016/s0025-7125(16)30822-7. PMID: 3306213

Recent systematic reviews

De Silva K, Haqqani H, Mahajan R, Qian P, Chik W, Voskoboinik A, Kistler PM, Lee G, Jackson N, Kumar S
JACC Clin Electrophysiol 2023 Jun;9(6):873-885. Epub 2023 Mar 22 doi: 10.1016/j.jacep.2023.01.035. PMID: 37380322
Creta A, Earley MJ, Schilling RJ, Finlay M, Sporton S, Dhinoja M, Hunter RJ, Papageorgiou N, Ang R, Chow A, Lowe M, Segal OR, Lambiase PD, Providência R
J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 2022 Mar;33(3):510-526. Epub 2022 Jan 5 doi: 10.1111/jce.15336. PMID: 34921464
Nalliah CJ, Mahajan R, Elliott AD, Haqqani H, Lau DH, Vohra JK, Morton JB, Semsarian C, Marwick T, Kalman JM, Sanders P
Heart 2019 Jan;105(2):144-151. Epub 2018 Sep 21 doi: 10.1136/heartjnl-2017-312932. PMID: 30242141
Bosman LP, Sammani A, James CA, Cadrin-Tourigny J, Calkins H, van Tintelen JP, Hauer RNW, Asselbergs FW, Te Riele ASJM
Heart Rhythm 2018 Jul;15(7):1097-1107. Epub 2018 Feb 3 doi: 10.1016/j.hrthm.2018.01.031. PMID: 29408436
Raghuram A, Clay R, Kumbam A, Tereshchenko LG, Khan A
J Clin Sleep Med 2014 Oct 15;10(10):1155-60. doi: 10.5664/jcsm.4126. PMID: 25317099Free PMC Article

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