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1.

Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia 1

Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia (HHC) is a heritable disorder of mineral homeostasis that is transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait with a high degree of penetrance. HHC is characterized biochemically by lifelong elevation of serum calcium concentrations and is associated with inappropriately low urinary calcium excretion and a normal or mildly elevated circulating parathyroid hormone (PTH; 168450) level. Hypermagnesemia is typically present. Individuals with HHC are usually asymptomatic and the disorder is considered benign. However, chondrocalcinosis and pancreatitis occur in some adults (summary by Hannan et al., 2010). Characteristic features of familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia include mild to moderate hypercalcemia, nonsuppressed parathyroid hormone, relative hypocalciuria while hypercalcemic (calcium/creatinine clearance ratio less than 0.01, or 24-hr urine calcium less than 6.25 mmol), almost 100% penetrance of hypercalcemia from birth, absence of complications, persistence of hypercalcemia following subtotal parathyroidectomy, and normal parathyroid size, weight, and histology at surgery. However, atypical presentations with severe hypercalcemia, hypercalciuria with or without nephrolithiasis or nephrocalcinosis, kindreds with affected members displaying either hypercalciuria or hypocalciuria, postoperative normocalcemia, and pancreatitis have all been described in FHH (Warner et al., 2004). Genetic Heterogeneity of Hypocalciuric Hypercalcemia Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia type II (HHC2; 145981) is caused by mutation in the GNA11 gene (139313) on chromosome 19p13, and HHC3 (600740) is caused by mutation in the AP2S1 gene (602242) on chromosome 19q13. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
137973
Concept ID:
C0342637
Disease or Syndrome
2.

Bartter disease type 3

Bartter syndrome refers to a group of disorders that are unified by autosomal recessive transmission of impaired salt reabsorption in the thick ascending loop of Henle with pronounced salt wasting, hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis, and hypercalciuria. Clinical disease results from defective renal reabsorption of sodium chloride in the thick ascending limb (TAL) of the Henle loop, where 30% of filtered salt is normally reabsorbed (Simon et al., 1997). Patients with antenatal (or neonatal) forms of Bartter syndrome (e.g., BARTS1, 601678) typically present with premature birth associated with polyhydramnios and low birth weight and may develop life-threatening dehydration in the neonatal period. Patients with classic Bartter syndrome present later in life and may be sporadically asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic (summary by Simon et al., 1996 and Fremont and Chan, 2012). Genetic Heterogeneity of Bartter Syndrome Antenatal Bartter syndrome type 1 (601678) is caused by loss-of-function mutations in the butmetanide-sensitive Na-K-2Cl cotransporter NKCC2 (SLC12A1; 600839). Antenatal Bartter syndrome type 2 (241200) is caused by loss-of-function mutations in the ATP-sensitive potassium channel ROMK (KCNJ1; 600359). One form of neonatal Bartter syndrome with sensorineural deafness, Bartter syndrome type 4A (602522), is caused by mutation in the BSND gene (606412). Another form of neonatal Bartter syndrome with sensorineural deafness, Bartter syndrome type 4B (613090), is caused by simultaneous mutation in both the CLCNKA (602024) and CLCNKB (602023) genes. Also see autosomal dominant hypocalcemia-1 with Bartter syndrome (601198), which is sometimes referred to as Bartter syndrome type 5 (Fremont and Chan, 2012), caused by mutation in the CASR gene (601199). See Gitelman syndrome (GTLMN; 263800), which is often referred to as a mild variant of Bartter syndrome, caused by mutation in the thiazide-sensitive sodium-chloride cotransporter SLC12A3 (600968). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
335399
Concept ID:
C1846343
Disease or Syndrome
3.

Familial hypokalemia-hypomagnesemia

Gitelman syndrome (GTLMNS) is an autosomal recessive renal tubular salt-wasting disorder characterized by hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis with hypomagnesemia and hypocalciuria. It is the most common renal tubular disorder among Caucasians (prevalence of 1 in 40,000). Most patients have onset of symptoms as adults, but some present in childhood. Clinical features include transient periods of muscle weakness and tetany, abdominal pains, and chondrocalcinosis (summary by Glaudemans et al., 2012). Gitelman syndrome is sometimes referred to as a mild variant of classic Bartter syndrome (607364). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Bartter syndrome, see 607364. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
75681
Concept ID:
C0268450
Disease or Syndrome
4.

EAST syndrome

Syndrome with characteristics of seizures, sensorineural deafness, ataxia, intellectual deficit, and electrolyte imbalance. It has been described in five patients from four families. The disease is caused by homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in the KCNJ10 gene, encoding a potassium channel expressed in the brain, spinal cord, inner ear and kidneys. Transmission is autosomal recessive. [from SNOMEDCT_US]

MedGen UID:
411243
Concept ID:
C2748572
Disease or Syndrome
5.

Renal hypomagnesemia 2

Autosomal dominant renal hypomagnesium wasting (HOMG2) is characterized by hypomagnesemia due to renal magnesium loss and is associated with hypocalciuria. Patients may have convulsions and muscle cramps, but they may also be asymptomatic except for the development of chondrocalcinosis at an adult age (summary by Knoers, 2009 and de Baaij et al., 2015). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of renal hypomagnesemia, see 602014. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
320542
Concept ID:
C1835171
Disease or Syndrome
6.

Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia 3

Any familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the AP2S1 gene. [from MONDO]

MedGen UID:
322173
Concept ID:
C1833372
Disease or Syndrome
7.

Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia 2

Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia type II (HHC2) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by lifelong elevations of serum calcium concentrations with low urinary calcium excretion and normal circulating parathyroid hormone concentrations in most patients. Patients are generally asymptomatic (summary by Nesbit et al., 2013). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of hypocalciuric hypercalcemia, see HHC1 (145980). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
374447
Concept ID:
C1840347
Disease or Syndrome
8.

HELIX syndrome

HELIX syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by Hypohidrosis, Electrolyte imbalance, Lacrimal gland dysfunction, Ichthyosis, and Xerostomia (summary by Hadj-Rabia et al., 2018). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1621482
Concept ID:
C4522164
Disease or Syndrome
9.

Hypocalciuria

An abnormally decreased calcium concentration in the urine. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
9381
Concept ID:
C0020599
Disease or Syndrome
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