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1.

Severe myoclonic epilepsy in infancy

SCN1A seizure disorders encompass a spectrum that ranges from simple febrile seizures and generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS+) at the mild end to Dravet syndrome and intractable childhood epilepsy with generalized tonic-clonic seizures (ICE-GTC) at the severe end. Phenotypes with intractable seizures including Dravet syndrome are often associated with cognitive decline. Less commonly observed phenotypes include myoclonic astatic epilepsy (MAE), Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, infantile spasms, epilepsy with focal seizures, and vaccine-related encephalopathy and seizures. The phenotype of SCN1A seizure disorders can vary even within the same family. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
148243
Concept ID:
C0751122
Disease or Syndrome
2.

Deficiency of guanidinoacetate methyltransferase

The creatine deficiency disorders (CDDs), inborn errors of creatine metabolism and transport, comprise three disorders: the creatine biosynthesis disorders guanidinoacetate methyltransferase (GAMT) deficiency and L-arginine:glycine amidinotransferase (AGAT) deficiency; and creatine transporter (CRTR) deficiency. Developmental delay and cognitive dysfunction or intellectual disability and speech-language disorder are common to all three CDDs. Onset of clinical manifestations of GAMT deficiency (reported in ~130 individuals) is between ages three months and two years; in addition to developmental delays, the majority of individuals have epilepsy and develop a behavior disorder (e.g., hyperactivity, autism, or self-injurious behavior), and about 30% have movement disorder. AGAT deficiency has been reported in 16 individuals; none have had epilepsy or movement disorders. Clinical findings of CRTR deficiency in affected males (reported in ~130 individuals) in addition to developmental delays include epilepsy (variable seizure types and may be intractable) and behavior disorders (e.g., attention deficit and/or hyperactivity, autistic features, impulsivity, social anxiety), hypotonia, and (less commonly) a movement disorder. Poor weight gain with constipation and prolonged QTc on EKG have been reported. While mild-to-moderate intellectual disability is commonly observed up to age four years, the majority of adult males with CRTR deficiency have been reported to have severe intellectual disability. Females heterozygous for CRTR deficiency are typically either asymptomatic or have mild intellectual disability, although a more severe phenotype resembling the male phenotype has been reported. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
154356
Concept ID:
C0574080
Disease or Syndrome
3.

Landau-Kleffner syndrome

GRIN2A-related speech disorders and epilepsy are characterized by speech disorders in all affected individuals and a range of epilepsy syndromes present in about 90%. Severe speech disorders observed can include dysarthria and speech dyspraxia, and both receptive and expressive language delay/regression; more mildly affected individuals may display subtly impaired intelligibility of conversational speech. Epilepsy features include seizure onset usually between ages three and six years, focal epilepsy with language and/or global developmental regression, and electroencephalogram (EEG) showing continuous spike-and-wave discharges in sleep or very active centrotemporal discharges. Seizure types include seizures associated with aura of perioral paresthesia, focal or focal motor seizures (often evolving to generalized tonic-clonic), and atypical absence seizures. Epilepsy syndromes can include: Landau-Kleffner syndrome (LKS), epileptic encephalopathy with continuous spike-and-wave during sleep (ECSWS), childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (CECTS), atypical childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (ACECTS), autosomal dominant rolandic epilepsy with speech dyspraxia (ADRESD), and infantile-onset epileptic encephalopathy. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
79465
Concept ID:
C0282512
Disease or Syndrome
4.

Generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus, type 2

SCN1A seizure disorders encompass a spectrum that ranges from simple febrile seizures and generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS+) at the mild end to Dravet syndrome and intractable childhood epilepsy with generalized tonic-clonic seizures (ICE-GTC) at the severe end. Phenotypes with intractable seizures including Dravet syndrome are often associated with cognitive decline. Less commonly observed phenotypes include myoclonic astatic epilepsy (MAE), Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, infantile spasms, epilepsy with focal seizures, and vaccine-related encephalopathy and seizures. The phenotype of SCN1A seizure disorders can vary even within the same family. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
388117
Concept ID:
C1858673
Disease or Syndrome
5.

Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 36

Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-36 (DEE36) is an X-linked neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by the onset of seizures at a mean age of 6.5 months. Most patients present with infantile spasms associated with hypsarrhythmia on EEG, consistent with a clinical diagnosis of West syndrome. The seizures tend to be refractory to treatment, although some patients may respond to benzodiazepines or a ketogenic diet. Affected individuals have severely delayed psychomotor development with poor motor function, severe intellectual disability, poor or absent speech, and limited eye contact. More variable features include feeding difficulties sometimes requiring tube feeding, ocular defects including cortical visual impairment, dysmorphic facial features, and scoliosis or osteopenia. The vast majority of patients reported have been females, although rare affected males with a similar phenotype have been described. Most patients show normal N-glycosylation on transferrin isoelectric focusing, but some show abnormal N-glycosylation consistent with CDG type I (summary by Ng et al., 2020). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350. For a discussion of the classification of CDGs, see CDG1A (212065). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1382656
Concept ID:
C4317295
Disease or Syndrome
6.

Intellectual disability, X-linked 1

An X-linked dominant condition caused by mutation(s) in the IQSEC2 gene, encoding IQ motif and SEC7 domain-containing protein 2. It is characterized by substantially impaired intellectual functioning and behavioral abnormalities. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
444070
Concept ID:
C2931498
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
7.

Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy 94

CHD2-related neurodevelopmental disorders are characterized by early-onset epileptic encephalopathy (i.e., refractory seizures and cognitive slowing or regression associated with frequent ongoing epileptiform activity). Seizure onset is typically between ages six months and four years. Seizure types typically include drop attacks, myoclonus, and rapid onset of multiple seizure types associated with generalized spike-wave on EEG, atonic-myoclonic-absence seizures, and clinical photosensitivity. Intellectual disability and/or autism spectrum disorders are common. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
815608
Concept ID:
C3809278
Disease or Syndrome
8.

Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 9

Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-9 (DEE9) is an X-linked disorder characterized by seizure onset in infancy and mild to severe intellectual impairment. Autistic and psychiatric features have been reported in some individuals. The disorder affects heterozygous females only; transmitting males are unaffected (summary by Jamal et al., 2010). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, see 308350. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
338393
Concept ID:
C1848137
Disease or Syndrome
9.

Epilepsy, progressive myoclonic, 1B

Individuals with biallelic PRICKLE1-related disorders typically present with progressive myoclonus epilepsy (PME) with ataxia characterized by myoclonic seizures (lightning-like jerks), generalized convulsive seizures, varying degrees of neurologic regression mainly presenting with ataxia, and mild cognitive impairment or normal cognition. Onset of symptoms is between ages five and ten years. Action myoclonus may affect the limbs or bulbar muscles, while spontaneous myoclonus may occasionally involve facial muscles. Dysarthria may also be an early feature of this condition. The main seizure types are myoclonic or tonic-clonic with frequent nocturnal occurrence. Individuals with heterozygous PRICKLE1 pathogenic variants have presented with non-PME seizures (isolated myoclonic seizures, juvenile myoclonic epilepsy), myoclonic epilepsy, developmental delay, intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorder, and/or central nervous system malformations. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
394003
Concept ID:
C2676254
Disease or Syndrome
10.

Generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus, type 1

Generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus type 1 (GEFSP1) is an autosomal dominant neurologic disorder characterized by onset of seizures associated with fever in infancy or early childhood. There is wide phenotypic variability, even within families. In contrast to classic febrile seizures (see, e.g., FEB1, 121210), which affect approximately 3% of children under 6 years of age and typically spontaneously remit by age 6 years, patients with GEFSP1 either have febrile seizures extending beyond age 6 years or develop epilepsy with afebrile seizures. Other seizure types include absence seizures, partial seizures, myoclonic seizures, and atonic seizures. Some patients may have developmental delay after the onset of seizures (summary by Wallace et al., 1998 and Singh et al., 1999). Deprez et al. (2009) reviewed the genetics of epilepsy syndromes starting in the first year of life, and included a diagnostic algorithm. Genetic Heterogeneity of GEFS+ GEFS+ is a genetically heterogeneous disorder. See also GEFS+2 (604403), caused by mutation in the SCN1A gene (182389) on chromosome 2q24; GEFS+3 (see 607681), caused by mutation in the GABRG2 gene (137164) on chromosome 5q34; GEFS+5 (613060), associated with variation in the GABRD (137163) gene on chromosome 1p36; GEFS+9 (616172), caused by mutation in the STX1B gene (601485) on chromosome 16p11; GEFS+10 (618482), caused by mutation in the HCN1 gene (602780) on chromosome 5p12; GEFS+11 (602477), caused by mutation in the HCN2 gene (602781) on chromosome 19p13; and GEFS+12 (620755), caused by mutation in the SLC32A1 gene (616440) on chromosome 20q11. Several putative loci have also been identified; see GEFS+4 (609800), mapped to chromosome 2p24; GEFS+6 (612279), mapped to chromosome 8p23-p21; GEFS+7 (613863), mapped to chromosome 2q24; and GEFS+8 (613828), mapped to chromosome 6q16.3-q22.31. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
348994
Concept ID:
C1858672
Disease or Syndrome
11.

Progressive myoclonic epilepsy type 6

Progressive myoclonic epilepsy-6 (EPM6) is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by onset of ataxia in the first years of life, followed by action myoclonus and seizures later in childhood, and loss of independent ambulation in the second decade. Cognition is not usually affected, although mild memory difficulties may occur in the third decade (summary by Corbett et al., 2011). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of progressive myoclonic epilepsy, see EPM1A (254800). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1681379
Concept ID:
C5190805
Disease or Syndrome
12.

Generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus, type 7

Patients with isolated febrile seizures (FEB3B) usually have onset between ages 5 months to 4 years and show spontaneous remission by age 6 years (summary by Singh et al., 2009), whereas patients with GEFS+ continue to have various types of febrile and afebrile seizures later in life (summary by Singh et al., 1999). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of GEFS+, see 604233. For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of familial febrile seizures, see 121210. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
416630
Concept ID:
C2751778
Disease or Syndrome
13.

Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 54

HNRNPU-related neurodevelopmental disorder (HNRNPU-NDD) is characterized by developmental delay and intellectual disability – typically moderate to severe – with speech and language delay and/or absent speech. Affected individuals may also display autistic features. There may be feeding difficulties during the neonatal period as well as hypotonia, which often remains lifelong. Dysmorphic features have been described but they are nonspecific. Affected individuals are likely to experience seizures (most commonly tonic-clonic or absence) that may be refractory to treatment. Nonspecific brain MRI findings include ventriculomegaly and thinning of the corpus callosum. Less common findings include cardiac abnormalities, strabismus, undescended testes in males, renal anomalies, and skeletal features, including joint laxity, polydactyly, and scoliosis. Rarely, abnormal breathing patterns, including hyperventilation and apnea, may be present and can lead to sleep disturbance. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
1392637
Concept ID:
C4479319
Disease or Syndrome
14.

Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 19

Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-19 (DEE19) is a neurologic disorder characterized by the onset of various types of seizures in the first year of life, usually between 8 and 12 months of age. Seizures are often triggered by fever, and status epilepticus may occur. Affected individuals subsequently show mildly to moderately impaired intellectual development. Brain imaging is typically normal. The clinical phenotype is similar to that of Dravet syndrome (DRVT; 607208) (summary by Carvill et al., 2014). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
816730
Concept ID:
C3810400
Disease or Syndrome
15.

Febrile seizures, familial, 4

Any febrile seizures, familial in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the ADGRV1 gene. [from MONDO]

MedGen UID:
347652
Concept ID:
C1858493
Disease or Syndrome
16.

Myoclonic-astatic epilepsy

A generalized myoclonic-atonic seizure is a type of generalized motor seizure characterized by a myoclonic jerk followed by an atonic motor component. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
98284
Concept ID:
C0393702
Disease or Syndrome
17.

Intellectual disability, autosomal dominant 42

GNB1 encephalopathy (GNB1-E) is characterized by moderate-to-severe developmental delay / intellectual disability, structural brain abnormalities, and often infantile hypotonia and seizures. Other less common findings include dystonia, reduced vision, behavior issues, growth delay, gastrointestinal (GI) problems, genitourinary (GU) abnormalities in males, and cutaneous mastocytosis. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
934741
Concept ID:
C4310774
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
18.

X-linked intellectual disability, Cantagrel type

X-linked intellectual developmental disorder-98 (XLID98) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by delayed psychomotor development, poor speech, behavioral abnormalities, poor overall growth, dysmorphic facial features, and often early-onset seizures. Some carrier females are unaffected, whereas other females with mutations are affected; males tend to be more severely affected than females. It is believed that the phenotypic variability and disease manifestations in female carriers results from skewed X-inactivation or cellular mosaicism (summary by de Lange et al., 2016). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
813060
Concept ID:
C3806730
Disease or Syndrome
19.

Febrile seizures, familial, 1

Childhood seizures associated with febrile episodes are relatively common and represent the majority of childhood seizures. A febrile convulsion is defined as a seizure event in infancy or childhood, usually occurring between 6 months and 6 years of age, associated with fever but without any evidence of intracranial infection or defined pathologic or traumatic cause (Nabbout et al., 2002). Although the majority of patients do not develop epilepsy, the risk of developing subsequent afebrile seizures is 5 to 7 times higher in those with a history of febrile seizures compared to the general population (Annegers et al., 1987; Hedera et al., 2006). The FEB1 locus maps to chromosome 8q13-q21. Genetic Heterogeneity of Familial Febrile Seizures See FEB2 (602477), caused by mutation in the HCN2 gene (602781) on chromosome 19p13; FEB3A (604403), caused by mutation in the SCN1A gene (182389) on chromosome 2q24; FEB4 (604352), caused by mutation in the ADGRV1 gene (602851) on chromosome 5q14; FEB8 (607681), caused by mutation in the GABRG2 gene (137164) on chromosome 5q31; and FEB11 (614418), caused by mutation in the CPA6 gene (609562) on chromosome 8q13. Several loci for familial febrile seizures have been identified: see FEB3B (613863) on chromosome 2q24; FEB5 (609255) on chromosome 6q22-q24; FEB6 (609253) on chromosome 18p11; FEB7 (611515) on chromosome 21q22; FEB9 (611634) on chromosome 3p24.2-p23; and FEB10 (612637) on chromosome 3q26. A phenotype termed 'generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus' (GEFS+; 604233) is a clinical subset of familial febrile convulsions in which affected individuals later develop afebrile seizures. GEFS+ is associated with mutations in several genes. Deprez et al. (2009) provided a review of the genetics of epilepsy syndromes starting in the first year of life, and included a diagnostic algorithm. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
338959
Concept ID:
C1852577
Disease or Syndrome
20.

Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 15

MedGen UID:
767230
Concept ID:
C3554316
Disease or Syndrome
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