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Items: 1 to 20 of 382

1.

Aniridia 1

PAX6-related aniridia occurs either as an isolated ocular abnormality or as part of the Wilms tumor-aniridia-genital anomalies-retardation (WAGR) syndrome. Aniridia is a pan ocular disorder affecting the cornea, iris, intraocular pressure (resulting in glaucoma), lens (cataract and lens subluxation), fovea (foveal hypoplasia), and optic nerve (optic nerve coloboma and hypoplasia). Individuals with aniridia characteristically show nystagmus and impaired visual acuity (usually 20/100 - 20/200); however, milder forms of aniridia with subtle iris architecture changes, good vision, and normal foveal structure do occur. Other ocular involvement may include strabismus and occasionally microphthalmia. Although the severity of aniridia can vary between and within families, little variability is usually observed in the two eyes of an affected individual. WAGR syndrome. The risk for Wilms tumor is 42.5%-77%; of those who develop Wilms tumor, 90% do so by age four years and 98% by age seven years. Genital anomalies in males can include cryptorchidism and hypospadias (sometimes resulting in ambiguous genitalia), urethral strictures, ureteric abnormalities, and gonadoblastoma. While females typically have normal external genitalia, they may have uterine abnormalities and streak ovaries. Intellectual disability (defined as IQ <74) is observed in 70%; behavioral abnormalities include attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorder, anxiety, depression, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Other individuals with WAGR syndrome can have normal intellect without behavioral problems. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
576337
Concept ID:
C0344542
Congenital Abnormality
2.

Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome

Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS) is a congenital multiple-anomaly / cognitive impairment syndrome caused by an abnormality in cholesterol metabolism resulting from deficiency of the enzyme 7-dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC) reductase. It is characterized by prenatal and postnatal growth restriction, microcephaly, moderate-to-severe intellectual disability, and multiple major and minor malformations. The malformations include distinctive facial features, cleft palate, cardiac defects, underdeveloped external genitalia in males, postaxial polydactyly, and 2-3 syndactyly of the toes. The clinical spectrum is wide; individuals with normal development and only minor malformations have been described. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
61231
Concept ID:
C0175694
Disease or Syndrome
3.

Coffin-Siris syndrome 1

Coffin-Siris syndrome (CSS) is classically characterized by aplasia or hypoplasia of the distal phalanx or nail of the fifth and additional digits, developmental or cognitive delay of varying degree, distinctive facial features, hypotonia, hirsutism/hypertrichosis, and sparse scalp hair. Congenital anomalies can include malformations of the cardiac, gastrointestinal, genitourinary, and/or central nervous systems. Other findings commonly include feeding difficulties, slow growth, ophthalmologic abnormalities, and hearing impairment. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
482831
Concept ID:
C3281201
Disease or Syndrome
4.

Anophthalmia/microphthalmia-esophageal atresia syndrome

The phenotypic spectrum of SOX2 disorder includes anophthalmia and/or microphthalmia, brain malformations, developmental delay / intellectual disability, esophageal atresia, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (manifest as cryptorchidism and micropenis in males, gonadal dysgenesis infrequently in females, and delayed puberty in both sexes), pituitary hypoplasia, postnatal growth delay, hypotonia, seizures, and spastic or dystonic movements. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
347232
Concept ID:
C1859773
Disease or Syndrome
5.

Hereditary spastic paraplegia 3A

Spastic paraplegia 3A (SPG3A; also known as ATL1-HSP) is characterized by progressive bilateral and mostly symmetric spasticity and weakness of the legs. Compared to other forms of autosomal dominant hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP), in which diminished vibration sense (caused by degeneration of the corticospinal tracts and dorsal columns) and urinary bladder hyperactivity are present in all affected individuals, these findings occur in a minority of individuals with SPG3A. The average age of onset is four years. More than 80% of reported individuals manifest spastic gait before the end of the first decade of life. Most persons with early-onset ATL1-HSP have a "pure" ("uncomplicated") HSP; however, complicated HSP with axonal motor neuropathy and/or distal amyotrophy with lower motor neuron involvement (Silver syndrome phenotype) has been observed. The rate of progression in ATL1-HSP is slow, and wheelchair dependency or need for a walking aid (cane, walker, or wheelchair) is relatively rare. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
419393
Concept ID:
C2931355
Disease or Syndrome
6.

Heterotopia, periventricular, X-linked dominant

FLNA deficiency is associated with a phenotypic spectrum that includes FLNA-related periventricular nodular heterotopia (Huttenlocher syndrome), congenital heart disease (patent ductus arteriosus, atrial and ventricular septal defects), valvular dystrophy, dilation and rupture of the thoracic aortic, pulmonary disease (pulmonary hypertension, alveolar hypoplasia, emphysema, asthma, chronic bronchitis), gastrointestinal dysmotility and obstruction, joint hypermobility, and macrothrombocytopenia. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
376309
Concept ID:
C1848213
Disease or Syndrome
7.

Miller Dieker syndrome

PAFAH1B1-related lissencephaly/subcortical band heterotopia (SBH) comprises a spectrum of severity. Affected newborns typically have mild-to-moderate hypotonia, feeding difficulties, and poor head control. During the first years, neurologic examination typically demonstrates poor visual tracking and response to sounds, axial hypotonia, and mild distal spasticity that can transition over time to more severe spasticity. Seizures occur in more than 90% of individuals with lissencephaly and often include infantile spasms. Seizures are often drug resistant, but even with good seizure control, the best developmental level achieved (excluding the few individuals with partial lissencephaly) is the equivalent of about age three to five months. In individuals with PAFAH1B1-related lissencephaly/SBH, developmental delay ranges from mild to severe. Other findings in PAFAH1B1-related lissencephaly/SBH include feeding issues and aspiration (which may result in need for gastrostomy tube placement), progressive microcephaly, and occasional developmental regression. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
78538
Concept ID:
C0265219
Disease or Syndrome
8.

Mowat-Wilson syndrome

Mowat-Wilson syndrome (MWS) is characterized by distinctive facial features (widely spaced eyes, broad eyebrows with a medial flare, low-hanging columella, prominent or pointed chin, open-mouth expression, and uplifted earlobes with a central depression), congenital heart defects with predilection for abnormalities of the pulmonary arteries and/or valves, Hirschsprung disease or chronic constipation, genitourinary anomalies (particularly hypospadias in males), and hypogenesis or agenesis of the corpus callosum. Most affected individuals have moderate-to-severe intellectual disability. Speech is typically limited to a few words or is absent, with relative preservation of receptive language skills. Growth restriction with microcephaly and seizure disorder are also common. Most affected people have a happy demeanor and a wide-based gait that can sometimes be confused with Angelman syndrome. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
341067
Concept ID:
C1856113
Disease or Syndrome
9.

Fanconi anemia complementation group B

Fanconi anemia (FA) is characterized by physical abnormalities, bone marrow failure, and increased risk for malignancy. Physical abnormalities, present in approximately 75% of affected individuals, include one or more of the following: short stature, abnormal skin pigmentation, skeletal malformations of the upper and/or lower limbs, microcephaly, and ophthalmic and genitourinary tract anomalies. Progressive bone marrow failure with pancytopenia typically presents in the first decade, often initially with thrombocytopenia or leukopenia. The incidence of acute myeloid leukemia is 13% by age 50 years. Solid tumors – particularly of the head and neck, skin, and genitourinary tract – are more common in individuals with FA. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
336901
Concept ID:
C1845292
Disease or Syndrome
10.

Muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy (congenital with brain and eye anomalies), type A1

Congenital muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy with brain and eye anomalies (type A), which includes both the more severe Walker-Warburg syndrome (WWS) and the slightly less severe muscle-eye-brain disease (MEB), is a genetically heterogeneous autosomal recessive disorder with characteristic brain and eye malformations, profound mental retardation, congenital muscular dystrophy, and early death. The phenotype commonly includes cobblestone (type II) lissencephaly, cerebellar malformations, and retinal malformations. More variable features include macrocephaly or microcephaly, hypoplasia of midline brain structures, ventricular dilatation, microphthalmia, cleft lip/palate, and congenital contractures (Dobyns et al., 1989). Those with a more severe phenotype characterized as Walker-Warburg syndrome often die within the first year of life, whereas those characterized as having muscle-eye-brain disease may rarely acquire the ability to walk and to speak a few words. These are part of a group of disorders resulting from defective glycosylation of DAG1 (128239), collectively known as 'dystroglycanopathies' (Godfrey et al., 2007). Genetic Heterogeneity of Congenital Muscular Dystrophy-Dystroglycanopathy with Brain and Eye Anomalies (Type A) Muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy with brain and eye anomalies (type A) is genetically heterogeneous and can be caused by mutation in other genes involved in DAG1 glycosylation: see MDDGA2 (613150), caused by mutation in the POMT2 gene (607439); MDDGA3 (253280), caused by mutation in the POMGNT1 gene (606822); MDDGA4 (253800), caused by mutation in the FKTN gene (607440); MDDGA5 (613153), caused by mutation in the FKRP gene (606596); MDDGA6 (613154), caused by mutation in the LARGE gene (603590); MDDGA7 (614643), caused by mutation in the ISPD gene (CRPPA; 614631); MDDGA8 (614830) caused by mutation in the GTDC2 gene (POMGNT2; 614828); MDDGA9 (616538), caused by mutation in the DAG1 gene (128239); MDDGA10 (615041), caused by mutation in the TMEM5 gene (RXYLT1; 605862); MDDGA11 (615181), caused by mutation in the B3GALNT2 gene (610194); MDDGA12 (615249), caused by mutation in the SGK196 gene (POMK; 615247); MDDGA13 (615287), caused by mutation in the B3GNT1 gene (B4GAT1; 605517); and MDDGA14 (615350), caused by mutation in the GMPPB gene (615320). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
924974
Concept ID:
C4284790
Disease or Syndrome
11.

Fanconi anemia complementation group D2

Fanconi anemia (FA) is characterized by physical abnormalities, bone marrow failure, and increased risk for malignancy. Physical abnormalities, present in approximately 75% of affected individuals, include one or more of the following: short stature, abnormal skin pigmentation, skeletal malformations of the upper and/or lower limbs, microcephaly, and ophthalmic and genitourinary tract anomalies. Progressive bone marrow failure with pancytopenia typically presents in the first decade, often initially with thrombocytopenia or leukopenia. The incidence of acute myeloid leukemia is 13% by age 50 years. Solid tumors – particularly of the head and neck, skin, and genitourinary tract – are more common in individuals with FA. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
463627
Concept ID:
C3160738
Disease or Syndrome
12.

Hereditary spastic paraplegia 35

Fatty acid hydroxylase-associated neurodegeneration (FAHN) is characterized early in the disease course by central nervous system involvement including corticospinal tract involvement (spasticity), mixed movement disorder (ataxia/dystonia), and eye findings (optic atrophy, oculomotor abnormalities), and later in the disease course by progressive intellectual impairment and seizures. With disease progression, dystonia and spasticity compromise the ability to ambulate, leading to wheelchair dependence. Life expectancy is variable. FAHN is considered to be a subtype of neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA). [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
501249
Concept ID:
C3496228
Disease or Syndrome
13.

Creatine transporter deficiency

The creatine deficiency disorders (CDDs), inborn errors of creatine metabolism and transport, comprise three disorders: the creatine biosynthesis disorders guanidinoacetate methyltransferase (GAMT) deficiency and L-arginine:glycine amidinotransferase (AGAT) deficiency; and creatine transporter (CRTR) deficiency. Developmental delay and cognitive dysfunction or intellectual disability and speech-language disorder are common to all three CDDs. Onset of clinical manifestations of GAMT deficiency (reported in ~130 individuals) is between ages three months and two years; in addition to developmental delays, the majority of individuals have epilepsy and develop a behavior disorder (e.g., hyperactivity, autism, or self-injurious behavior), and about 30% have movement disorder. AGAT deficiency has been reported in 16 individuals; none have had epilepsy or movement disorders. Clinical findings of CRTR deficiency in affected males (reported in ~130 individuals) in addition to developmental delays include epilepsy (variable seizure types and may be intractable) and behavior disorders (e.g., attention deficit and/or hyperactivity, autistic features, impulsivity, social anxiety), hypotonia, and (less commonly) a movement disorder. Poor weight gain with constipation and prolonged QTc on EKG have been reported. While mild-to-moderate intellectual disability is commonly observed up to age four years, the majority of adult males with CRTR deficiency have been reported to have severe intellectual disability. Females heterozygous for CRTR deficiency are typically either asymptomatic or have mild intellectual disability, although a more severe phenotype resembling the male phenotype has been reported. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
337451
Concept ID:
C1845862
Disease or Syndrome
14.

Adams-Oliver syndrome 1

Adams-Oliver syndrome (AOS) is characterized by aplasia cutis congenita (ACC) of the scalp and terminal transverse limb defects (TTLD). ACC lesions usually occur in the midline of the parietal or occipital regions, but can also occur on the abdomen or limbs. At birth, an ACC lesion may already have the appearance of a healed scar. ACC lesions less than 5 cm often involve only the skin and almost always heal over a period of months; larger lesions are more likely to involve the skull and possibly the dura, and are at greater risk for complications, which can include infection, hemorrhage, or thrombosis, and can result in death. The limb defects range from mild (unilateral or bilateral short distal phalanges) to severe (complete absence of all toes or fingers, feet or hands, or more, often resembling an amputation). The lower extremities are almost always more severely affected than the upper extremities. Additional major features frequently include cardiovascular malformations/dysfunction (23%), brain anomalies, and less frequently renal, liver, and eye anomalies. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
1635567
Concept ID:
C4551482
Disease or Syndrome
15.

Sulfite oxidase deficiency due to molybdenum cofactor deficiency type A

Molybdenum cofactor deficiency (MoCD) represents a spectrum, with some individuals experiencing significant signs and symptoms in the neonatal period and early infancy (termed early-onset or severe MoCD) and others developing signs and symptoms in childhood or adulthood (termed late-onset or mild MoCD). Individuals with early-onset MoCD typically present in the first days of life with severe encephalopathy, including refractory seizures, opisthotonos, axial and appendicular hypotonia, feeding difficulties, and apnea. Head imaging may demonstrate loss of gray and white matter differentiation, gyral swelling, sulci injury (typically assessed by evaluating the depth of focal lesional injury within the sulci), diffusely elevated T2-weighted signal, and panlobar diffusion restriction throughout the forebrain and midbrain with relative sparring of the brain stem. Prognosis for early-onset MoCD is poor, with about 75% succumbing in infancy to secondary complications of their neurologic disability (i.e., pneumonia). Late-onset MoCD is typically characterized by milder symptoms, such as acute neurologic decompensation in the setting of infection. Episodes vary in nature but commonly consist of altered mental status, dystonia, choreoathetosis, ataxia, nystagmus, and fluctuating hypotonia and hypertonia. These features may improve after resolution of the inciting infection or progress in a gradual or stochastic manner over the lifetime. Brain imaging may be normal or may demonstrate T2-weighted hyperintense or cystic lesions in the globus pallidus, thinning of the corpus callosum, and cerebellar atrophy. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
381530
Concept ID:
C1854988
Disease or Syndrome
16.

Craniofrontonasal syndrome

Craniofrontonasal syndrome is an X-linked developmental disorder that shows paradoxically greater severity in heterozygous females than in hemizygous males. Females have frontonasal dysplasia, craniofacial asymmetry, craniosynostosis, bifid nasal tip, grooved nails, wiry hair, and abnormalities of the thoracic skeleton, whereas males typically show only hypertelorism (Twigg et al., 2004; Wieland et al., 2004). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
65095
Concept ID:
C0220767
Disease or Syndrome
17.

Oculofaciocardiodental syndrome

Oculofaciocardiodental (OFCD) syndrome is a condition that affects the development of the eyes (oculo-), facial features (facio-), heart (cardio-) and teeth (dental). This condition occurs only in females.

The eye abnormalities associated with OFCD syndrome can affect one or both eyes. Many people with this condition are born with eyeballs that are abnormally small (microphthalmia). Other eye problems can include clouding of the lens (cataract) and a higher risk of glaucoma, an eye disease that increases the pressure in the eye. These abnormalities can lead to vision loss or blindness.

People with OFCD syndrome often have a long, narrow face with distinctive facial features, including deep-set eyes and a broad nasal tip that is divided by a cleft. Some affected people have an opening in the roof of the mouth called a cleft palate.

Heart defects are another common feature of OFCD syndrome. Babies with this condition may be born with a hole between two chambers of the heart (an atrial or ventricular septal defect) or a leak in one of the valves that controls blood flow through the heart (mitral valve prolapse).

Teeth with very large roots (radiculomegaly) are characteristic of OFCD syndrome. Additional dental abnormalities can include delayed loss of primary (baby) teeth, missing or abnormally small teeth, misaligned teeth, and defective tooth enamel. [from MedlinePlus Genetics]

MedGen UID:
337547
Concept ID:
C1846265
Disease or Syndrome
18.

Koolen-de Vries syndrome

Koolen-de Vries syndrome (KdVS) is characterized by developmental delay / intellectual disability, neonatal/childhood hypotonia, dysmorphisms, congenital malformations, and behavioral features. Psychomotor developmental delay is noted in all individuals from an early age. The majority of individuals with KdVS function in the mild-to-moderate range of intellectual disability. Other findings include speech and language delay (100%), epilepsy (~33%), congenital heart defects (25%-50%), renal and urologic anomalies (25%-50%), and cryptorchidism (71% of males). Behavior in most is described as friendly, amiable, and cooperative. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
355853
Concept ID:
C1864871
Disease or Syndrome
19.

Microcephaly 5, primary, autosomal recessive

ASPM primary microcephaly (ASPM-MCPH) is characterized by: (1) significant microcephaly (below -3 SD for age) usually present at birth and always present before age one year and (2) the absence of other congenital anomalies. While developmental milestones are usually normal in young children, older children have variable levels of intellectual disability. Neurologic examination is usually normal except for mild spasticity. Seizures are not common. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
373344
Concept ID:
C1837501
Disease or Syndrome
20.

Warburg micro syndrome 1

RAB18 deficiency is the molecular deficit underlying both Warburg micro syndrome (characterized by eye, nervous system, and endocrine abnormalities) and Martsolf syndrome (characterized by similar – but milder – findings). To date Warburg micro syndrome comprises >96% of reported individuals with genetically defined RAB18 deficiency. The hallmark ophthalmologic findings are bilateral congenital cataracts, usually accompanied by microphthalmia, microcornea (diameter <10), and small atonic pupils. Poor vision despite early cataract surgery likely results from progressive optic atrophy and cortical visual impairment. Individuals with Warburg micro syndrome have severe to profound intellectual disability (ID); those with Martsolf syndrome have mild to moderate ID. Some individuals with RAB18 deficiency also have epilepsy. In Warburg micro syndrome, a progressive ascending spastic paraplegia typically begins with spastic diplegia and contractures during the first year, followed by upper-limb involvement leading to spastic quadriplegia after about age five years, often eventually causing breathing difficulties. In Martsolf syndrome infantile hypotonia is followed primarily by slowly progressive lower-limb spasticity. Hypogonadism – when present – manifests in both syndromes, in males as micropenis and/or cryptorchidism and in females as hypoplastic labia minora, clitoral hypoplasia, and small introitus. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
333142
Concept ID:
C1838625
Disease or Syndrome
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