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Items: 20

1.

Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism 2 with or without anosmia

Isolated gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) deficiency (IGD) is characterized by inappropriately low serum concentrations of the gonadotropins LH (luteinizing hormone) and FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone) in the presence of low circulating concentrations of sex steroids. IGD is associated with a normal sense of smell (normosmic IGD) in approximately 40% of affected individuals and an impaired sense of smell (Kallmann syndrome) in approximately 60%. IGD can first become apparent in infancy, adolescence, or adulthood. Infant boys with congenital IGD often have micropenis and cryptorchidism. Adolescents and adults with IGD have clinical evidence of hypogonadism and incomplete sexual maturation on physical examination. Adult males with IGD tend to have prepubertal testicular volume (i.e., <4 mL), absence of secondary sexual features (e.g., facial and axillary hair growth, deepening of the voice), decreased muscle mass, diminished libido, erectile dysfunction, and infertility. Adult females have little or no breast development and primary amenorrhea. Although skeletal maturation is delayed, the rate of linear growth is usually normal except for the absence of a distinct pubertal growth spurt. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
289648
Concept ID:
C1563720
Disease or Syndrome
2.

Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism 1 with or without anosmia

Isolated gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) deficiency (IGD) is characterized by inappropriately low serum concentrations of the gonadotropins LH (luteinizing hormone) and FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone) in the presence of low circulating concentrations of sex steroids. IGD is associated with a normal sense of smell (normosmic IGD) in approximately 40% of affected individuals and an impaired sense of smell (Kallmann syndrome) in approximately 60%. IGD can first become apparent in infancy, adolescence, or adulthood. Infant boys with congenital IGD often have micropenis and cryptorchidism. Adolescents and adults with IGD have clinical evidence of hypogonadism and incomplete sexual maturation on physical examination. Adult males with IGD tend to have prepubertal testicular volume (i.e., <4 mL), absence of secondary sexual features (e.g., facial and axillary hair growth, deepening of the voice), decreased muscle mass, diminished libido, erectile dysfunction, and infertility. Adult females have little or no breast development and primary amenorrhea. Although skeletal maturation is delayed, the rate of linear growth is usually normal except for the absence of a distinct pubertal growth spurt. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
295872
Concept ID:
C1563719
Disease or Syndrome
3.

Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism 3 with or without anosmia

Isolated gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) deficiency (IGD) is characterized by inappropriately low serum concentrations of the gonadotropins LH (luteinizing hormone) and FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone) in the presence of low circulating concentrations of sex steroids. IGD is associated with a normal sense of smell (normosmic IGD) in approximately 40% of affected individuals and an impaired sense of smell (Kallmann syndrome) in approximately 60%. IGD can first become apparent in infancy, adolescence, or adulthood. Infant boys with congenital IGD often have micropenis and cryptorchidism. Adolescents and adults with IGD have clinical evidence of hypogonadism and incomplete sexual maturation on physical examination. Adult males with IGD tend to have prepubertal testicular volume (i.e., <4 mL), absence of secondary sexual features (e.g., facial and axillary hair growth, deepening of the voice), decreased muscle mass, diminished libido, erectile dysfunction, and infertility. Adult females have little or no breast development and primary amenorrhea. Although skeletal maturation is delayed, the rate of linear growth is usually normal except for the absence of a distinct pubertal growth spurt. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
763392
Concept ID:
C3550478
Disease or Syndrome
4.

Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism 4 with or without anosmia

Isolated gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) deficiency (IGD) is characterized by inappropriately low serum concentrations of the gonadotropins LH (luteinizing hormone) and FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone) in the presence of low circulating concentrations of sex steroids. IGD is associated with a normal sense of smell (normosmic IGD) in approximately 40% of affected individuals and an impaired sense of smell (Kallmann syndrome) in approximately 60%. IGD can first become apparent in infancy, adolescence, or adulthood. Infant boys with congenital IGD often have micropenis and cryptorchidism. Adolescents and adults with IGD have clinical evidence of hypogonadism and incomplete sexual maturation on physical examination. Adult males with IGD tend to have prepubertal testicular volume (i.e., <4 mL), absence of secondary sexual features (e.g., facial and axillary hair growth, deepening of the voice), decreased muscle mass, diminished libido, erectile dysfunction, and infertility. Adult females have little or no breast development and primary amenorrhea. Although skeletal maturation is delayed, the rate of linear growth is usually normal except for the absence of a distinct pubertal growth spurt. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
765257
Concept ID:
C3552343
Disease or Syndrome
5.

Klippel-Feil syndrome 1, autosomal dominant

Klippel-Feil syndrome is a bone disorder characterized by the abnormal joining (fusion) of two or more spinal bones in the neck (cervical vertebrae). The vertebral fusion is present from birth. Three major features result from this vertebral fusion: a short neck, the resulting appearance of a low hairline at the back of the head, and a limited range of motion in the neck. Most affected people have one or two of these characteristic features. Less than half of all individuals with Klippel-Feil syndrome have all three classic features of this condition.

In people with Klippel-Feil syndrome, the fused vertebrae can limit the range of movement of the neck and back as well as lead to chronic headaches and muscle pain in the neck and back that range in severity. People with minimal bone involvement often have fewer problems compared to individuals with several vertebrae affected. The shortened neck can cause a slight difference in the size and shape of the right and left sides of the face (facial asymmetry). Trauma to the spine, such as a fall or car accident, can aggravate problems in the fused area. Fusion of the vertebrae can lead to nerve damage in the head, neck, or back. Over time, individuals with Klippel-Feil syndrome can develop a narrowing of the spinal canal (spinal stenosis) in the neck, which can compress and damage the spinal cord. Rarely, spinal nerve abnormalities may cause abnormal sensations or involuntary movements in people with Klippel-Feil syndrome. Affected individuals may develop a painful joint disorder called osteoarthritis around the areas of fused bone or experience painful involuntary tensing of the neck muscles (cervical dystonia). In addition to the fused cervical bones, people with this condition may have abnormalities in other vertebrae. Many people with Klippel-Feil syndrome have abnormal side-to-side curvature of the spine (scoliosis) due to malformation of the vertebrae; fusion of additional vertebrae below the neck may also occur.

People with Klippel-Feil syndrome may have a wide variety of other features in addition to their spine abnormalities. Some people with this condition have hearing difficulties, eye abnormalities, an opening in the roof of the mouth (cleft palate), genitourinary problems such as abnormal kidneys or reproductive organs, heart abnormalities, or lung defects that can cause breathing problems. Affected individuals may have other skeletal defects including arms or legs of unequal length (limb length discrepancy), which can result in misalignment of the hips or knees. Additionally, the shoulder blades may be underdeveloped so that they sit abnormally high on the back, a condition called Sprengel deformity. Rarely, structural brain abnormalities or a type of birth defect that occurs during the development of the brain and spinal cord (neural tube defect) can occur in people with Klippel-Feil syndrome.

In some cases, Klippel-Feil syndrome occurs as a feature of another disorder or syndrome, such as Wildervanck syndrome or hemifacial microsomia. In these instances, affected individuals have the signs and symptoms of both Klippel-Feil syndrome and the additional disorder. [from MedlinePlus Genetics]

MedGen UID:
396196
Concept ID:
C1861689
Disease or Syndrome
6.

Mirror movements 1

The disorder of congenital mirror movements (CMM) is characterized by early-onset, obvious mirror movements (involuntary movements of one side of the body that mirror intentional movements on the opposite side) in individuals who typically have no other clinical signs or symptoms. Although mirror movements vary in severity, most affected individuals have strong and sustained mirror movements of a lesser amplitude than the corresponding voluntary movements. Mirror movements usually persist throughout life, without deterioration or improvement, and are not usually associated with subsequent onset of additional neurologic manifestations. However, a subset of affected individuals with a heterozygous pathogenic variant in DCC may have CMM with abnormalities of the corpus callosum and concomitant cognitive and/or neuropsychiatric issues. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
320461
Concept ID:
C1834870
Finding
7.

Muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy type B6

MDDGB6 is an autosomal recessive congenital muscular dystrophy with impaired intellectual development and structural brain abnormalities (Longman et al., 2003). It is part of a group of similar disorders resulting from defective glycosylation of alpha-dystroglycan (DAG1; 128239), collectively known as 'dystroglycanopathies' (Mercuri et al., 2009). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of congenital muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy type B, see MDDGB1 (613155). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
373284
Concept ID:
C1837229
Disease or Syndrome
8.

Microcephaly 9, primary, autosomal recessive

Primary microcephaly (MCPH) is a clinical diagnosis made when an individual has a head circumference more than 3 standard deviations below the age- and sex-matched population mean and mental retardation, with no other associated malformations and with no apparent etiology. Most cases of primary microcephaly show an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance (Woods et al., 2005). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of primary microcephaly, see MCPH1 (251200). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
766800
Concept ID:
C3553886
Disease or Syndrome
9.

Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism 16 with or without anosmia

Isolated gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) deficiency (IGD) is characterized by inappropriately low serum concentrations of the gonadotropins LH (luteinizing hormone) and FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone) in the presence of low circulating concentrations of sex steroids. IGD is associated with a normal sense of smell (normosmic IGD) in approximately 40% of affected individuals and an impaired sense of smell (Kallmann syndrome) in approximately 60%. IGD can first become apparent in infancy, adolescence, or adulthood. Infant boys with congenital IGD often have micropenis and cryptorchidism. Adolescents and adults with IGD have clinical evidence of hypogonadism and incomplete sexual maturation on physical examination. Adult males with IGD tend to have prepubertal testicular volume (i.e., <4 mL), absence of secondary sexual features (e.g., facial and axillary hair growth, deepening of the voice), decreased muscle mass, diminished libido, erectile dysfunction, and infertility. Adult females have little or no breast development and primary amenorrhea. Although skeletal maturation is delayed, the rate of linear growth is usually normal except for the absence of a distinct pubertal growth spurt. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
766935
Concept ID:
C3554021
Disease or Syndrome
10.

Microcephaly 4, primary, autosomal recessive

Primary microcephaly (MCPH) is a clinical diagnosis made when an individual has a head circumference more than 3 standard deviations below the age- and sex-matched population mean and mental retardation, with no other associated malformations and with no apparent etiology. Most cases of primary microcephaly show an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance (summary by Woods et al., 2005). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of primary microcephaly, see MCPH1 (251200). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
347655
Concept ID:
C1858516
Disease or Syndrome
11.

Mirror movements 2

The disorder of congenital mirror movements (CMM) is characterized by early-onset, obvious mirror movements (involuntary movements of one side of the body that mirror intentional movements on the opposite side) in individuals who typically have no other clinical signs or symptoms. Although mirror movements vary in severity, most affected individuals have strong and sustained mirror movements of a lesser amplitude than the corresponding voluntary movements. Mirror movements usually persist throughout life, without deterioration or improvement, and are not usually associated with subsequent onset of additional neurologic manifestations. However, a subset of affected individuals with a heterozygous pathogenic variant in DCC may have CMM with abnormalities of the corpus callosum and concomitant cognitive and/or neuropsychiatric issues. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
482719
Concept ID:
C3281089
Disease or Syndrome
12.

Mirror movements 4

The disorder of congenital mirror movements (CMM) is characterized by early-onset, obvious mirror movements (involuntary movements of one side of the body that mirror intentional movements on the opposite side) in individuals who typically have no other clinical signs or symptoms. Although mirror movements vary in severity, most affected individuals have strong and sustained mirror movements of a lesser amplitude than the corresponding voluntary movements. Mirror movements usually persist throughout life, without deterioration or improvement, and are not usually associated with subsequent onset of additional neurologic manifestations. However, a subset of affected individuals with a heterozygous pathogenic variant in DCC may have CMM with abnormalities of the corpus callosum and concomitant cognitive and/or neuropsychiatric issues. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
1648342
Concept ID:
C4748869
Disease or Syndrome
13.

Agenesis of corpus callosum, cardiac, ocular, and genital syndrome

Agenesis of corpus callosum, cardiac, ocular, and genital syndrome (ACOGS) is a syndromic neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay and/or intellectual disability, corpus callosum agenesis or hypoplasia, craniofacial dysmorphisms, and ocular, cardiac, and genital anomalies (Accogli et al., 2019). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1718475
Concept ID:
C5394523
Disease or Syndrome
14.

Neurooculorenal syndrome

Neurooculorenal syndrome (NORS) is an autosomal recessive developmental disorder with highly variable clinical manifestations involving several organ systems. Some affected individuals present in utero with renal agenesis and structural brain abnormalities incompatible with life, whereas others present in infancy with a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay and dysmorphic facial features that may be associated with congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT). Additional more variable features may include ocular anomalies, most commonly strabismus, congenital heart defects, and pituitary hormone deficiency. Brain imaging usually shows structural midline defects, including dysgenesis of the corpus callosum and hindbrain. There is variation in the severity, manifestations, and expressivity of the phenotype, even within families (Rasmussen et al., 2018; Munch et al., 2022). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1841013
Concept ID:
C5830377
Disease or Syndrome
15.

Gaze palsy, familial horizontal, with progressive scoliosis, 2

MedGen UID:
1393733
Concept ID:
C4479640
Disease or Syndrome
16.

Mirror movements 3

Any familial congenital mirror movements in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the DNAL4 gene. [from MONDO]

MedGen UID:
863561
Concept ID:
C4015124
Disease or Syndrome
17.

Neurodevelopmental disorder with ataxia, hypotonia, and microcephaly

MedGen UID:
1684871
Concept ID:
C5231413
Disease or Syndrome
18.

Kallmann syndrome with spastic paraplegia

MedGen UID:
333437
Concept ID:
C1839911
Disease or Syndrome
19.

Neurodevelopmental disorder with facial dysmorphism, absent language, and pseudo-pelger-huet anomaly

Neurodevelopmental disorder with facial dysmorphism, absent language, and pseudo-Pelger-Huet anomaly (NEDFLPH) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by global developmental delay with severely impaired intellectual development. Affected individuals often have behavioral abnormalities and may have variable findings on brain imaging, such as thin corpus callosum. Laboratory studies show nuclear lobulation defects in a subset of neutrophils, indicating a pseudo-Pelger-Huet anomaly (see 169400) and suggesting defects in the integrity of the nuclear envelope, where TMEM147 localizes (Thomas et al., 2022). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1824005
Concept ID:
C5774232
Disease or Syndrome
20.

Bimanual synkinesia

Involuntary movements of one hand that accompany and mirror intentional movements of the opposite hand. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
473166
Concept ID:
C0454455
Disease or Syndrome
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