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Cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome(CFC1)

MedGen UID:
266149
Concept ID:
C1275081
Congenital Abnormality; Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: Cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome; CFC syndrome
SNOMED CT: Cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome (403770008)
Modes of inheritance:
Autosomal dominant inheritance
MedGen UID:
141047
Concept ID:
C0443147
Intellectual Product
Source: Orphanet
A mode of inheritance that is observed for traits related to a gene encoded on one of the autosomes (i.e., the human chromosomes 1-22) in which a trait manifests in heterozygotes. In the context of medical genetics, an autosomal dominant disorder is caused when a single copy of the mutant allele is present. Males and females are affected equally, and can both transmit the disorder with a risk of 50% for each child of inheriting the mutant allele.
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0015280
OMIM®: 115150; 164757
OMIM® Phenotypic series: PS115150
Orphanet: ORPHA1340

Disease characteristics

Excerpted from the GeneReview: Cardiofaciocutaneous Syndrome
Cardiofaciocutaneous (CFC) syndrome is characterized by cardiac abnormalities (pulmonic stenosis and other valve dysplasias, septal defects, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, rhythm disturbances), distinctive craniofacial appearance, and cutaneous abnormalities (including xerosis, hyperkeratosis, ichthyosis, keratosis pilaris, ulerythema ophryogenes, eczema, pigmented moles, hemangiomas, and palmoplantar hyperkeratosis). The hair is typically sparse, curly, fine or thick, and woolly or brittle; eyelashes and eyebrows may be absent or sparse. Nails may be dystrophic or fast growing. Affected individuals typically have some form of neurologic and/or cognitive delay (ranging from mild to severe). Most individuals have severe feeding issues, which can contribute to poor growth, and many require nasogastric or gastrostomy tube feeding. Many affected individuals have eye findings, including strabismus, nystagmus, refractive errors, and optic nerve hypoplasia. Seizures may be present and can be refractory to therapy. [from GeneReviews]
Authors:
Katherine A Rauen   view full author information

Additional description

From MedlinePlus Genetics
Cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome is a disorder that affects many parts of the body, particularly the heart (cardio-), facial features (facio-), and the skin and hair (cutaneous). People with this condition also have delayed development and intellectual disability, usually ranging from moderate to severe.

Heart defects occur in most people with cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome. The heart problems most commonly associated with this condition include malformations of one of the heart valves that impairs blood flow from the heart to the lungs (pulmonic stenosis), a hole between the two upper chambers of the heart (atrial septal defect), and a form of heart disease that enlarges and weakens the heart muscle (hypertrophic cardiomyopathy).

Cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome is also characterized by distinctive facial features. These include a high forehead that narrows at the temples, a short nose, widely spaced eyes (ocular hypertelorism), outside corners of the eyes that point downward (down-slanting palpebral fissures), droopy eyelids (ptosis), a small chin, and low-set ears. Overall, the face is broad and long, and the facial features are sometimes described as "coarse."

Skin abnormalities occur in almost everyone with cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome. Many affected people have dry, rough skin; dark-colored moles (nevi); wrinkled palms and soles; and a skin condition called keratosis pilaris, which causes small bumps to form on the arms, legs, and face. People with cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome also tend to have thin, dry, curly hair and sparse or absent eyelashes and eyebrows.

Infants with cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome typically have weak muscle tone (hypotonia), feeding difficulties, and a failure to grow and gain weight at the normal rate (failure to thrive). Additional features of this disorder in children and adults can include an unusually large head (macrocephaly), short stature, problems with vision, and seizures.

The signs and symptoms of cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome overlap significantly with those of two other genetic conditions, Costello syndrome and Noonan syndrome. The three conditions are distinguished by their genetic cause and specific patterns of signs and symptoms; however, it can be difficult to tell these conditions apart, particularly in infancy. Unlike Costello syndrome, which significantly increases a person's cancer risk, cancer does not appear to be a major feature of cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome.  https://medlineplus.gov/genetics/condition/cardiofaciocutaneous-syndrome

Clinical features

From HPO
Cavernous hemangioma
MedGen UID:
9184
Concept ID:
C0018920
Neoplastic Process
The presence of a cavernous hemangioma. A hemangioma characterized by large endothelial spaces (caverns) is called a cavernous hemangioma.
Hydronephrosis
MedGen UID:
42531
Concept ID:
C0020295
Disease or Syndrome
Severe distention of the kidney with dilation of the renal pelvis and calices.
Cubitus valgus
MedGen UID:
490152
Concept ID:
C0158465
Acquired Abnormality
Abnormal positioning in which the elbows are turned out.
Clinodactyly of the 5th finger
MedGen UID:
340456
Concept ID:
C1850049
Congenital Abnormality
Clinodactyly refers to a bending or curvature of the fifth finger in the radial direction (i.e., towards the 4th finger).
Deep palmar crease
MedGen UID:
387849
Concept ID:
C1857539
Finding
Excessively deep creases of the palm.
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
MedGen UID:
2881
Concept ID:
C0007194
Disease or Syndrome
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is defined by the presence of increased ventricular wall thickness or mass in the absence of loading conditions (hypertension, valve disease) sufficient to cause the observed abnormality.
Atrial septal defect
MedGen UID:
6753
Concept ID:
C0018817
Congenital Abnormality
Atrial septal defect (ASD) is a congenital abnormality of the interatrial septum that enables blood flow between the left and right atria via the interatrial septum.
Pulmonic stenosis
MedGen UID:
408291
Concept ID:
C1956257
Disease or Syndrome
A narrowing of the right ventricular outflow tract that can occur at the pulmonary valve (valvular stenosis), below the pulmonary valve (infundibular stenosis), or above the pulmonary valve (supravalvar stenosis).
Short stature
MedGen UID:
87607
Concept ID:
C0349588
Finding
A height below that which is expected according to age and gender norms. Although there is no universally accepted definition of short stature, many refer to "short stature" as height more than 2 standard deviations below the mean for age and gender (or below the 3rd percentile for age and gender dependent norms).
Failure to thrive
MedGen UID:
746019
Concept ID:
C2315100
Disease or Syndrome
Failure to thrive (FTT) refers to a child whose physical growth is substantially below the norm.
Constipation
MedGen UID:
1101
Concept ID:
C0009806
Sign or Symptom
Infrequent or difficult evacuation of feces.
Vomiting
MedGen UID:
12124
Concept ID:
C0042963
Sign or Symptom
Forceful ejection of the contents of the stomach through the mouth by means of a series of involuntary spasmic contractions.
Feeding difficulties in infancy
MedGen UID:
436211
Concept ID:
C2674608
Finding
Impaired feeding performance of an infant as manifested by difficulties such as weak and ineffective sucking, brief bursts of sucking, and falling asleep during sucking. There may be difficulties with chewing or maintaining attention.
Gastrostomy tube feeding in infancy
MedGen UID:
892362
Concept ID:
C4023342
Finding
Feeding problem necessitating gastrostomy tube feeding.
Gastroesophageal reflux
MedGen UID:
1368658
Concept ID:
C4317146
Finding
A condition in which the stomach contents leak backwards from the stomach into the esophagus through the lower esophageal sphincter.
Low-set ears
MedGen UID:
65980
Concept ID:
C0239234
Congenital Abnormality
Upper insertion of the ear to the scalp below an imaginary horizontal line drawn between the inner canthi of the eye and extending posteriorly to the ear.
Posteriorly rotated ears
MedGen UID:
96566
Concept ID:
C0431478
Congenital Abnormality
A type of abnormal location of the ears in which the position of the ears is characterized by posterior rotation (the superior part of the ears is rotated towards the back of the head, and the inferior part of the ears towards the front).
Hearing impairment
MedGen UID:
235586
Concept ID:
C1384666
Disease or Syndrome
A decreased magnitude of the sensory perception of sound.
Large earlobe
MedGen UID:
334979
Concept ID:
C1844573
Finding
Increased volume of the earlobe, that is, abnormally prominent ear lobules.
Anterior creases of earlobe
MedGen UID:
343677
Concept ID:
C1851897
Finding
Sharply demarcated, typically linear and approximately horizontal, indentations in the outer surface of the ear lobe.
Hydrocephalus
MedGen UID:
9335
Concept ID:
C0020255
Disease or Syndrome
Hydrocephalus is an active distension of the ventricular system of the brain resulting from inadequate passage of CSF from its point of production within the cerebral ventricles to its point of absorption into the systemic circulation.
Seizure
MedGen UID:
20693
Concept ID:
C0036572
Sign or Symptom
A seizure is an intermittent abnormality of nervous system physiology characterised by a transient occurrence of signs and/or symptoms due to abnormal excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.
Peripheral axonal neuropathy
MedGen UID:
266071
Concept ID:
C1263857
Disease or Syndrome
An abnormality characterized by disruption of the normal functioning of peripheral axons.
Tongue thrusting
MedGen UID:
473491
Concept ID:
C1829460
Finding
Pressing forward of the tongue in the mouth, a retained motoric habit from infantile swallowing patterns
Hypoplasia of the frontal lobes
MedGen UID:
341396
Concept ID:
C1849172
Finding
Underdevelopment of the frontal lobe of the cerebrum.
Aplasia/Hypoplasia of the corpus callosum
MedGen UID:
354608
Concept ID:
C1861866
Finding
Absence or underdevelopment of the corpus callosum.
Oculomotor apraxia
MedGen UID:
483686
Concept ID:
C3489733
Disease or Syndrome
Ocular motor apraxia is a deficiency in voluntary, horizontal, lateral, fast eye movements (saccades) with retention of slow pursuit movements. The inability to follow objects visually is often compensated by head movements. There may be decreased smooth pursuit, and cancellation of the vestibulo-ocular reflex.
Intellectual disability
MedGen UID:
811461
Concept ID:
C3714756
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Intellectual disability, previously referred to as mental retardation, is characterized by subnormal intellectual functioning that occurs during the developmental period. It is defined by an IQ score below 70.
Cerebral cortical atrophy
MedGen UID:
1646740
Concept ID:
C4551583
Disease or Syndrome
Atrophy of the cortex of the cerebrum.
Micrognathia
MedGen UID:
44428
Concept ID:
C0025990
Congenital Abnormality
Developmental hypoplasia of the mandible.
Hypertonia
MedGen UID:
10132
Concept ID:
C0026826
Finding
A condition in which there is increased muscle tone so that arms or legs, for example, are stiff and difficult to move.
Hypotonia
MedGen UID:
10133
Concept ID:
C0026827
Finding
Hypotonia is an abnormally low muscle tone (the amount of tension or resistance to movement in a muscle). Even when relaxed, muscles have a continuous and passive partial contraction which provides some resistance to passive stretching. Hypotonia thus manifests as diminished resistance to passive stretching. Hypotonia is not the same as muscle weakness, although the two conditions can co-exist.
Osteopenia
MedGen UID:
18222
Concept ID:
C0029453
Disease or Syndrome
Osteopenia is a term to define bone density that is not normal but also not as low as osteoporosis. By definition from the World Health Organization osteopenia is defined by bone densitometry as a T score -1 to -2.5.
Scoliosis
MedGen UID:
11348
Concept ID:
C0036439
Disease or Syndrome
The presence of an abnormal lateral curvature of the spine.
Pectus carinatum
MedGen UID:
57643
Concept ID:
C0158731
Finding
A deformity of the chest caused by overgrowth of the ribs and characterized by protrusion of the sternum.
Dolichocephaly
MedGen UID:
65142
Concept ID:
C0221358
Congenital Abnormality
An abnormality of skull shape characterized by a increased anterior-posterior diameter, i.e., an increased antero-posterior dimension of the skull. Cephalic index less than 76%. Alternatively, an apparently increased antero-posterior length of the head compared to width. Often due to premature closure of the sagittal suture.
Delayed skeletal maturation
MedGen UID:
108148
Concept ID:
C0541764
Finding
A decreased rate of skeletal maturation. Delayed skeletal maturation can be diagnosed on the basis of an estimation of the bone age from radiographs of specific bones in the human body.
Shield chest
MedGen UID:
322348
Concept ID:
C1834124
Finding
A broad chest.
Hyperextensibility of the finger joints
MedGen UID:
334982
Concept ID:
C1844577
Finding
The ability of the finger joints to move beyond their normal range of motion.
Relative macrocephaly
MedGen UID:
338607
Concept ID:
C1849075
Congenital Abnormality
A relatively mild degree of macrocephaly in which the head circumference is not above two standard deviations from the mean, but appears dysproportionately large when other factors such as body stature are taken into account.
Generalized hypotonia
MedGen UID:
346841
Concept ID:
C1858120
Finding
Generalized muscular hypotonia (abnormally low muscle tone).
Pectus excavatum
MedGen UID:
781174
Concept ID:
C2051831
Finding
A defect of the chest wall characterized by a depression of the sternum, giving the chest ("pectus") a caved-in ("excavatum") appearance.
Macrocephaly
MedGen UID:
745757
Concept ID:
C2243051
Finding
Occipitofrontal (head) circumference greater than 97th centile compared to appropriate, age matched, sex-matched normal standards. Alternatively, a apparently increased size of the cranium.
Atopic eczema
MedGen UID:
41502
Concept ID:
C0011615
Disease or Syndrome
Atopic dermatitis (ATOD), also known as eczema, is a common chronic pruritic inflammatory skin disease with a strong genetic component. Onset typically occurs during the first 2 years of life (review by Soderhall et al., 2007). Genetic Heterogeneity of Atopic Dermatitis Many inflammatory diseases, such as atopic eczema, are genetically complex, with multiple alleles at several loci thought to be involved in their pathogenesis. Several susceptibility loci for atopic dermatitis have been identified: ATOD1 on chromosome 3q21, ATOD2 (605803) on chromosome 1q21, ATOD3 (605804) on chromosome 20p, ATOD4 (605805) on chromosome 17q25.3, ATOD5 (603165) on chromosome 13q12-q14, ATOD6 (605845) on chromosome 5q31-q33, ATOD7 (613064) on chromosome 11q13.5, ATOD8 (613518) on chromosome 4q22.1, and ATOD9 (613519) on chromosome 3p24.
Splenomegaly
MedGen UID:
52469
Concept ID:
C0038002
Finding
Abnormal increased size of the spleen.
Dental malocclusion
MedGen UID:
9869
Concept ID:
C0024636
Anatomical Abnormality
Dental malocclusion refers to an abnormality of the occlusion, or alignment, of the teeth and the way the upper and lower teeth fit together, resulting in overcrowding of teeth or in abnormal bite patterns.
Webbed neck
MedGen UID:
113154
Concept ID:
C0221217
Congenital Abnormality
Pterygium colli is a congenital skin fold that runs along the sides of the neck down to the shoulders. It involves an ectopic fibrotic facial band superficial to the trapezius muscle. Excess hair-bearing skin is also present and extends down the cervical region well beyond the normal hairline.
Open mouth
MedGen UID:
116104
Concept ID:
C0240379
Finding
A facial appearance characterized by a permanently or nearly permanently opened mouth.
Bulbous nose
MedGen UID:
66013
Concept ID:
C0240543
Finding
Increased volume and globular shape of the anteroinferior aspect of the nose.
High palate
MedGen UID:
66814
Concept ID:
C0240635
Congenital Abnormality
Height of the palate more than 2 SD above the mean (objective) or palatal height at the level of the first permanent molar more than twice the height of the teeth (subjective).
Abnormality of the dentition
MedGen UID:
78084
Concept ID:
C0262444
Finding
Any abnormality of the teeth.
Open bite
MedGen UID:
78589
Concept ID:
C0266061
Anatomical Abnormality
Visible space between the dental arches in occlusion.
Downslanted palpebral fissures
MedGen UID:
98391
Concept ID:
C0423110
Finding
The palpebral fissure inclination is more than two standard deviations below the mean.
Absent eyebrow
MedGen UID:
98133
Concept ID:
C0431448
Congenital Abnormality
Absence of the eyebrow.
Submucous cleft hard palate
MedGen UID:
98472
Concept ID:
C0432103
Congenital Abnormality
Hard-palate submucous clefts are characterized by bony defects in the midline of the bony palate that are covered by the mucous membrane of the roof of the mouth. It may be possible to detect a submucous cleft hard palate upon palpation as a notch in the bony palate.
Short neck
MedGen UID:
99267
Concept ID:
C0521525
Finding
Diminished length of the neck.
Epicanthus
MedGen UID:
151862
Concept ID:
C0678230
Congenital Abnormality
Epicanthus is a condition in which a fold of skin stretches from the upper to the lower eyelid, partially covering the inner canthus. Usher (1935) noted that epicanthus is a normal finding in the fetus of all races. Epicanthus also occurs in association with hereditary ptosis (110100).
Depressed nasal bridge
MedGen UID:
373112
Concept ID:
C1836542
Finding
Posterior positioning of the nasal root in relation to the overall facial profile for age.
Thick vermilion border
MedGen UID:
332232
Concept ID:
C1836543
Finding
Increased width of the skin of vermilion border region of upper lip.
Prominent forehead
MedGen UID:
373291
Concept ID:
C1837260
Finding
Forward prominence of the entire forehead, due to protrusion of the frontal bone.
Narrow forehead
MedGen UID:
326956
Concept ID:
C1839758
Finding
Width of the forehead or distance between the frontotemporales is more than two standard deviations below the mean (objective); or apparently narrow intertemporal region (subjective).
Deep philtrum
MedGen UID:
374311
Concept ID:
C1839797
Finding
Accentuated, prominent philtral ridges giving rise to an exaggerated groove in the midline between the nasal base and upper vermillion border.
Anteverted nares
MedGen UID:
326648
Concept ID:
C1840077
Finding
Anteriorly-facing nostrils viewed with the head in the Frankfurt horizontal and the eyes of the observer level with the eyes of the subject. This gives the appearance of an upturned nose (upturned nasal tip).
Coarse facial features
MedGen UID:
335284
Concept ID:
C1845847
Finding
Absence of fine and sharp appearance of brows, nose, lips, mouth, and chin, usually because of rounded and heavy features or thickened skin with or without thickening of subcutaneous and bony tissues.
Short nose
MedGen UID:
343052
Concept ID:
C1854114
Finding
Distance from nasion to subnasale more than two standard deviations below the mean, or alternatively, an apparently decreased length from the nasal root to the nasal tip.
Low posterior hairline
MedGen UID:
383755
Concept ID:
C1855728
Finding
Hair on the neck extends more inferiorly than usual.
Underdeveloped supraorbital ridges
MedGen UID:
349384
Concept ID:
C1861869
Congenital Abnormality
Flatness of the supraorbital portion of the frontal bones.
Palpebral thickening
MedGen UID:
1369577
Concept ID:
C4476868
Finding
An increased thickness of the eyelid not related to acute inflammation.
Hyperhidrosis
MedGen UID:
5690
Concept ID:
C0020458
Finding
Abnormal excessive perspiration (sweating) despite the lack of appropriate stimuli like hot and humid weather.
Ichthyosis
MedGen UID:
7002
Concept ID:
C0020757
Disease or Syndrome
An abnormality of the skin characterized the presence of excessive amounts of dry surface scales on the skin resulting from an abnormality of keratinization.
Hyperpigmentation of the skin
MedGen UID:
57992
Concept ID:
C0162834
Pathologic Function
A darkening of the skin related to an increase in melanin production and deposition.
Keratosis pilaris
MedGen UID:
82664
Concept ID:
C0263383
Disease or Syndrome
An anomaly of the hair follicles of the skin that typically presents as small, rough, brown folliculocentric papules distributed over characteristic areas of the skin, particularly the outer-upper arms and thighs.
Curly hair
MedGen UID:
488919
Concept ID:
C0558165
Finding
Hyperkeratosis
MedGen UID:
209030
Concept ID:
C0870082
Disease or Syndrome
Hyperkeratosis is thickening of the outer layer of the skin, the stratum corneum, which is composed of large, polyhedral, plate-like envelopes filled with keratin which are the dead cells that have migrated up from the stratum granulosum.
Multiple lentigines
MedGen UID:
272242
Concept ID:
C1328931
Disease or Syndrome
Presence of an unusually high number of lentigines (singular
Slow-growing hair
MedGen UID:
371309
Concept ID:
C1832348
Finding
Hair whose growth is slower than normal.
Absent eyelashes
MedGen UID:
334299
Concept ID:
C1843005
Congenital Abnormality
Lack of eyelashes.
Numerous nevi
MedGen UID:
341508
Concept ID:
C1849677
Finding
Multiple plantar creases
MedGen UID:
350528
Concept ID:
C1861873
Finding
Sparse hair
MedGen UID:
1790211
Concept ID:
C5551005
Finding
Reduced density of hairs.
Polyhydramnios
MedGen UID:
6936
Concept ID:
C0020224
Pathologic Function
The presence of excess amniotic fluid in the uterus during pregnancy.
Premature birth
MedGen UID:
57721
Concept ID:
C0151526
Pathologic Function
The birth of a baby of less than 37 weeks of gestational age.
Ptosis
MedGen UID:
2287
Concept ID:
C0005745
Disease or Syndrome
The upper eyelid margin is positioned 3 mm or more lower than usual and covers the superior portion of the iris (objective); or, the upper lid margin obscures at least part of the pupil (subjective).
Proptosis
MedGen UID:
41917
Concept ID:
C0015300
Disease or Syndrome
An eye that is protruding anterior to the plane of the face to a greater extent than is typical.
Hypertelorism
MedGen UID:
9373
Concept ID:
C0020534
Finding
Although hypertelorism means an excessive distance between any paired organs (e.g., the nipples), the use of the word has come to be confined to ocular hypertelorism. Hypertelorism occurs as an isolated feature and is also a feature of many syndromes, e.g., Opitz G syndrome (see 300000), Greig cephalopolysyndactyly (175700), and Noonan syndrome (163950) (summary by Cohen et al., 1995).
Myopia
MedGen UID:
44558
Concept ID:
C0027092
Disease or Syndrome
Nearsightedness, also known as myopia, is an eye condition that causes blurry distance vision. People who are nearsighted have more trouble seeing things that are far away (such as when driving) than things that are close up (such as when reading or using a computer). If it is not treated with corrective lenses or surgery, nearsightedness can lead to squinting, eyestrain, headaches, and significant visual impairment.\n\nNearsightedness usually begins in childhood or adolescence. It tends to worsen with age until adulthood, when it may stop getting worse (stabilize). In some people, nearsightedness improves in later adulthood.\n\nFor normal vision, light passes through the clear cornea at the front of the eye and is focused by the lens onto the surface of the retina, which is the lining of the back of the eye that contains light-sensing cells. People who are nearsighted typically have eyeballs that are too long from front to back. As a result, light entering the eye is focused too far forward, in front of the retina instead of on its surface. It is this change that causes distant objects to appear blurry. The longer the eyeball is, the farther forward light rays will be focused and the more severely nearsighted a person will be.\n\nNearsightedness is measured by how powerful a lens must be to correct it. The standard unit of lens power is called a diopter. Negative (minus) powered lenses are used to correct nearsightedness. The more severe a person's nearsightedness, the larger the number of diopters required for correction. In an individual with nearsightedness, one eye may be more nearsighted than the other.\n\nEye doctors often refer to nearsightedness less than -5 or -6 diopters as "common myopia." Nearsightedness of -6 diopters or more is commonly called "high myopia." This distinction is important because high myopia increases a person's risk of developing other eye problems that can lead to permanent vision loss or blindness. These problems include tearing and detachment of the retina, clouding of the lens (cataract), and an eye disease called glaucoma that is usually related to increased pressure within the eye. The risk of these other eye problems increases with the severity of the nearsightedness. The term "pathological myopia" is used to describe cases in which high myopia leads to tissue damage within the eye.
Nystagmus
MedGen UID:
45166
Concept ID:
C0028738
Disease or Syndrome
Rhythmic, involuntary oscillations of one or both eyes related to abnormality in fixation, conjugate gaze, or vestibular mechanisms.
Strabismus
MedGen UID:
21337
Concept ID:
C0038379
Disease or Syndrome
A misalignment of the eyes so that the visual axes deviate from bifoveal fixation. The classification of strabismus may be based on a number of features including the relative position of the eyes, whether the deviation is latent or manifest, intermittent or constant, concomitant or otherwise and according to the age of onset and the relevance of any associated refractive error.
Progressive visual loss
MedGen UID:
326867
Concept ID:
C1839364
Finding
A reduction of previously attained ability to see.
Optic nerve dysplasia
MedGen UID:
390938
Concept ID:
C2676026
Finding
The presence of developmental dysplasia of the optic nerve.
Cerebral visual impairment
MedGen UID:
890568
Concept ID:
C4048268
Pathologic Function
A form of loss of vision caused by damage to the visual cortex rather than a defect in the eye.

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • CROGVCardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome
Follow this link to review classifications for Cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome in Orphanet.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Onesimo R, Giorgio V, Viscogliosi G, Sforza E, Kuczynska E, Margiotta G, Iademarco M, Proli F, Rigante D, Zampino G, Leoni C
Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet 2022 Dec;190(4):478-493. Epub 2022 Dec 14 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.c.32019. PMID: 36515923
Pierpont ME, Magoulas PL, Adi S, Kavamura MI, Neri G, Noonan J, Pierpont EI, Reinker K, Roberts AE, Shankar S, Sullivan J, Wolford M, Conger B, Santa Cruz M, Rauen KA
Pediatrics 2014 Oct;134(4):e1149-62. Epub 2014 Sep 1 doi: 10.1542/peds.2013-3189. PMID: 25180280Free PMC Article
Allanson JE, Annerén G, Aoki Y, Armour CM, Bondeson ML, Cave H, Gripp KW, Kerr B, Nystrom AM, Sol-Church K, Verloes A, Zenker M
Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet 2011 May 15;157C(2):129-35. Epub 2011 Apr 14 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.c.30295. PMID: 21495173Free PMC Article

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Weaver KN, Gripp KW
Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet 2022 Dec;190(4):494-500. Epub 2022 Dec 1 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.c.32023. PMID: 36454176
Palit A, Inamadar AC
Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 2022 May-Jun;88(4):452-463. doi: 10.25259/IJDVL_799_20. PMID: 35138057
van Minkelen R, van Bever Y, Kromosoeto JN, Withagen-Hermans CJ, Nieuwlaat A, Halley DJ, van den Ouweland AM
Clin Genet 2014 Apr;85(4):318-27. Epub 2013 Jun 25 doi: 10.1111/cge.12187. PMID: 23656349
Rauen KA
Annu Rev Genomics Hum Genet 2013;14:355-69. Epub 2013 Jul 15 doi: 10.1146/annurev-genom-091212-153523. PMID: 23875798Free PMC Article
Gremer L, Merbitz-Zahradnik T, Dvorsky R, Cirstea IC, Kratz CP, Zenker M, Wittinghofer A, Ahmadian MR
Hum Mutat 2011 Jan;32(1):33-43. Epub 2010 Dec 9 doi: 10.1002/humu.21377. PMID: 20949621Free PMC Article

Diagnosis

Delogu AB, Limongelli G, Versacci P, Adorisio R, Kaski JP, Blandino R, Maiolo S, Monda E, Putotto C, De Rosa G, Chatfield KC, Gelb BD, Calcagni G
Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet 2022 Dec;190(4):440-451. Epub 2022 Nov 21 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.c.32014. PMID: 36408797
Dong X, Png NCY, Fortier MV, Lim JY, Wong KPL, Choo JTL, Tan EC, Jamuar SS
Am J Med Genet A 2022 Sep;188(9):2732-2737. Epub 2022 Jul 7 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.62879. PMID: 35801299
Palit A, Inamadar AC
Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 2022 May-Jun;88(4):452-463. doi: 10.25259/IJDVL_799_20. PMID: 35138057
Pierpont ME, Magoulas PL, Adi S, Kavamura MI, Neri G, Noonan J, Pierpont EI, Reinker K, Roberts AE, Shankar S, Sullivan J, Wolford M, Conger B, Santa Cruz M, Rauen KA
Pediatrics 2014 Oct;134(4):e1149-62. Epub 2014 Sep 1 doi: 10.1542/peds.2013-3189. PMID: 25180280Free PMC Article
van Minkelen R, van Bever Y, Kromosoeto JN, Withagen-Hermans CJ, Nieuwlaat A, Halley DJ, van den Ouweland AM
Clin Genet 2014 Apr;85(4):318-27. Epub 2013 Jun 25 doi: 10.1111/cge.12187. PMID: 23656349

Therapy

Rauen KA, Alsaegh A, Ben-Shachar S, Berman Y, Blakeley J, Cordeiro I, Elgersma Y, Evans DG, Fisher MJ, Frayling IM, George J, Huson SM, Kerr B, Khire U, Korf B, Legius E, Messiaen L, van Minkelen R, Nampoothiri S, Ngeow J, Parada LF, Phadke S, Pillai A, Plotkin SR, Puri R, Raji A, Ramesh V, Ratner N, Shankar SP, Sharda S, Tambe A, Vikkula M, Widemann BC, Wolkenstein P, Upadhyaya M
Am J Med Genet A 2019 Jun;179(6):1091-1097. Epub 2019 Mar 25 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.61125. PMID: 30908877Free PMC Article
Sakurai K, Takahashi K, Nakayashiro M
Pediatr Int 2018 Nov;60(11):1036-1037. doi: 10.1111/ped.13695. PMID: 30536490
Rauen KA, Schoyer L, Schill L, Stronach B, Albeck J, Andresen BS, Cavé H, Ellis M, Fruchtman SM, Gelb BD, Gibson CC, Gripp K, Hefner E, Huang WYC, Itkin M, Kerr B, Linardic CM, McMahon M, Oberlander B, Perlstein E, Ratner N, Rogers L, Schenck A, Shankar S, Shvartsman S, Stevenson DA, Stites EC, Stork PJS, Sun C, Therrien M, Ullian EM, Widemann BC, Yeh E, Zampino G, Zenker M, Timmer W, McCormick F
Am J Med Genet A 2018 Dec;176(12):2924-2929. Epub 2018 Oct 10 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.40632. PMID: 30302932Free PMC Article
Rauen KA, Huson SM, Burkitt-Wright E, Evans DG, Farschtschi S, Ferner RE, Gutmann DH, Hanemann CO, Kerr B, Legius E, Parada LF, Patton M, Peltonen J, Ratner N, Riccardi VM, van der Vaart T, Vikkula M, Viskochil DH, Zenker M, Upadhyaya M
Am J Med Genet A 2015 Jan;167A(1):1-10. Epub 2014 Nov 12 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.36793. PMID: 25393061Free PMC Article

Prognosis

Feng B, Li X, Zhang Q, Wang Y, Gu S, Yao RE, Li Z, Gao S, Chang G, Li Q, Li N, Fu L, Wang J, Wang X
Orphanet J Rare Dis 2023 Sep 11;18(1):284. doi: 10.1186/s13023-023-02878-0. PMID: 37697378Free PMC Article
Jelin AC, Mahle A, Tran SH, Sparks TN, Rauen KA
Am J Med Genet A 2023 Feb;191(2):323-331. Epub 2022 Oct 29 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.63020. PMID: 36308388Free PMC Article
Delogu AB, Limongelli G, Versacci P, Adorisio R, Kaski JP, Blandino R, Maiolo S, Monda E, Putotto C, De Rosa G, Chatfield KC, Gelb BD, Calcagni G
Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet 2022 Dec;190(4):440-451. Epub 2022 Nov 21 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.c.32014. PMID: 36408797
Templin L, Baumann C, Busa T, Heckenroth H, Pouvreau N, Toutain A, Cave H, Verloes A, Sigaudy S, Philip N
Am J Med Genet A 2016 Feb;170A(2):441-445. Epub 2015 Oct 22 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.37420. PMID: 26494162
Allanson JE, Annerén G, Aoki Y, Armour CM, Bondeson ML, Cave H, Gripp KW, Kerr B, Nystrom AM, Sol-Church K, Verloes A, Zenker M
Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet 2011 May 15;157C(2):129-35. Epub 2011 Apr 14 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.c.30295. PMID: 21495173Free PMC Article

Clinical prediction guides

Feng B, Li X, Zhang Q, Wang Y, Gu S, Yao RE, Li Z, Gao S, Chang G, Li Q, Li N, Fu L, Wang J, Wang X
Orphanet J Rare Dis 2023 Sep 11;18(1):284. doi: 10.1186/s13023-023-02878-0. PMID: 37697378Free PMC Article
Onesimo R, Giorgio V, Viscogliosi G, Sforza E, Kuczynska E, Margiotta G, Iademarco M, Proli F, Rigante D, Zampino G, Leoni C
Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet 2022 Dec;190(4):478-493. Epub 2022 Dec 14 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.c.32019. PMID: 36515923
Chen B, Chen S, Xiong J, Yin F
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2021 Apr 28;46(4):432-437. doi: 10.11817/j.issn.1672-7347.2021.190756. PMID: 33967092
Leoni C, Romeo DM, Pelliccioni M, Di Già M, Onesimo R, Giorgio V, Flex E, Tedesco M, Tartaglia M, Rigante D, Valassina A, Zampino G
Orphanet J Rare Dis 2021 Jan 22;16(1):43. doi: 10.1186/s13023-021-01674-y. PMID: 33482860Free PMC Article
van Minkelen R, van Bever Y, Kromosoeto JN, Withagen-Hermans CJ, Nieuwlaat A, Halley DJ, van den Ouweland AM
Clin Genet 2014 Apr;85(4):318-27. Epub 2013 Jun 25 doi: 10.1111/cge.12187. PMID: 23656349

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