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Items: 10

1.

Chuvash polycythemia

Familial erythrocytosis-2 (ECYT2) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by increased red blood cell mass, increased serum levels of erythropoietin (EPO; 133170), and normal oxygen affinity. Patients with ECYT2 carry a high risk for peripheral thrombosis and cerebrovascular events (Cario, 2005). Familial erythrocytosis-2 has features of both primary and secondary erythrocytosis. In addition to increased circulating levels of EPO, consistent with a secondary, extrinsic process, erythroid progenitors may be hypersensitive to EPO, consistent with a primary, intrinsic process (Prchal, 2005). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of familial erythrocytosis, see ECYT1 (133100). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
332974
Concept ID:
C1837915
Disease or Syndrome
2.

Primary familial polycythemia due to EPO receptor mutation

Primary familial and congenital polycythemia (PFCP) is characterized by isolated erythrocytosis in an individual with a normal-sized spleen and absence of disorders causing secondary erythrocytosis. Clinical manifestations relate to the erythrocytosis and can include plethora, the hyperviscosity syndrome (headache, dizziness, fatigue, lassitude, visual and auditory disturbances, paresthesia, myalgia), altered mental status caused by hypoperfusion and local hypoxia, and arterial and/or venous thromboembolic events. Although the majority of individuals with PFCP have only mild manifestations of hyperviscosity such as dizziness or headache, some affected individuals have had severe and even fatal complications including arterial hypertension, intracerebral hemorrhage, deep vein thrombosis, coronary disease, and myocardial infarction. To date 116 affected individuals from 24 families have been reported. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
1641215
Concept ID:
C4551637
Disease or Syndrome
3.

Acquired polycythemia vera

Polycythemia vera (PV), the most common form of primary polycythemia, is caused by somatic mutation in a single hematopoietic stem cell leading to clonal hematopoiesis. PV is a myeloproliferative disorder characterized predominantly by erythroid hyperplasia, but also by myeloid leukocytosis, thrombocytosis, and splenomegaly. Familial cases of PV are very rare and usually manifest in elderly patients (Cario, 2005). PV is distinct from the familial erythrocytoses (see, e.g., ECYT1, 133100), which are caused by inherited mutations resulting in hypersensitivity of erythroid progenitors to hormonal influences or increased levels of circulating hormones, namely erythropoietin (EPO; 133170) (Prchal, 2005). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
45996
Concept ID:
C0032463
Neoplastic Process
4.

Erythrocytosis, familial, 4

Familial erythrocytosis-4 (ECYT4) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by increased serum red blood cell mass and hemoglobin concentration as well as elevated serum erythropoietin (EPO; 133170). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of familial erythrocytosis, see ECYT1 (133100). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
435867
Concept ID:
C2673187
Disease or Syndrome
5.

Erythrocytosis, familial, 3

Familial erythrocytosis is an inherited condition characterized by an increased number of red blood cells (erythrocytes). The primary function of these cells is to carry oxygen from the lungs to tissues and organs throughout the body. Signs and symptoms of familial erythrocytosis can include headaches, dizziness, nosebleeds, and shortness of breath. The excess red blood cells also increase the risk of developing abnormal blood clots that can block the flow of blood through arteries and veins. If these clots restrict blood flow to essential organs and tissues (particularly the heart, lungs, or brain), they can cause life-threatening complications such as a heart attack or stroke. However, many people with familial erythrocytosis experience only mild signs and symptoms or never have any problems related to their extra red blood cells. [from MedlinePlus Genetics]

MedGen UID:
377868
Concept ID:
C1853286
Disease or Syndrome
6.

Deficiency of bisphosphoglycerate mutase

A rare, autosomal recessive, inherited disorder caused by mutation of the BPGM gene. It is characterized by hemolytic anemia and splenomegaly. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
489898
Concept ID:
C1291620
Disease or Syndrome
7.

Erythrocytosis, familial, 6

Familial erythrocytosis-6 is characterized by an increased oxygen affinity of hemoglobin (Hb), which results in decreased delivery of oxygen into the peripheral tissues and compensatory polycythemia. Patients are generally asymptomatic, as compensatory polycythemia assures normal oxygen tissue delivery. Patients have normal red cell morphology (summary by Kralovics and Prchal, 2000). Wajcman and Galacteros (2005) noted that although high oxygen affinity hemoglobins are usually well tolerated in young patients, they can lead to thrombotic complications in older patients or when they are associated with another cause that increases thrombotic risk. Wajcman and Galacteros (2005) also noted that the effect of increased oxygen affinity of Hb caused by an alpha chain variant (see 617981) is usually milder than that caused by a beta chain variant. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1634191
Concept ID:
C4693822
Disease or Syndrome
8.

Erythrocytosis, familial, 7

Familial erythrocytosis-7 (ECYT7) is characterized by an increased oxygen affinity of hemoglobin (Hb), which results in decreased delivery of oxygen into the peripheral tissues and compensatory polycythemia. Patients are generally asymptomatic, as compensatory polycythemia assures normal oxygen tissue delivery. Patients have normal red cell morphology (summary by Kralovics and Prchal, 2000). Wajcman and Galacteros (2005) noted that although high oxygen affinity hemoglobins are usually well tolerated in young patients, they can lead to thrombotic complications in older patients or when they are associated with another cause that increases thrombotic risk. Wajcman and Galacteros (2005) also noted that the effect of increased oxygen affinity of Hb caused by an alpha chain variant is usually milder than that caused by a beta chain variant (see 617980). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1642594
Concept ID:
C4693823
Disease or Syndrome
9.

Erythrocytosis, familial, 5

Erythrocytosis-5 (ECYT5) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by increased red cell mass and typically elevated hemoglobin concentration and hematocrit. Some patients have increased serum EPO levels (summary by Zmajkovic et al., 2018). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of familial erythrocytosis, see ECYT1 (133100). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1638941
Concept ID:
C4693552
Disease or Syndrome
10.

Increased hematocrit

An elevation above the normal ratio of the volume of red blood cells to the total volume of blood. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
68692
Concept ID:
C0239935
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