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1.

Tyrosinemia type I

Untreated tyrosinemia type I usually presents either in young infants with severe liver involvement or later in the first year with liver dysfunction and renal tubular dysfunction associated with growth failure and rickets. Untreated children may have repeated, often unrecognized, neurologic crises lasting one to seven days that can include change in mental status, abdominal pain, peripheral neuropathy, and/or respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation. Death in the untreated child usually occurs before age ten years, typically from liver failure, neurologic crisis, or hepatocellular carcinoma. Combined treatment with nitisinone and a low-tyrosine diet has resulted in a greater than 90% survival rate, normal growth, improved liver function, prevention of cirrhosis, correction of renal tubular acidosis, and improvement in secondary rickets. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
75688
Concept ID:
C0268490
Disease or Syndrome
2.

3-Methylglutaconic aciduria type 2

Barth syndrome is characterized in affected males by cardiomyopathy, neutropenia, skeletal myopathy, prepubertal growth delay, and distinctive facial gestalt (most evident in infancy); not all features may be present in a given affected male. Cardiomyopathy, which is almost always present before age five years, is typically dilated cardiomyopathy with or without endocardial fibroelastosis or left ventricular noncompaction; hypertrophic cardiomyopathy can also occur. Heart failure is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality; risk of arrhythmia and sudden death is increased. Neutropenia is most often associated with mouth ulcers, pneumonia, and sepsis. The nonprogressive myopathy predominantly affects the proximal muscles, and results in early motor delays. Prepubertal growth delay is followed by a postpubertal growth spurt with remarkable "catch-up" growth. Heterozygous females who have a normal karyotype are asymptomatic and have normal biochemical studies. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
107893
Concept ID:
C0574083
Disease or Syndrome
3.

Friedreich ataxia 1

Friedreich ataxia (FRDA) is characterized by slowly progressive ataxia with onset usually before age 25 years (mean age at onset: 10-15 yrs). FRDA is typically associated with dysarthria, muscle weakness, spasticity particularly in the lower limbs, scoliosis, bladder dysfunction, absent lower-limb reflexes, and loss of position and vibration sense. Approximately two thirds of individuals with FRDA have cardiomyopathy, up to 30% have diabetes mellitus, and approximately 25% have an "atypical" presentation with later onset or retained tendon reflexes. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
383962
Concept ID:
C1856689
Disease or Syndrome
4.

Renal carnitine transport defect

Systemic primary carnitine deficiency (CDSP) is a disorder of the carnitine cycle that results in defective fatty acid oxidation. It encompasses a broad clinical spectrum including the following: Metabolic decompensation in infancy typically presenting between age three months and two years with episodes of hypoketotic hypoglycemia, poor feeding, irritability, lethargy, hepatomegaly, elevated liver transaminases, and hyperammonemia triggered by fasting or common illnesses such as upper respiratory tract infection or gastroenteritis. Childhood myopathy involving heart and skeletal muscle with onset between age two and four years. Pregnancy-related decreased stamina or exacerbation of cardiac arrhythmia. Fatigability in adulthood. Absence of symptoms. The latter two categories often include mothers diagnosed with CDSP after newborn screening has identified low carnitine levels in their infants. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
90999
Concept ID:
C0342788
Disease or Syndrome
5.

Costello syndrome

While the majority of individuals with Costello syndrome share characteristic findings affecting multiple organ systems, the phenotypic spectrum is wide, ranging from a milder or attenuated phenotype to a severe phenotype with early lethal complications. Costello syndrome is typically characterized by failure to thrive in infancy as a result of severe postnatal feeding difficulties; short stature; developmental delay or intellectual disability; coarse facial features (full lips, large mouth, full nasal tip); curly or sparse, fine hair; loose, soft skin with deep palmar and plantar creases; papillomata of the face and perianal region; diffuse hypotonia and joint laxity with ulnar deviation of the wrists and fingers; tight Achilles tendons; and cardiac involvement including: cardiac hypertrophy (usually typical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy), congenital heart defect (usually valvar pulmonic stenosis), and arrhythmia (usually supraventricular tachycardia, especially chaotic atrial rhythm/multifocal atrial tachycardia or ectopic atrial tachycardia). Relative or absolute macrocephaly is typical, and postnatal cerebellar overgrowth can result in the development of a Chiari I malformation with associated anomalies including hydrocephalus or syringomyelia. Individuals with Costello syndrome have an approximately 15% lifetime risk for malignant tumors including rhabdomyosarcoma and neuroblastoma in young children and transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder in adolescents and young adults. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
108454
Concept ID:
C0587248
Disease or Syndrome
6.

Very long chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency

Deficiency of very long-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase (VLCAD), which catalyzes the initial step of mitochondrial beta-oxidation of long-chain fatty acids with a chain length of 14 to 20 carbons, is associated with three phenotypes. The severe early-onset cardiac and multiorgan failure form typically presents in the first months of life with hypertrophic or dilated cardiomyopathy, pericardial effusion, and arrhythmias, as well as hypotonia, hepatomegaly, and intermittent hypoglycemia. The hepatic or hypoketotic hypoglycemic form typically presents during early childhood with hypoketotic hypoglycemia and hepatomegaly, but without cardiomyopathy. The later-onset episodic myopathic form presents with intermittent rhabdomyolysis provoked by exercise, muscle cramps and/or pain, and/or exercise intolerance. Hypoglycemia typically is not present at the time of symptoms. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
854382
Concept ID:
C3887523
Disease or Syndrome
7.

Noonan syndrome 1

Noonan syndrome (NS) is characterized by characteristic facies, short stature, congenital heart defect, and developmental delay of variable degree. Other findings can include broad or webbed neck, unusual chest shape with superior pectus carinatum and inferior pectus excavatum, cryptorchidism, varied coagulation defects, lymphatic dysplasias, and ocular abnormalities. Although birth length is usually normal, final adult height approaches the lower limit of normal. Congenital heart disease occurs in 50%-80% of individuals. Pulmonary valve stenosis, often with dysplasia, is the most common heart defect and is found in 20%-50% of individuals. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, found in 20%-30% of individuals, may be present at birth or develop in infancy or childhood. Other structural defects include atrial and ventricular septal defects, branch pulmonary artery stenosis, and tetralogy of Fallot. Up to one fourth of affected individuals have mild intellectual disability, and language impairments in general are more common in NS than in the general population. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
1638960
Concept ID:
C4551602
Disease or Syndrome
8.

Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome

Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS) is a congenital multiple-anomaly / cognitive impairment syndrome caused by an abnormality in cholesterol metabolism resulting from deficiency of the enzyme 7-dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC) reductase. It is characterized by prenatal and postnatal growth restriction, microcephaly, moderate-to-severe intellectual disability, and multiple major and minor malformations. The malformations include distinctive facial features, cleft palate, cardiac defects, underdeveloped external genitalia in males, postaxial polydactyly, and 2-3 syndactyly of the toes. The clinical spectrum is wide; individuals with normal development and only minor malformations have been described. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
61231
Concept ID:
C0175694
Disease or Syndrome
9.

Mucolipidosis type II

GNPTAB-related disorders comprise the phenotypes mucolipidosis II (ML II) and mucolipidosis IIIa/ß (ML IIIa/ß), and phenotypes intermediate between ML II and ML IIIa/ß. ML II is evident at birth and slowly progressive; death most often occurs in early childhood. Orthopedic abnormalities present at birth may include thoracic deformity, kyphosis, clubfeet, deformed long bones, and/or dislocation of the hip(s). Growth often ceases in the second year of life; contractures develop in all large joints. The skin is thickened, facial features are coarse, and gingiva are hypertrophic. All children have cardiac involvement, most commonly thickening and insufficiency of the mitral valve and, less frequently, the aortic valve. Progressive mucosal thickening narrows the airways, and gradual stiffening of the thoracic cage contributes to respiratory insufficiency, the most common cause of death. ML IIIa/ß becomes evident at about age three years with slow growth rate and short stature; joint stiffness and pain initially in the shoulders, hips, and fingers; gradual mild coarsening of facial features; and normal to mildly impaired cognitive development. Pain from osteoporosis becomes more severe during adolescence. Cardiorespiratory complications (restrictive lung disease, thickening and insufficiency of the mitral and aortic valves, left and/or right ventricular hypertrophy) are common causes of death, typically in early to middle adulthood. Phenotypes intermediate between ML II and ML IIIa/ß are characterized by physical growth in infancy that resembles that of ML II and neuromotor and speech development that resemble that of ML IIIa/ß. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
435914
Concept ID:
C2673377
Disease or Syndrome
10.

Desmin-related myofibrillar myopathy

Myofibrillar myopathy (MFM) is a noncommittal term that refers to a group of morphologically homogeneous, but genetically heterogeneous chronic neuromuscular disorders. The morphologic changes in skeletal muscle in MFM result from disintegration of the sarcomeric Z disc and the myofibrils, followed by abnormal ectopic accumulation of multiple proteins involved in the structure of the Z disc, including desmin, alpha-B-crystallin (CRYAB; 123590), dystrophin (300377), and myotilin (TTID; 604103). Genetic Heterogeneity of Myofibrillar Myopathy Other forms of MFM include MFM2 (608810), caused by mutation in the CRYAB gene (123590); MFM3 (609200), caused by mutation in the MYOT gene (604103); MFM4 (609452), caused by mutation in the ZASP gene (LDB3; 605906); MFM5 (609524), caused by mutation in the FLNC gene (102565); MFM6 (612954), caused by mutation in the BAG3 gene (603883); MFM7 (617114), caused by mutation in the KY gene (605739); MFM8 (617258), caused by mutation in the PYROXD1 gene (617220); MFM9 (603689), caused by mutation in the TTN gene (188840); MFM10 (619040), caused by mutation in the SVIL UNC45B gene (611220); MFM11 (619178), caused by mutation in the UNC45B gene (611220); and MFM12 (619424), caused by mutation in the MYL2 gene (160781). 'Desmin-related myopathy' is another term referring to MFM in which there are intrasarcoplasmic aggregates of desmin, usually in addition to other sarcomeric proteins. Rigid spine syndrome (602771), caused by mutation in the SEPN1 gene (606210), is another desmin-related myopathy. Goebel (1995) provided a review of desmin-related myopathy. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
330449
Concept ID:
C1832370
Disease or Syndrome
11.

Cytochrome-c oxidase deficiency disease

Mitochondrial complex IV deficiency nuclear type 1 (MC4DN1) is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder characterized by rapidly progressive neurodegeneration and encephalopathy with loss of motor and cognitive skills between about 5 and 18 months of age after normal early development. Affected individuals show hypotonia, failure to thrive, loss of the ability to sit or walk, poor communication, and poor eye contact. Other features may include oculomotor abnormalities, including slow saccades, strabismus, ophthalmoplegia, and nystagmus, as well as deafness, apneic episodes, ataxia, tremor, and brisk tendon reflexes. Brain imaging shows bilateral symmetric lesions in the basal ganglia, consistent with a clinical diagnosis of Leigh syndrome (see 256000). Some patients may also have abnormalities in the brainstem and cerebellum. Laboratory studies usually show increased serum and CSF lactate and decreased levels and activity of mitochondrial respiratory complex IV in patient tissues. There is phenotypic variability, but death in childhood, often due to central respiratory failure, is common (summary by Tiranti et al., 1998; Tiranti et al., 1999; Teraoka et al., 1999; Poyau et al., 2000) Genetic Heterogeneity of Mitochondrial Complex IV Deficiency Most isolated COX deficiencies are inherited as autosomal recessive disorders caused by mutations in nuclear-encoded genes; mutations in the mtDNA-encoded COX subunit genes are relatively rare (Shoubridge, 2001; Sacconi et al., 2003). Mitochondrial complex IV deficiency caused by mutation in nuclear-encoded genes, in addition to MC4DN1, include MC4DN2 (604377), caused by mutation in the SCO2 gene (604272); MC4DN3 (619046), caused by mutation in the COX10 gene (602125); MC4DN4 (619048), caused by mutation in the SCO1 gene (603664); MC4DN5 (220111), caused by mutation in the LRPPRC gene (607544); MC4DN6 (615119), caused by mutation in the COX15 gene (603646); MC4DN7 (619051), caused by mutation in the COX6B1 gene (124089); MC4DN8 (619052), caused by mutation in the TACO1 gene (612958); MC4DN9 (616500), caused by mutation in the COA5 gene (613920); MC4DN10 (619053), caused by mutation in the COX14 gene (614478); MC4DN11 (619054), caused by mutation in the COX20 gene (614698); MC4DN12 (619055), caused by mutation in the PET100 gene (614770); MC4DN13 (616501), caused by mutation in the COA6 gene (614772); MC4DN14 (619058), caused by mutation in the COA3 gene (614775); MC4DN15 (619059), caused by mutation in the COX8A gene (123870); MC4DN16 (619060), caused by mutation in the COX4I1 gene (123864); MC4DN17 (619061), caused by mutation in the APOPT1 gene (616003); MC4DN18 (619062), caused by mutation in the COX6A2 gene (602009); MC4DN19 (619063), caused by mutation in the PET117 gene (614771); MC4DN20 (619064), caused by mutation in the COX5A gene (603773); MC4DN21 (619065), caused by mutation in the COXFA4 gene (603883); MC4DN22 (619355), caused by mutation in the COX16 gene (618064); and MC4DN23 (620275), caused by mutation in the COX11 gene (603648). Mitochondrial complex IV deficiency has been associated with mutations in several mitochondrial genes, including MTCO1 (516030), MTCO2 (516040), MTCO3 (516050), MTTS1 (590080), MTTL1 (590050), and MTTN (590010). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1750917
Concept ID:
C5435656
Disease or Syndrome
12.

Infantile GM1 gangliosidosis

GLB1-related disorders comprise two phenotypically distinct lysosomal storage disorders: GM1 gangliosidosis and mucopolysaccharidosis type IVB (MPS IVB). The phenotype of GM1 gangliosidosis constitutes a spectrum ranging from severe (infantile) to intermediate (late-infantile and juvenile) to mild (chronic/adult). Type I (infantile) GM1 gangliosidosis begins before age 12 months. Prenatal manifestations may include nonimmune hydrops fetalis, intrauterine growth restriction, and placental vacuolization; congenital dermal melanocytosis (Mongolian spots) may be observed. Macular cherry-red spot is detected on eye exam. Progressive central nervous system dysfunction leads to spasticity and rapid regression; blindness, deafness, decerebrate rigidity, seizures, feeding difficulties, and oral secretions are observed. Life expectancy is two to three years. Type II can be subdivided into the late-infantile (onset age 1-3 years) and juvenile (onset age 3-10 years) phenotypes. Central nervous system dysfunction manifests as progressive cognitive, motor, and speech decline as measured by psychometric testing. There may be mild corneal clouding, hepatosplenomegaly, and/or cardiomyopathy; the typical course is characterized by progressive neurologic decline, progressive skeletal disease in some individuals (including kyphosis and avascular necrosis of the femoral heads), and progressive feeding difficulties leading to aspiration risk. Type III begins in late childhood to the third decade with generalized dystonia leading to unsteady gait and speech disturbance followed by extrapyramidal signs including akinetic-rigid parkinsonism. Cardiomyopathy develops in some and skeletal involvement occurs in most. Intellectual impairment is common late in the disease with prognosis directly related to the degree of neurologic impairment. MPS IVB is characterized by skeletal dysplasia with specific findings of axial and appendicular dysostosis multiplex, short stature (below 15th centile in adults), kyphoscoliosis, coxa/genu valga, joint laxity, platyspondyly, and odontoid hypoplasia. First signs and symptoms may be apparent at birth. Bony involvement is progressive, with more than 84% of adults requiring ambulation aids; life span does not appear to be limited. Corneal clouding is detected in some individuals and cardiac valvular disease may develop. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
75665
Concept ID:
C0268271
Disease or Syndrome
13.

LEOPARD syndrome 1

Noonan syndrome with multiple lentigines (NSML) is a condition in which the cardinal features consist of lentigines, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, short stature, pectus deformity, and dysmorphic facial features including widely spaced eyes and ptosis. Multiple lentigines present as dispersed flat, black-brown macules, mostly on the face, neck, and upper part of the trunk with sparing of the mucosa. In general, lentigines do not appear until age four to five years but then increase to the thousands by puberty. Some individuals with NSML do not exhibit lentigines. Approximately 85% of affected individuals have heart defects, including hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (typically appearing during infancy and sometimes progressive) and pulmonary valve stenosis. Postnatal growth restriction resulting in short stature occurs in fewer than 50% of affected persons, although most affected individuals have a height that is less than the 25th centile for age. Sensorineural hearing deficits, present in approximately 20% of affected individuals, are poorly characterized. Intellectual disability, typically mild, is observed in approximately 30% of persons with NSML. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
1631694
Concept ID:
C4551484
Disease or Syndrome
14.

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy 4

Nonfamilial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy tends to be milder. This form typically begins later in life than familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and affected individuals have a lower risk of serious cardiac events and sudden death than people with the familial form.

While most people with familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy are symptom-free or have only mild symptoms, this condition can have serious consequences. It can cause abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias) that may be life threatening. People with familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy have an increased risk of sudden death, even if they have no other symptoms of the condition. A small number of affected individuals develop potentially fatal heart failure, which may require heart transplantation.

The symptoms of familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy are variable, even within the same family. Many affected individuals have no symptoms. Other people with familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy may experience chest pain; shortness of breath, especially with physical exertion; a sensation of fluttering or pounding in the chest (palpitations); lightheadedness; dizziness; and fainting.

In familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, cardiac thickening usually occurs in the interventricular septum, which is the muscular wall that separates the lower left chamber of the heart (the left ventricle) from the lower right chamber (the right ventricle). In some people, thickening of the interventricular septum impedes the flow of oxygen-rich blood from the heart, which may lead to an abnormal heart sound during a heartbeat (heart murmur) and other signs and symptoms of the condition. Other affected individuals do not have physical obstruction of blood flow, but the pumping of blood is less efficient, which can also lead to symptoms of the condition. Familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy often begins in adolescence or young adulthood, although it can develop at any time throughout life.

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is a heart condition characterized by thickening (hypertrophy) of the heart (cardiac) muscle. When multiple members of a family have the condition, it is known as familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy also occurs in people with no family history; these cases are considered nonfamilial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.  [from MedlinePlus Genetics]

MedGen UID:
350526
Concept ID:
C1861862
Disease or Syndrome
15.

Pyruvate dehydrogenase E3 deficiency

The phenotypes of dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (DLD) deficiency are an overlapping continuum that ranges from early-onset neurologic manifestations to adult-onset liver involvement and, rarely, a myopathic presentation. Early-onset DLD deficiency typically manifests in infancy as hypotonia with lactic acidosis. Affected infants frequently do not survive their initial metabolic decompensation, or die within the first few years of life during a recurrent metabolic decompensation. Children who live beyond the first two to three years frequently exhibit growth deficiencies and residual neurologic deficits (intellectual disability, spasticity, ataxia, and seizures). In contrast, isolated liver involvement can present as early as the neonatal period and as late as the third decade. Evidence of liver injury/failure is preceded by nausea and emesis and frequently associated with encephalopathy and/or coagulopathy. Acute metabolic episodes are frequently associated with lactate elevations, hyperammonemia, and hepatomegaly. With resolution of the acute episodes affected individuals frequently return to baseline with no residual neurologic deficit or intellectual disability. Liver failure can result in death, even in those with late-onset disease. Individuals with the myopathic presentation may experience muscle cramps, weakness, and an elevated creatine kinase. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
1805500
Concept ID:
C5574660
Disease or Syndrome
16.

Danon disease

Danon disease is a multisystem condition with predominant involvement of the heart, skeletal muscles, and retina, with overlying cognitive dysfunction. Males are typically more severely affected than females. Males usually present with childhood onset concentric hypertrophic cardiomyopathy that is progressive and often requires heart transplantation. Rarely, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy can evolve to resemble dilated cardiomyopathy. Most affected males also have cardiac conduction abnormalities. Skeletal muscle weakness may lead to delayed acquisition of motor milestones. Learning disability and intellectual disability, most often in the mild range, are common. Additionally, affected males can develop retinopathy with subsequent visual impairment. The clinical features in females are broader and more variable. Females are more likely to have dilated cardiomyopathy, with a smaller proportion requiring heart transplantation compared to affected males. Cardiac conduction abnormalities, skeletal muscle weakness, mild cognitive impairment, and pigmentary retinopathy are variably seen in affected females. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
209235
Concept ID:
C0878677
Disease or Syndrome
17.

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy 6

Mutations in the PRKAG2 gene (602743) give rise to a moderate, essentially heart-specific, nonlysosomal glycogenosis with clinical onset typically in late adolescence or in the third decade of life, ventricular pre-excitation predisposing to supraventricular arrhythmias, mild to severe cardiac hypertrophy, enhanced risk of sudden cardiac death in midlife, and autosomal dominant inheritance with full penetrance (summary by Burwinkel et al., 2005). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
331466
Concept ID:
C1833236
Disease or Syndrome
18.

Myosin storage myopathy

Autosomal dominant myosin storage congenital myopathy-7A (CMYP7A) is a skeletal muscle disorder with wide phenotypic variability. The age at symptom onset can range from early childhood to late adulthood. Affected individuals have proximal muscle weakness affecting the upper and lower limbs and distal muscle weakness of the lower limbs, resulting in gait difficulties and scapular winging (scapuloperoneal myopathy). Additional features may include thin habitus, high-arched palate, foot drop, pes cavus, calf pseudohypertrophy, and decreased reflexes. The severity is also variable: some patients develop respiratory insufficiency, joint contractures, and scoliosis in the first decades, whereas others are clinically unaffected, but show subtle signs of the disorder on examination. Serum creatine kinase may be normal or elevated. The disease is usually slowly progressive and most patients remain ambulatory. Skeletal muscle biopsy can show different abnormalities, including hyaline bodies, type 1 fiber predominance, congenital fiber-type disproportion (CFTD), and nonspecific myopathic changes with myofibrillar disarray. Intrafamilial variability is common (Dye et al., 2006; Pegoraro et al., 2007; review by Tajsharghi and Oldfors, 2013). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of congenital myopathy, see CMYP1A (117000). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
374868
Concept ID:
C1842160
Disease or Syndrome
19.

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy 3

Familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy-3 (CMH3) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by increased myocardial mass with myocyte and myofibrillar disarray (Thierfelder et al., 1994). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, see CMH1 (192600). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
349382
Concept ID:
C1861863
Disease or Syndrome
20.

Congenital generalized lipodystrophy type 2

Berardinelli-Seip congenital lipodystrophy (BSCL) is usually diagnosed at birth or soon thereafter. Because of the absence of functional adipocytes, lipid is stored in other tissues, including muscle and liver. Affected individuals develop insulin resistance and approximately 25%-35% develop diabetes mellitus between ages 15 and 20 years. Hepatomegaly secondary to hepatic steatosis and skeletal muscle hypertrophy occur in all affected individuals. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is reported in 20%-25% of affected individuals and is a significant cause of morbidity from cardiac failure and early mortality. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
318593
Concept ID:
C1720863
Congenital Abnormality
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