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1.

Charlevoix-Saguenay spastic ataxia

Autosomal recessive spastic ataxia of Charlevoix-Saguenay (ARSACS) is clinically characterized by a progressive cerebellar ataxia, peripheral neuropathy, and spasticity. Disease onset of classic ARSACS is often in early childhood, leading to delayed walking because of gait unsteadiness in very young toddlers, while an increasing number of individuals with disease onset in teenage or early-adult years are now being described. Typically the ataxia is followed by lower-limb spasticity and later by peripheral neuropathy – although pronounced peripheral neuropathy has been observed as a first sign of ARSACS. Oculomotor disturbances, dysarthria, and upper-limb ataxia develop with slower progression than the other findings. Brain imaging demonstrates atrophy of the superior vermis and the cerebellar hemisphere with additional findings on MRI, such as linear hypointensities in the pons and hyperintense rims around the thalami. Many affected individuals (though not all) have yellow streaks of hypermyelinated fibers radiating from the edges of the optic disc noted on ophthalmologic exam, and thickened retinal fibers can be demonstrated by optical coherence tomography. Mild intellectual disability, hearing loss, and urinary urgency and incontinence have been reported in some individuals. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
338620
Concept ID:
C1849140
Disease or Syndrome
2.

Myosin storage myopathy

Autosomal dominant myosin storage congenital myopathy-7A (CMYP7A) is a skeletal muscle disorder with wide phenotypic variability. The age at symptom onset can range from early childhood to late adulthood. Affected individuals have proximal muscle weakness affecting the upper and lower limbs and distal muscle weakness of the lower limbs, resulting in gait difficulties and scapular winging (scapuloperoneal myopathy). Additional features may include thin habitus, high-arched palate, foot drop, pes cavus, calf pseudohypertrophy, and decreased reflexes. The severity is also variable: some patients develop respiratory insufficiency, joint contractures, and scoliosis in the first decades, whereas others are clinically unaffected, but show subtle signs of the disorder on examination. Serum creatine kinase may be normal or elevated. The disease is usually slowly progressive and most patients remain ambulatory. Skeletal muscle biopsy can show different abnormalities, including hyaline bodies, type 1 fiber predominance, congenital fiber-type disproportion (CFTD), and nonspecific myopathic changes with myofibrillar disarray. Intrafamilial variability is common (Dye et al., 2006; Pegoraro et al., 2007; review by Tajsharghi and Oldfors, 2013). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of congenital myopathy, see CMYP1A (117000). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
374868
Concept ID:
C1842160
Disease or Syndrome
3.

Leber congenital amaurosis 14

Autosomal recessive childhood-onset severe retinal dystrophy is a heterogeneous group of disorders affecting rod and cone photoreceptors simultaneously. The most severe cases are termed Leber congenital amaurosis, whereas the less aggressive forms are usually considered juvenile retinitis pigmentosa (Gu et al., 1997). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Leber congenital amaurosis, see LCA1 (204000); for retinitis pigmentosa, see 268000. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
442375
Concept ID:
C2750063
Disease or Syndrome
4.

Congenital myasthenic syndrome 11

Congenital myasthenic syndrome associated with AChR deficiency is a disorder of the postsynaptic neuromuscular junction (NMJ) clinically characterized by early-onset muscle weakness with variable severity. Electrophysiologic studies show low amplitude of the miniature endplate potential (MEPP) and current (MEPC) resulting from deficiency of AChR at the endplate. Treatment with cholinesterase inhibitors or amifampridine may be helpful (summary by Engel et al., 2015). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of CMS, see CMS1A (601462). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
902189
Concept ID:
C4225367
Disease or Syndrome
5.

Supranuclear palsy, progressive, 1

The spectrum of clinical manifestations of MAPT-related frontotemporal dementia (MAPT-FTD) has expanded from its original description of frontotemporal dementia and parkinsonian manifestations to include changes in behavior, motor function, memory, and/or language. A recent retrospective study suggested that the majority of affected individuals have either behavioral changes consistent with a diagnosis of behavioral variant FTD (bvFTD) or, less commonly, a parkinsonian syndrome (i.e., progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal syndrome, or Parkinson disease). Fewer than 5% of people with MAPT-FTD have primary progressive aphasia or Alzheimer disease. Clinical presentation may differ between and within families with the same MAPT variant. MAPT-FTD is a progressive disorder that commonly ends with a relatively global dementia in which some affected individuals become mute. Progression of motor impairment in affected individuals results in some becoming chairbound and others bedbound. Mean disease duration is 9.3 (SD: 6.4) years but is individually variable and can be more than 30 years in some instances. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
1640811
Concept ID:
C4551863
Disease or Syndrome
6.

Mitochondrial DNA deletion syndrome with progressive myopathy

PEOA6 is characterized by muscle weakness, mainly affecting the lower limbs, external ophthalmoplegia, exercise intolerance, and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletions on muscle biopsy. Symptoms may appear in childhood or adulthood and show slow progression (summary by Ronchi et al., 2013). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal dominant progressive external ophthalmoplegia, see PEOA1 (157640). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
767513
Concept ID:
C3554599
Disease or Syndrome
7.

Syndromic X-linked intellectual disability Hedera type

The Hedera type of X-linked syndromic intellectual developmental disorder (MRXSH) is characterized by global developmental delay apparent from infancy and progressive neurologic decline with abnormal movements, spasticity, and seizures. Brain imaging shows volume loss of cortical white and gray matter, thin corpus callosum, and myelination defects, consistent with a neurodegenerative process. Only males are affected (summary by Hirose et al., 2019). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
337257
Concept ID:
C1845543
Disease or Syndrome
8.

Autosomal recessive spastic paraplegia type 78

Autosomal recessive spastic paraplegia-78 is an adult-onset neurodegenerative disorder characterized predominantly by spasticity and muscle weakness of the lower limbs, resulting in gait difficulties and loss of ambulation in some patients. Affected individuals also have cerebellar signs, such as dysarthria, oculomotor disturbances, and limb and gait ataxia; brain imaging shows cerebellar atrophy. Some patients may have mild cognitive impairment or frank dementia. The phenotype is highly variable (summary by Estrada-Cuzcano et al., 2017). Biallelic mutation in the ATP13A2 gene also causes Kufor-Rakeb syndrome (KRS; 606693), a neurodegenerative disorder with overlapping features. Patients with KRS have earlier onset and prominent parkinsonism. Loss of ATP13A2 function results in a multidimensional spectrum of neurologic features reflecting various regions of the brain and nervous system, including cortical, pyramidal, extrapyramidal, brainstem, cerebellar, and peripheral (summary by Estrada-Cuzcano et al., 2017). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1799316
Concept ID:
C5567893
Disease or Syndrome
9.

Myopathy, tubular aggregate, 2

Any tubular aggregate myopathy in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the ORAI1 gene. [from MONDO]

MedGen UID:
862994
Concept ID:
C4014557
Disease or Syndrome
10.

Oxoglutaricaciduria

Oxoglutarate dehydrogenase deficiency (OGDHD) is an autosomal recessive disorder associated with features of infantile- and pediatric-onset basal ganglia-associated movement disorders, hypotonia, developmental delays, ataxia, and seizures (summary by Yap et al., 2021). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
414553
Concept ID:
C2752074
Disease or Syndrome
11.

Mitochondrial complex 1 deficiency, nuclear type 2

MedGen UID:
1648466
Concept ID:
C4748737
Disease or Syndrome
12.

Mitochondrial complex 2 deficiency, nuclear type 4

Mitochondrial complex II deficiency nuclear type 4 (MC2DN4) is a severe autosomal recessive disorder characterized by early-onset progressive neurodegeneration with leukoencephalopathy. Acute episodes of neurodegeneration are often triggered by catabolic stress such as infection or fasting. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1782861
Concept ID:
C5543176
Disease or Syndrome
13.

Progressive myoclonic epilepsy type 8

Progressive myoclonic epilepsy-8 (EPM8) is a rare autosomal recessive form of progressive myoclonic epilepsy with phenotypic variability including ataxia and other movement disorders in addition to myoclonus (summary by Godeiro et al., 2018). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of progressive myoclonic epilepsy, see EPM1A (254800). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1680582
Concept ID:
C5190825
Disease or Syndrome
14.

Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, dominant intermediate G

CMTDIG is an autosomal dominant neurologic disorder with a highly variable phenotype. Most affected individuals have onset in the first or second decades of slowly progressive distal motor weakness and atrophy, resulting in gait instability and distal upper limb impairment, as well as distal sensory impairment. More severely affected individuals may have pes cavus and claw hands and become wheelchair-bound, whereas other affected individuals have later onset with a milder disease course. Electrophysiologic studies tend to show median motor nerve conduction velocities (NCV) in the 'intermediate' range, between 25 and 45 m/s (summary by Berciano et al., 2017). In a review of intermediate CMT, Berciano et al. (2017) noted that advanced axonal degeneration may induce secondary demyelinating changes resulting in decreased NCV and attenuated compound muscle action potential (CMAP) in median nerve conduction studies. They thus suggested that testing the upper arm, axilla to elbow, may provide more accurate assessment of NCV and CMAP and reveal an intermediate phenotype (review by Berciano et al., 2017). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of CMTDI, see 606482. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1642893
Concept ID:
C4693509
Disease or Syndrome
15.

Retinal dystrophy with leukodystrophy

Retinal dystrophy and leukodystrophy (RDLKD) is a peroxisomal enzyme deficiency caused by impaired very long chain fatty acid (VLCFA) metabolism. Patients exhibit ataxia and spastic paraparesis as well as developmental delay, and may show facial dysmorphism (Ferdinandusse et al., 2017). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1715138
Concept ID:
C5394315
Disease or Syndrome
16.

Intellectual disability, autosomal dominant 58

MedGen UID:
1648488
Concept ID:
C4748195
Disease or Syndrome
17.

Supranuclear palsy, progressive, 2

MedGen UID:
324446
Concept ID:
C1836148
Disease or Syndrome
18.

Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome 18

Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome-18 (MTDPS18) is an autosomal recessive neuromuscular disorder characterized by early-onset progressive weakness and atrophy of the distal limb muscles, resulting in loss of ambulation as well as atrophy of the intrinsic hand muscles with clawed hands. Affected individuals may also develop scoliosis and have hypo- or hyperreflexia and decreased pulmonary vital capacity. Examination of skeletal muscle shows neurogenic atrophy and combined mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation deficiency associated with mtDNA depletion. The clinical phenotype is reminiscent of spinal muscular atrophy (see SMA, 253300) and the metabolic profile is reminiscent of 2-aminoadipic 2-oxoadipic aciduria (AMOXAD; 204750), which is caused by mutation in the DHTKD1 gene (614984) (summary by Boczonadi et al., 2018). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal recessive mtDNA depletion syndromes, see MTDPS1 (603041). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1713890
Concept ID:
C5394140
Disease or Syndrome
19.

Intellectual developmental disorder with paroxysmal dyskinesia or seizures

Intellectual developmental disorder with paroxysmal dyskinesia or seizures (IDDPADS) is an autosomal recessive complex neurologic disorder characterized by global developmental delay with impaired intellectual development and language delay. In addition, most patients develop a paroxysmal hyperkinetic movement disorder in the first months or years of life manifest as sudden falls or backward propulsion, eye or head deviation, and dystonic limb posturing followed by chorea and dyskinetic movements. The episodes are pharmacoresistant to anticonvulsant medication. EEG may show interictal abnormalities, but are usually not consistent with epilepsy. However, some patients may also develop epileptic seizures or only have seizures without a movement disorder (summary by Doummar et al., 2020). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1727046
Concept ID:
C5436894
Disease or Syndrome
20.

Neurodevelopmental disorder with hypotonia and dysmorphic facies

Neurodevelopmental disorder with hypotonia and dysmorphic facies (NEDHYDF) is characterized by global developmental delay and hypotonia apparent from birth. Affected individuals have variably impaired intellectual development, often with speech delay and delayed walking. Seizures are generally not observed, although some patients may have single seizures or late-onset epilepsy. Most patients have prominent dysmorphic facial features. Additional features may include congenital cardiac defects (without arrhythmia), nonspecific renal anomalies, joint contractures or joint hyperextensibility, dry skin, and cryptorchidism. There is significant phenotypic variability in both the neurologic and extraneurologic manifestations (summary by Tan et al., 2022). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1794184
Concept ID:
C5561974
Disease or Syndrome
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