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1.

Hurler syndrome

Mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I) is a progressive multisystem disorder with features ranging over a continuum of severity. While affected individuals have traditionally been classified as having one of three MPS I syndromes (Hurler syndrome, Hurler-Scheie syndrome, or Scheie syndrome), no easily measurable biochemical differences have been identified and the clinical findings overlap. Affected individuals are best described as having either a phenotype consistent with either severe (Hurler syndrome) or attenuated MPS I, a distinction that influences therapeutic options. Severe MPS I. Infants appear normal at birth. Typical early manifestations are nonspecific (e.g., umbilical or inguinal hernia, frequent upper respiratory tract infections before age 1 year). Coarsening of the facial features may not become apparent until after age one year. Gibbus deformity of the lower spine is common and often noted within the first year. Progressive skeletal dysplasia (dysostosis multiplex) involving all bones is universal, as is progressive arthropathy involving most joints. By age three years, linear growth decreases. Intellectual disability is progressive and profound but may not be readily apparent in the first year of life. Progressive cardiorespiratory involvement, hearing loss, and corneal clouding are common. Without treatment, death (typically from cardiorespiratory failure) usually occurs within the first ten years of life. Attenuated MPS I. Clinical onset is usually between ages three and ten years. The severity and rate of disease progression range from serious life-threatening complications leading to death in the second to third decade, to a normal life span complicated by significant disability from progressive joint manifestations and cardiorespiratory disease. While some individuals have no neurologic involvement and psychomotor development may be normal in early childhood, learning disabilities and psychiatric manifestations can be present later in life. Hearing loss, cardiac valvular disease, respiratory involvement, and corneal clouding are common. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
39698
Concept ID:
C0086795
Disease or Syndrome
2.

Achondroplasia

Achondroplasia is the most common cause of disproportionate short stature. Affected individuals have rhizomelic shortening of the limbs, macrocephaly, and characteristic facial features with frontal bossing and midface retrusion. In infancy, hypotonia is typical, and acquisition of developmental motor milestones is often both aberrant in pattern and delayed. Intelligence and life span are usually near normal, although craniocervical junction compression increases the risk of death in infancy. Additional complications include obstructive sleep apnea, middle ear dysfunction, kyphosis, and spinal stenosis. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
1289
Concept ID:
C0001080
Congenital Abnormality
3.

Deficiency of alpha-mannosidase

Alpha-mannosidosis encompasses a continuum of clinical findings from mild to severe. Three major clinical subtypes have been suggested: A mild form recognized after age ten years with absence of skeletal abnormalities, myopathy, and slow progression (type 1). A moderate form recognized before age ten years with presence of skeletal abnormalities, myopathy, and slow progression (type 2). A severe form manifested as prenatal loss or early death from progressive central nervous system involvement or infection (type 3). Individuals with a milder phenotype have mild-to-moderate intellectual disability, impaired hearing, characteristic coarse features, clinical or radiographic skeletal abnormalities, immunodeficiency, and primary central nervous system disease – mainly cerebellar involvement causing ataxia. Periods of psychiatric symptoms are common. Associated medical problems can include corneal opacities, hepatosplenomegaly, aseptic destructive arthritis, and metabolic myopathy. Alpha-mannosidosis is insidiously progressive; some individuals may live into the sixth decade. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
7467
Concept ID:
C0024748
Disease or Syndrome
4.

Nephropathic cystinosis

Cystinosis comprises three allelic phenotypes: Nephropathic cystinosis in untreated children is characterized by renal Fanconi syndrome, poor growth, hypophosphatemic/calcipenic rickets, impaired glomerular function resulting in complete glomerular failure, and accumulation of cystine in almost all cells, leading to cellular dysfunction with tissue and organ impairment. The typical untreated child has short stature, rickets, and photophobia. Failure to thrive is generally noticed after approximately age six months; signs of renal tubular Fanconi syndrome (polyuria, polydipsia, dehydration, and acidosis) appear as early as age six months; corneal crystals can be present before age one year and are always present after age 16 months. Prior to the use of renal transplantation and cystine-depleting therapy, the life span in nephropathic cystinosis was no longer than ten years. With these interventions, affected individuals can survive at least into the mid-forties or fifties with satisfactory quality of life. Intermediate cystinosis is characterized by all the typical manifestations of nephropathic cystinosis, but onset is at a later age. Renal glomerular failure occurs in all untreated affected individuals, usually between ages 15 and 25 years. The non-nephropathic (ocular) form of cystinosis is characterized clinically only by photophobia resulting from corneal cystine crystal accumulation. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
419735
Concept ID:
C2931187
Disease or Syndrome
5.

Pyruvate dehydrogenase E1-alpha deficiency

Genetic defects in the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex are one of the most common causes of primary lactic acidosis in children. Most cases are caused by mutation in the E1-alpha subunit gene on the X chromosome. X-linked PDH deficiency is one of the few X-linked diseases in which a high proportion of heterozygous females manifest severe symptoms. The clinical spectrum of PDH deficiency is broad, ranging from fatal lactic acidosis in the newborn to chronic neurologic dysfunction with structural abnormalities in the central nervous system without systemic acidosis (Robinson et al., 1987; Brown et al., 1994). Genetic Heterogeneity of Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex Deficiency PDH deficiency can also be caused by mutation in other subunits of the PDH complex, including a form (PDHXD; 245349) caused by mutation in the component X gene (PDHX; 608769) on chromosome 11p13; a form (PDHBD; 614111) caused by mutation in the PDHB gene (179060) on chromosome 3p14; a form (PDHDD; 245348) caused by mutation in the DLAT gene (608770) on chromosome 11q23; a form (PDHPD; 608782) caused by mutation in the PDP1 gene (605993) on chromosome 8q22; and a form (PDHLD; 614462) caused by mutation in the LIAS gene (607031) on chromosome 4p14. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
326486
Concept ID:
C1839413
Disease or Syndrome
6.

Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome due to CREBBP mutations

Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RSTS) is characterized by distinctive facial features, broad and often angulated thumbs and halluces, short stature, and moderate-to-severe intellectual disability. The characteristic craniofacial features are downslanted palpebral fissures, low-hanging columella, high palate, grimacing smile, and talon cusps. Prenatal growth is often normal, then height, weight, and head circumference percentiles rapidly drop in the first few months of life. Short stature is typical in adulthood. Obesity may develop in childhood or adolescence. Average IQ ranges between 35 and 50; however, developmental outcome varies considerably. Some individuals with EP300-RSTS have normal intellect. Additional features include ocular abnormalities, hearing loss, respiratory difficulties, congenital heart defects, renal abnormalities, cryptorchidism, feeding problems, recurrent infections, and severe constipation. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
1639327
Concept ID:
C4551859
Disease or Syndrome
7.

Alagille syndrome due to a JAG1 point mutation

Alagille syndrome (ALGS) is a multisystem disorder with a wide spectrum of clinical variability; this variability is seen even among individuals from the same family. The major clinical manifestations of ALGS are bile duct paucity on liver biopsy, cholestasis, congenital cardiac defects (primarily involving the pulmonary arteries), butterfly vertebrae, ophthalmologic abnormalities (most commonly posterior embryotoxon), and characteristic facial features. Renal abnormalities, growth failure, developmental delays, splenomegaly, and vascular abnormalities may also occur. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
365434
Concept ID:
C1956125
Disease or Syndrome
8.

Thanatophoric dysplasia type 1

Thanatophoric dysplasia (TD) is a short-limb skeletal dysplasia that is usually lethal in the perinatal period. TD is divided into subtypes: TD type I is characterized by micromelia with bowed femurs and, uncommonly, the presence of craniosynostosis of varying severity. TD type II is characterized by micromelia with straight femurs and uniform presence of moderate-to-severe craniosynostosis with cloverleaf skull deformity. Other features common to type I and type II include: short ribs, narrow thorax, relative macrocephaly, distinctive facial features, brachydactyly, hypotonia, and redundant skin folds along the limbs. Most affected infants die of respiratory insufficiency shortly after birth. Rare long-term survivors have been reported. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
358383
Concept ID:
C1868678
Disease or Syndrome
9.

Familial X-linked hypophosphatemic vitamin D refractory rickets

The phenotypic spectrum of X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH) ranges from isolated hypophosphatemia to severe lower-extremity bowing. XLH frequently manifests in the first two years of life when lower-extremity bowing becomes evident with the onset of weight bearing; however, it sometimes is not manifest until adulthood, as previously unevaluated short stature. In adults, enthesopathy (calcification of the tendons, ligaments, and joint capsules) associated with joint pain and impaired mobility may be the initial presenting complaint. Persons with XLH are prone to spontaneous dental abscesses; sensorineural hearing loss has also been reported. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
196551
Concept ID:
C0733682
Disease or Syndrome
10.

Camptomelic dysplasia

Campomelic dysplasia (CD) is a skeletal dysplasia characterized by distinctive facies, Pierre Robin sequence with cleft palate, shortening and bowing of long bones, and clubfeet. Other findings include laryngotracheomalacia with respiratory compromise and ambiguous genitalia or normal female external genitalia in most individuals with a 46,XY karyotype. Many affected infants die in the neonatal period; additional findings identified in long-term survivors include short stature, cervical spine instability with cord compression, progressive scoliosis, and hearing impairment. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
354620
Concept ID:
C1861922
Disease or Syndrome
11.

Sotos syndrome

Sotos syndrome is characterized by a distinctive facial appearance (broad and prominent forehead with a dolichocephalic head shape, sparse frontotemporal hair, downslanting palpebral fissures, malar flushing, long and narrow face, long chin); learning disability (early developmental delay, mild-to-severe intellectual impairment); and overgrowth (height and/or head circumference =2 SD above the mean). These three clinical features are considered the cardinal features of Sotos syndrome. Major features of Sotos syndrome include behavioral problems (most notably autistic spectrum disorder), advanced bone age, cardiac anomalies, cranial MRI/CT abnormalities, joint hyperlaxity with or without pes planus, maternal preeclampsia, neonatal complications, renal anomalies, scoliosis, and seizures. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
61232
Concept ID:
C0175695
Disease or Syndrome
12.

Hypohidrotic X-linked ectodermal dysplasia

Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED) is characterized by hypotrichosis (sparseness of scalp and body hair), hypohidrosis (reduced ability to sweat), and hypodontia (congenital absence of teeth). The cardinal features of classic HED become obvious during childhood. The scalp hair is thin, lightly pigmented, and slow growing. Sweating, although present, is greatly deficient, leading to episodes of hyperthermia until the affected individual or family acquires experience with environmental modifications to control temperature. Only a few abnormally formed teeth erupt, at a later-than-average age. Physical growth and psychomotor development are otherwise within normal limits. Mild HED is characterized by mild manifestations of any or all the characteristic features. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
57890
Concept ID:
C0162359
Disease or Syndrome
13.

Coffin-Siris syndrome 1

Coffin-Siris syndrome (CSS) is classically characterized by aplasia or hypoplasia of the distal phalanx or nail of the fifth and additional digits, developmental or cognitive delay of varying degree, distinctive facial features, hypotonia, hirsutism/hypertrichosis, and sparse scalp hair. Congenital anomalies can include malformations of the cardiac, gastrointestinal, genitourinary, and/or central nervous systems. Other findings commonly include feeding difficulties, slow growth, ophthalmologic abnormalities, and hearing impairment. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
482831
Concept ID:
C3281201
Disease or Syndrome
14.

Infantile GM1 gangliosidosis

GLB1-related disorders comprise two phenotypically distinct lysosomal storage disorders: GM1 gangliosidosis and mucopolysaccharidosis type IVB (MPS IVB). The phenotype of GM1 gangliosidosis constitutes a spectrum ranging from severe (infantile) to intermediate (late-infantile and juvenile) to mild (chronic/adult). Type I (infantile) GM1 gangliosidosis begins before age 12 months. Prenatal manifestations may include nonimmune hydrops fetalis, intrauterine growth restriction, and placental vacuolization; congenital dermal melanocytosis (Mongolian spots) may be observed. Macular cherry-red spot is detected on eye exam. Progressive central nervous system dysfunction leads to spasticity and rapid regression; blindness, deafness, decerebrate rigidity, seizures, feeding difficulties, and oral secretions are observed. Life expectancy is two to three years. Type II can be subdivided into the late-infantile (onset age 1-3 years) and juvenile (onset age 3-10 years) phenotypes. Central nervous system dysfunction manifests as progressive cognitive, motor, and speech decline as measured by psychometric testing. There may be mild corneal clouding, hepatosplenomegaly, and/or cardiomyopathy; the typical course is characterized by progressive neurologic decline, progressive skeletal disease in some individuals (including kyphosis and avascular necrosis of the femoral heads), and progressive feeding difficulties leading to aspiration risk. Type III begins in late childhood to the third decade with generalized dystonia leading to unsteady gait and speech disturbance followed by extrapyramidal signs including akinetic-rigid parkinsonism. Cardiomyopathy develops in some and skeletal involvement occurs in most. Intellectual impairment is common late in the disease with prognosis directly related to the degree of neurologic impairment. MPS IVB is characterized by skeletal dysplasia with specific findings of axial and appendicular dysostosis multiplex, short stature (below 15th centile in adults), kyphoscoliosis, coxa/genu valga, joint laxity, platyspondyly, and odontoid hypoplasia. First signs and symptoms may be apparent at birth. Bony involvement is progressive, with more than 84% of adults requiring ambulation aids; life span does not appear to be limited. Corneal clouding is detected in some individuals and cardiac valvular disease may develop. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
75665
Concept ID:
C0268271
Disease or Syndrome
15.

Osteogenesis imperfecta type III

COL1A1/2 osteogenesis imperfecta (COL1A1/2-OI) is characterized by fractures with minimal or absent trauma, variable dentinogenesis imperfecta (DI), and, in adult years, hearing loss. The clinical features of COL1A1/2-OI represent a continuum ranging from perinatal lethality to individuals with severe skeletal deformities, mobility impairments, and very short stature to nearly asymptomatic individuals with a mild predisposition to fractures, normal dentition, normal stature, and normal life span. Fractures can occur in any bone but are most common in the extremities. DI is characterized by gray or brown teeth that may appear translucent, wear down, and break easily. COL1A1/2-OI has been classified into four types based on clinical presentation and radiographic findings. This classification system can be helpful in providing information about prognosis and management for a given individual. The four more common OI types are now referred to as follows: Classic non-deforming OI with blue sclerae (previously OI type I). Perinatally lethal OI (previously OI type II). Progressively deforming OI (previously OI type III). Common variable OI with normal sclerae (previously OI type IV). [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
78664
Concept ID:
C0268362
Disease or Syndrome
16.

Infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy

PLA2G6-associated neurodegeneration (PLAN) comprises a continuum of three phenotypes with overlapping clinical and radiologic features: Infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy (INAD). Atypical neuroaxonal dystrophy (atypical NAD). PLA2G6-related dystonia-parkinsonism. INAD usually begins between ages six months and three years with psychomotor regression or delay, hypotonia, and progressive spastic tetraparesis. Many affected children never learn to walk or lose the ability shortly after attaining it. Strabismus, nystagmus, and optic atrophy are common. Disease progression is rapid, resulting in severe spasticity, progressive cognitive decline, and visual impairment. Many affected children do not survive beyond their first decade. Atypical NAD shows more phenotypic variability than INAD. In general, onset is in early childhood but can be as late as the end of the second decade. The presenting signs may be gait instability, ataxia, or speech delay and autistic features, which are sometimes the only evidence of disease for a year or more. Strabismus, nystagmus, and optic atrophy are common. Neuropsychiatric disturbances including impulsivity, poor attention span, hyperactivity, and emotional lability are also common. The course is fairly stable during early childhood and resembles static encephalopathy but is followed by neurologic deterioration between ages seven and 12 years. PLA2G6-related dystonia-parkinsonism has a variable age of onset, but most individuals present in early adulthood with gait disturbance or neuropsychiatric changes. Affected individuals consistently develop dystonia and parkinsonism (which may be accompanied by rapid cognitive decline) in their late teens to early twenties. Dystonia is most common in the hands and feet but may be more generalized. The most common features of parkinsonism in these individuals are bradykinesia, resting tremor, rigidity, and postural instability. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
82852
Concept ID:
C0270724
Disease or Syndrome
17.

Anophthalmia/microphthalmia-esophageal atresia syndrome

The phenotypic spectrum of SOX2 disorder includes anophthalmia and/or microphthalmia, brain malformations, developmental delay / intellectual disability, esophageal atresia, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (manifest as cryptorchidism and micropenis in males, gonadal dysgenesis infrequently in females, and delayed puberty in both sexes), pituitary hypoplasia, postnatal growth delay, hypotonia, seizures, and spastic or dystonic movements. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
347232
Concept ID:
C1859773
Disease or Syndrome
18.

Silver-Russell syndrome 1

Silver-Russell Syndrome (SRS) is typically characterized by asymmetric gestational growth restriction resulting in affected individuals being born small for gestational age, with relative macrocephaly at birth (head circumference =1.5 SD above birth weight and/or length), prominent forehead usually with frontal bossing, and frequently body asymmetry. This is followed by postnatal growth failure, and in some cases progressive limb length discrepancy and feeding difficulties. Additional clinical features include triangular facies, fifth-finger clinodactyly, and micrognathia with narrow chin. Except for the limb length asymmetry, the growth failure is proportionate and head growth normal. The average adult height in untreated individuals is ~3.1±1.4 SD below the mean. The Netchine-Harbison Clinical Scoring System (NH-CSS) is a sensitive diagnostic scoring system. Clinical diagnosis can be established in an individual who meets at least four of the NH-CSS clinical criteria – prominent forehead/frontal bossing and relative macrocephaly at birth plus two additional findings – and in whom other disorders have been ruled out. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
1718472
Concept ID:
C5393125
Disease or Syndrome
19.

Acrocallosal syndrome

Classic Joubert syndrome (JS) is characterized by three primary findings: A distinctive cerebellar and brain stem malformation called the molar tooth sign (MTS). Hypotonia. Developmental delays. Often these findings are accompanied by episodic tachypnea or apnea and/or atypical eye movements. In general, the breathing abnormalities improve with age, truncal ataxia develops over time, and acquisition of gross motor milestones is delayed. Cognitive abilities are variable, ranging from severe intellectual disability to normal. Additional findings can include retinal dystrophy, renal disease, ocular colobomas, occipital encephalocele, hepatic fibrosis, polydactyly, oral hamartomas, and endocrine abnormalities. Both intra- and interfamilial variation are seen. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
162915
Concept ID:
C0796147
Disease or Syndrome
20.

Miller Dieker syndrome

PAFAH1B1-related lissencephaly/subcortical band heterotopia (SBH) comprises a spectrum of severity. Affected newborns typically have mild-to-moderate hypotonia, feeding difficulties, and poor head control. During the first years, neurologic examination typically demonstrates poor visual tracking and response to sounds, axial hypotonia, and mild distal spasticity that can transition over time to more severe spasticity. Seizures occur in more than 90% of individuals with lissencephaly and often include infantile spasms. Seizures are often drug resistant, but even with good seizure control, the best developmental level achieved (excluding the few individuals with partial lissencephaly) is the equivalent of about age three to five months. In individuals with PAFAH1B1-related lissencephaly/SBH, developmental delay ranges from mild to severe. Other findings in PAFAH1B1-related lissencephaly/SBH include feeding issues and aspiration (which may result in need for gastrostomy tube placement), progressive microcephaly, and occasional developmental regression. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
78538
Concept ID:
C0265219
Disease or Syndrome
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