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1.

Severe combined immunodeficiency, autosomal recessive, T cell-negative, B cell-negative, NK cell-negative, due to adenosine deaminase deficiency

Adenosine deaminase (ADA) deficiency is a systemic purine metabolic disorder that primarily affects lymphocyte development, viability, and function. The clinical phenotypic spectrum includes: Severe combined immunodeficiency disease (SCID), often diagnosed by age six months and usually by age 12 months; Less severe "delayed" onset combined immune deficiency (CID), usually diagnosed between age one and ten years; "Late/adult onset" CID, diagnosed in the second to fourth decades; Benign "partial ADA deficiency" (very low or absent ADA activity in erythrocytes but greater ADA activity in nucleated cells), which is compatible with normal immune function. Infants with typical early-onset ADA-deficient SCID have failure to thrive and opportunistic infections associated with marked depletion of T, B, and NK lymphocytes, and an absence of both humoral and cellular immune function. If immune function is not restored, children with ADA-deficient SCID rarely survive beyond age one to two years. Infections in delayed- and late-onset types (commonly, recurrent otitis, sinusitis, and upper respiratory) may initially be less severe than those in individuals with ADA-deficient SCID; however, by the time of diagnosis these individuals often have chronic pulmonary insufficiency and may have autoimmune phenomena (cytopenias, anti-thyroid antibodies), allergies, and elevated serum concentration of IgE. The longer the disorder goes unrecognized, the more immune function deteriorates and the more likely are chronic sequelae of recurrent infection. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
354935
Concept ID:
C1863236
Disease or Syndrome
2.

Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome

The WAS-related disorders, which include Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, X-linked thrombocytopenia (XLT), and X-linked congenital neutropenia (XLN), are a spectrum of disorders of hematopoietic cells, with predominant defects of platelets and lymphocytes caused by pathogenic variants in WAS. WAS-related disorders usually present in infancy. Affected males have thrombocytopenia with intermittent mucosal bleeding, bloody diarrhea, and intermittent or chronic petechiae and purpura; eczema; and recurrent bacterial and viral infections, particularly of the ear. At least 40% of those who survive the early complications develop one or more autoimmune conditions including hemolytic anemia, immune thrombocytopenic purpura, immune-mediated neutropenia, rheumatoid arthritis, vasculitis, and immune-mediated damage to the kidneys and liver. Individuals with a WAS-related disorder, particularly those who have been exposed to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), are at increased risk of developing lymphomas, which often occur in unusual, extranodal locations including the brain, lung, or gastrointestinal tract. Males with XLT have thrombocytopenia with small platelets; other complications of Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, including eczema and immune dysfunction, are usually mild or absent. Males with XLN have congenital neutropenia, myeloid dysplasia, and lymphoid cell abnormalities. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
21921
Concept ID:
C0043194
Disease or Syndrome
3.

Microcephaly, normal intelligence and immunodeficiency

Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS) is characterized by progressive microcephaly, early growth deficiency that improves with age, recurrent respiratory infections, an increased risk for malignancy (primarily lymphoma), and premature ovarian failure in females. Developmental milestones are attained at the usual time during the first year; however, borderline delays in development and hyperactivity may be observed in early childhood. Intellectual abilities tend to decline over time. Recurrent pneumonia and bronchitis may result in respiratory failure and early death. Other reported malignancies include solid tumors (e.g., medulloblastoma, glioma, rhabdomyosarcoma). [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
140771
Concept ID:
C0398791
Disease or Syndrome
4.

Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome type 1

Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS), caused by defective lymphocyte homeostasis, is characterized by the following: Non-malignant lymphoproliferation (lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly with or without hypersplenism) that often improves with age. Autoimmune disease, mostly directed toward blood cells. Lifelong increased risk for both Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. In ALPS-FAS (the most common and best-characterized type of ALPS, associated with heterozygous germline pathogenic variants in FAS), non-malignant lymphoproliferation typically manifests in the first years of life, inexplicably waxes and wanes, and then often decreases without treatment in the second decade of life; in many affected individuals, however, neither splenomegaly nor the overall expansion of lymphocyte subsets in peripheral blood decreases. Although autoimmunity is often not present at the time of diagnosis or at the time of the most extensive lymphoproliferation, autoantibodies can be detected before autoimmune disease manifests clinically. In ALPS-FAS caused by homozygous or compound heterozygous (biallelic) pathogenic variants in FAS, severe lymphoproliferation occurs before, at, or shortly after birth, and usually results in death at an early age. ALPS-sFAS, resulting from somatic FAS pathogenic variants in selected cell populations, notably the alpha/beta double-negative T cells (a/ß-DNT cells), appears to be similar to ALPS-FAS resulting from heterozygous germline pathogenic variants in FAS, although lower incidence of splenectomy and lower lymphocyte counts have been reported in ALPS-sFAS and no cases of lymphoma have yet been published. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
231300
Concept ID:
C1328840
Disease or Syndrome
5.

Purine-nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency

Purine nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive immunodeficiency disorder characterized mainly by decreased T-cell function. Some patients also have neurologic impairment (review by Aust et al., 1992). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
75653
Concept ID:
C0268125
Disease or Syndrome
6.

Combined immunodeficiency due to STIM1 deficiency

Immunodeficiency-10 (IMD10) is an autosomal recessive primary immunodeficiency characterized by onset of recurrent infections in childhood due to defective T- and NK-cell function, although the severity is variable. Affected individuals may also have hypotonia, hypohidrosis, or dental enamel hypoplasia consistent with amelogenesis imperfecta (summary by Parry et al., 2016). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
440575
Concept ID:
C2748557
Disease or Syndrome
7.

STAT3-related early-onset multisystem autoimmune disease

Infantile-onset multisystem autoimmune disease-1 is characterized by early childhood onset of a spectrum of autoimmune disorders affecting multiple organs. Common manifestations include insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and autoimmune enteropathy, or celiac disease, and autoimmune hematologic disorders. Other features include short stature and nonspecific dermatitis. More variable features include hypothyroidism, autoimmune arthritis, and delayed puberty. Some patients may show recurrent infections. The disorder results from an inborn error of cytokine signaling (summary by Flanagan et al., 2014 and Milner et al., 2015). Genetic Heterogeneity of Infantile-Onset Multisystem Autoimmune Disease See also ADMIO2 (617006), caused by mutation in the ZAP70 gene (176947) on chromosome 2q12, and ADMIO3 (620430), caused by mutation in the CBLB gene (604491) on chromosome 3q13. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
863232
Concept ID:
C4014795
Disease or Syndrome
8.

Combined immunodeficiency due to LRBA deficiency

Common variable immunodeficiency-8 with autoimmunity is an autosomal recessive disorder of immune dysregulation. Affected individuals have early childhood onset of recurrent infections, particularly respiratory infections, and also develop variable autoimmune disorders, including idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, autoimmune hemolytic anemia, and inflammatory bowel disease. The presentation and phenotype are highly variable, even within families (summary by Lopez-Herrera et al., 2012 and Alangari et al., 2012). Immunologic findings are also variable and may include decreased B cells, hypogammaglobulinemia, and deficiency of CD4+ T regulatory (Treg) cells (Charbonnier et al., 2015). For a general description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of common variable immunodeficiency, see CVID1 (607594). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
766426
Concept ID:
C3553512
Disease or Syndrome
9.

Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome type 2A

Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS), caused by defective lymphocyte homeostasis, is characterized by the following: Non-malignant lymphoproliferation (lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly with or without hypersplenism) that often improves with age. Autoimmune disease, mostly directed toward blood cells. Lifelong increased risk for both Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. In ALPS-FAS (the most common and best-characterized type of ALPS, associated with heterozygous germline pathogenic variants in FAS), non-malignant lymphoproliferation typically manifests in the first years of life, inexplicably waxes and wanes, and then often decreases without treatment in the second decade of life; in many affected individuals, however, neither splenomegaly nor the overall expansion of lymphocyte subsets in peripheral blood decreases. Although autoimmunity is often not present at the time of diagnosis or at the time of the most extensive lymphoproliferation, autoantibodies can be detected before autoimmune disease manifests clinically. In ALPS-FAS caused by homozygous or compound heterozygous (biallelic) pathogenic variants in FAS, severe lymphoproliferation occurs before, at, or shortly after birth, and usually results in death at an early age. ALPS-sFAS, resulting from somatic FAS pathogenic variants in selected cell populations, notably the alpha/beta double-negative T cells (a/ß-DNT cells), appears to be similar to ALPS-FAS resulting from heterozygous germline pathogenic variants in FAS, although lower incidence of splenectomy and lower lymphocyte counts have been reported in ALPS-sFAS and no cases of lymphoma have yet been published. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
349065
Concept ID:
C1858968
Disease or Syndrome
10.

Lymphoproliferative syndrome 1

Lymphoproliferative syndrome-1 is an autosomal recessive primary immunodeficiency characterized by onset in early childhood of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated immune dysregulation, manifest as lymphoma, lymphomatoid granulomatosis, hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, Hodgkin disease, and/or hypogammaglobulinemia. Autoimmune disorders, such as autoimmune hemolytic anemia or renal disease, may also occur. Patients show a high EBV viral load and decreased invariant natural killer T cells. It is unknown whether patients with ITK mutations are intrinsically susceptible to development of lymphoma or dysgammaglobulinemia in the absence of EBV infection (summary by Stepensky et al., 2011; Linka et al., 2012). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of lymphoproliferative syndrome, see XLP1 (308240). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
765548
Concept ID:
C3552634
Disease or Syndrome
11.

Immunodeficiency due to CD25 deficiency

Immunodeficiency-41 is an autosomal recessive complex disorder of immune dysregulation. Affected individuals present in infancy with recurrent viral, fungal, and bacterial infections, lymphadenopathy, and variable autoimmune features, such as autoimmune enteropathy and eczematous skin lesions. Immunologic studies show a defect in T-cell regulation (summary by Goudy et al., 2013). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
377894
Concept ID:
C1853392
Disease or Syndrome
12.

Autoimmune enteropathy and endocrinopathy - susceptibility to chronic infections syndrome

IMD31C is a disorder of immunologic dysregulation with highly variable manifestations resulting from autosomal dominant gain-of-function mutations in STAT1 (600555). Most patients present in infancy or early childhood with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC). Other highly variable features include recurrent bacterial, viral, fungal, and mycoplasmal infections, disseminated dimorphic fungal infections, enteropathy with villous atrophy, and autoimmune disorders, such as hypothyroidism or diabetes mellitus. A subset of patients show apparently nonimmunologic features, including osteopenia, delayed puberty, and intracranial aneurysms. Laboratory studies show increased activation of gamma-interferon (IFNG; 147570)-mediated inflammation (summary by Uzel et al., 2013 and Sampaio et al., 2013). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
481620
Concept ID:
C3279990
Disease or Syndrome
13.

Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome due to CTLA4 haploinsuffiency

Immune dysregulation with autoimmunity, immunodeficiency, and lymphoproliferation (IDAIL) is an autosomal dominant complex immune disorder with highly variable presentation and clinical manifestations. Prominent features include recurrent infections often associated with hypogammaglobulinemia, autoimmune features such as autoimmune cytopenias, and abnormal lymphocytic infiltration of nonlymphoid organs, including the lungs, brain, and gastrointestinal tract, resulting in enteropathy. Laboratory studies often show lymphopenia and abnormal T and B cell subsets. The variable features are a result of impaired function of Treg cells, which play a role in immune homeostasis (summary by Kuehn et al., 2014; Schwab et al., 2018, and Lopez-Nevado et al., 2021). The disorder shows overlapping features with autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS); for a general description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of ALPS, see 601859. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
863651
Concept ID:
C4015214
Disease or Syndrome
14.

Immunodeficiency, common variable, 12

Common variable immunodeficiency-12 with autoimmunity (CVID12) is an autosomal dominant complex immunologic disorder with multisystem involvement. CVID12 is mainly a primary immunodeficiency characterized by recurrent infections and associated with hypogammaglobulinemia. Notably, about half of patients develop autoimmune features, including cytopenia, as well as generalized inflammation and lymphoproliferation manifest as lymphadenopathy or hepatosplenomegaly. A smaller percentage of affected individuals (less than 20%) develop cancer, most commonly solid tumors, including lymphoma. Age at onset and disease severity are highly variable, even within the same family. There is also incomplete penetrance, such that mutation carriers may be asymptomatic, even if they have hypogammaglobulinemia. The gene involved, NFKB1, encodes a transcription factor that regulates the expression of target genes involved in the immune system, thus defining the phenotype as a disorder of immune dysregulation (summary by Fliegauf et al., 2015; Lorenzini et al., 2020). For a general description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of common variable immunodeficiency, see CVID1 (607594). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
906018
Concept ID:
C4225277
Disease or Syndrome
15.

Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome, type III caused by mutation in PRKCD

Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome type III is an autosomal recessive disorder of immune dysregulation. The phenotype is variable, but most patients have significant lymphadenopathy associated with variable autoimmune manifestations. Some patients may have recurrent infections. Lymphocyte accumulation results from a combination of impaired apoptosis and excessive proliferation (summary by Oliveira, 2013). For a general description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of ALPS, see 601859. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
816258
Concept ID:
C3809928
Disease or Syndrome
16.

Combined immunodeficiency due to CD3gamma deficiency

Immunodeficiency-17 (IMD17) is an autosomal recessive primary immunodeficiency characterized by highly variable clinical severity. Some patients have onset of severe recurrent infections in early infancy that may be lethal, whereas others may be only mildly affected or essentially asymptomatic into young adulthood. More severely affected patients may have evidence of autoimmune disease or enteropathy. The immunologic pattern is similar among patients, showing partial T-cell lymphopenia, particularly of cytotoxic CD8 (see 186910)-positive cells, decreased amounts of the CD3 complex, and impaired proliferative responses to T-cell receptor (TCR)-dependent stimuli. B cells, natural killer (NK) cells, and immunoglobulins are usually normal. Although thymic output of functional naive T cells early in life is decreased, polyclonal expansion of functional memory T cells is substantial. The phenotype in some patients is reminiscent of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) (summary by Timon et al. (1993) and Recio et al. (2007)). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
816437
Concept ID:
C3810107
Disease or Syndrome
17.

Gastrointestinal defects and immunodeficiency syndrome 1

Gastrointestinal defects and immunodeficiency syndrome-1 (GIDID1) is characterized by multiple intestinal atresia, in which atresia occurs at various levels throughout the small and large intestines. Surgical outcomes are poor, and the condition is usually fatal within the first month of life. Some patients exhibit inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), with or without intestinal atresia, and in some cases, the intestinal features are associated with either mild or severe combined immunodeficiency (Samuels et al., 2013; Avitzur et al., 2014; Lemoine et al., 2014). Genetic Heterogeneity of GIDID See also GIDID2 (619708), caused by mutation in the PI4KA gene (600286) on chromosome 22q11. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1806192
Concept ID:
C5680044
Disease or Syndrome
18.

Immunodeficiency 25

Any severe combined immunodeficiency in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the CD247 gene. [from MONDO]

MedGen UID:
346666
Concept ID:
C1857798
Disease or Syndrome
19.

Combined immunodeficiency due to STK4 deficiency

Immunodeficiency-110 (IMD110) is an autosomal recessive primary T-cell immunodeficiency syndrome characterized by progressive loss of naive T cells, recurrent bacterial, viral, and fungal infections, warts, and abscesses, and autoimmune manifestations. Patients are at risk for developing lymphoproliferative disorders or lymphoma, particularly associated with EBV. Some patients may show cardiac malformations, including atrial septal defect (Abdollahpour et al., 2012; Nehme et al., 2012). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
766857
Concept ID:
C3553943
Disease or Syndrome
20.

Autoimmune hemolytic anemia

An autoimmune form of hemolytic anemia. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
1918
Concept ID:
C0002880
Disease or Syndrome
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