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1.

PMM2-congenital disorder of glycosylation

PMM2-CDG, the most common of a group of disorders of abnormal glycosylation of N-linked oligosaccharides, is divided into three clinical stages: infantile multisystem, late-infantile and childhood ataxia–intellectual disability, and adult stable disability. The clinical manifestations and course are highly variable, ranging from infants who die in the first year of life to mildly affected adults. Clinical findings tend to be similar in sibs. In the infantile multisystem presentation, infants show axial hypotonia, hyporeflexia, esotropia, and developmental delay. Feeding problems, vomiting, faltering growth, and developmental delay are frequently seen. Subcutaneous fat may be excessive over the buttocks and suprapubic region. Two distinct clinical courses are observed: (1) a nonfatal neurologic course with faltering growth, strabismus, developmental delay, cerebellar hypoplasia, and hepatopathy in infancy followed by neuropathy and retinitis pigmentosa in the first or second decade; and (2) a more severe neurologic-multivisceral course with approximately 20% mortality in the first year of life. The late-infantile and childhood ataxia–intellectual disability stage, which begins between ages three and ten years, is characterized by hypotonia, ataxia, severely delayed language and motor development, inability to walk, and IQ of 40 to 70; other findings include seizures, stroke-like episodes or transient unilateral loss of function, coagulopathy, retinitis pigmentosa, joint contractures, and skeletal deformities. In the adult stable disability stage, intellectual ability is stable; peripheral neuropathy is variable, progressive retinitis pigmentosa and myopia are seen, thoracic and spinal deformities with osteoporosis worsen, and premature aging is observed; females may lack secondary sexual development and males may exhibit decreased testicular volume. Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and coagulopathy may occur. The risk for deep venous thrombosis is increased. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
138111
Concept ID:
C0349653
Disease or Syndrome
2.

Weaver syndrome

EZH2-related overgrowth includes EZH2-related Weaver syndrome at one end of the spectrum and tall stature at the other. Although most individuals diagnosed with a heterozygous EZH2 pathogenic variant have been identified because of a clinical suspicion of Weaver syndrome, a minority have been identified through molecular genetic testing of family members of probands or individuals with overgrowth who did not have a clinical diagnosis of Weaver syndrome. Thus, the extent of the phenotypic spectrum associated with a heterozygous EZH2 pathogenic variant is not yet known. Weaver syndrome is characterized by tall stature, variable intellect (ranging from normal intellect to severe intellectual disability), characteristic facial appearance, and a range of associated clinical features including advanced bone age, poor coordination, soft doughy skin, camptodactyly of the fingers and/or toes, umbilical hernia, abnormal tone, and hoarse low cry in infancy. Brain MRI has identified abnormalities in a few individuals with EZH2-related overgrowth. Neuroblastoma occurs at a slightly increased frequency in individuals with a heterozygous EZH2 pathogenic variant but data are insufficient to determine absolute risk. There is currently no evidence that additional malignancies (including hematologic malignancies) occur with increased frequency. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
120511
Concept ID:
C0265210
Disease or Syndrome
3.

DPAGT1-congenital disorder of glycosylation

Like all CDGs, which are caused by a shortage of precursor monosaccharide phosphate or deficiencies in the glycosyltransferases required for lipid-linked oligosaccharide precursor (LLO) synthesis, CDG Ij is caused by a defect in the formation of DPAGT1, the first dolichyl-linked intermediate of the protein N-glycosylation pathway. For a general discussion of CDGs, see CDG1A (212065). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
419694
Concept ID:
C2931004
Disease or Syndrome
4.

ALG12-congenital disorder of glycosylation

Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG), previously called carbohydrate-deficient glycoprotein syndromes (CDGSs), are a group of hereditary multisystem disorders first recognized by Jaeken et al. (1980). The characteristic biochemical abnormality of CDGs is the hypoglycosylation of glycoproteins, which is routinely determined by isoelectric focusing (IEF) of serum transferrin. Type I CDG comprises those disorders in which there is a defect in the assembly of lipid-linked oligosaccharides or their transfer onto nascent glycoproteins, whereas type II CDG comprises defects of trimming, elongation, and processing of protein-bound glycans. CDG1G is a multisystem disorder characterized by impaired psychomotor development, dysmorphic features, failure to thrive, male genital hypoplasia, coagulation abnormalities, and immune deficiency. More variable features include skeletal dysplasia, cardiac anomalies, ocular abnormalities, and sensorineural hearing loss. Some patients die in the early neonatal or infantile period, whereas others are mildly affected and live to adulthood (summary by Tahata et al., 2019). For a general discussion of CDGs, see CDG1A (212065). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
443954
Concept ID:
C2931001
Disease or Syndrome
5.

ALG9 congenital disorder of glycosylation

Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDGs) that represent defects of dolichol-linked oligosaccharide assembly are classified as CDG type I. For a general description and a discussion of the classification of CDGs, see CDG1A (212065). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
443955
Concept ID:
C2931006
Disease or Syndrome
6.

Acyl-CoA oxidase deficiency

Peroxisomal acyl-CoA oxidase deficiency is a disorder of peroxisomal fatty acid beta-oxidation. See also D-bifunctional protein deficiency (261515), caused by mutation in the HSD17B4 gene (601860) on chromosome 5q2. The clinical manifestations of these 2 deficiencies are similar to those of disorders of peroxisomal assembly, including Zellweger cerebrohepatorenal syndrome (see 214100) and neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy (see 601539) (Watkins et al., 1995). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
376636
Concept ID:
C1849678
Disease or Syndrome
7.

Ulnar-mammary syndrome

Ulnar-mammary syndrome (UMS) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by posterior limb deficiencies or duplications, apocrine/mammary gland hypoplasia and/or dysfunction, abnormal dentition, delayed puberty in males, and genital anomalies (Bamshad et al., 1996). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
357886
Concept ID:
C1866994
Disease or Syndrome
8.

ALG2-congenital disorder of glycosylation

Congenital disorder of glycosylation type Ii (CDG1I) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by neurologic involvement, including a convulsive syndrome of unknown origin, axial hypotonia, and mental and motor regression (summary by Papazoglu et al., 2021). For a general discussion of CDGs, see CDG1A (212065). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
334618
Concept ID:
C1842836
Disease or Syndrome
9.

COG7 congenital disorder of glycosylation

CDG IIe is caused by a mutation that impairs the integrity of the conserved oligomeric Golgi (COG) complex and alters Golgi trafficking, resulting in the disruption of multiple glycosylation pathways. For a general discussion of CDGs, see CDG1A (212065). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
419311
Concept ID:
C2931010
Disease or Syndrome
10.

RFT1-congenital disorder of glycosylation

Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDGs) are a genetically heterogeneous group of autosomal recessive disorders caused by enzymatic defects in the synthesis and processing of asparagine (N)-linked glycans or oligosaccharides on glycoproteins. Type I CDGs comprise defects in the assembly of the dolichol lipid-linked oligosaccharide (LLO) chain and its transfer to the nascent protein. These disorders can be identified by a characteristic abnormal isoelectric focusing profile of plasma transferrin (Leroy, 2006). For a discussion of the classification of CDGs, see CDG1A (212065). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
383145
Concept ID:
C2677590
Disease or Syndrome
11.

SRD5A3-congenital disorder of glycosylation

SRD5A3-congenital disorder of glycosylation (SRD5A3-CDG, formerly known as congenital disorder of glycosylation type Iq) is an inherited condition that causes neurological and vision problems and other signs and symptoms. The pattern and severity of this condition's features vary widely among affected individuals.

Individuals with SRD5A3-CDG typically develop signs and symptoms of the condition during infancy or early childhood. Most individuals with SRD5A3-CDG have intellectual disability, vision problems, unusual facial features,low muscle tone (hypotonia), and problems with coordination and balance (ataxia). 

Vision problems in SRD5A3-CDG often include involuntary side-side movements of the eyes (nystagmus), a gap or hole in one of the structures of the eye (coloboma), underdevelopment of the nerves that carry signals between the eyes and the brain(optic nerve hypoplasia), or vision loss early in life (early-onset severe retinal dystrophy). Over time, affected individuals may develop clouding of the lenses of the eyes (cataracts) or increased pressure in the eyes (glaucoma).

Other features of SRD5A3-CDG can include skin rash, unusually small red blood cells (microcytic anemia),and liver problems. [from MedlinePlus Genetics]

MedGen UID:
1392124
Concept ID:
C4317224
Disease or Syndrome
12.

ALG11-congenital disorder of glycosylation

A form of congenital disorders of N-linked glycosylation with characteristics of facial dysmorphism (microcephaly, high forehead, low posterior hairline, strabismus), hypotonia, failure to thrive, intractable seizures, developmental delay, persistent vomiting and gastric bleeding. Additional features that may be observed include fat pads anomalies, inverted nipples, and body temperature oscillation. The disease is caused by mutations in the gene ALG11 (13q14.3). [from SNOMEDCT_US]

MedGen UID:
462263
Concept ID:
C3150913
Disease or Syndrome
13.

Neuropathy, hereditary motor and sensory, type 6B

Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy type VIB is an autosomal recessive complex progressive neurologic disorder characterized mainly by early-onset optic atrophy resulting in progressive visual loss and peripheral axonal sensorimotor neuropathy with highly variable age at onset and severity. Affected individuals may also have cerebellar or pontocerebellar atrophy on brain imaging, and they may show abnormal movements such as ataxia, dysmetria, and myoclonus (summary by Abrams et al., 2015). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of HMSN6, see HMSN6A (601152). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
895482
Concept ID:
C4225302
Disease or Syndrome
14.

Au-Kline syndrome

Au-Kline syndrome is characterized by developmental delay and hypotonia with moderate-to-severe intellectual disability, and typical facial features that include long palpebral fissures, ptosis, shallow orbits, large and deeply grooved tongue, broad nose with a wide nasal bridge, and downturned mouth. There is frequently variable autonomic dysfunction (gastrointestinal dysmotility, high pain threshold, heat intolerance, recurrent fevers, abnormal sweating). Congenital heart disease, hydronephrosis, palate abnormalities, and oligodontia are also reported in the majority of affected individuals. Additional complications can include craniosynostosis, feeding difficulty, vision issues, osteopenia, and other skeletal anomalies. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
900671
Concept ID:
C4225274
Disease or Syndrome
15.

Multiple congenital anomalies-hypotonia-seizures syndrome 3

Multiple congenital anomalies-hypotonia-seizures syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by neonatal hypotonia, lack of psychomotor development, seizures, dysmorphic features, and variable congenital anomalies involving the cardiac, urinary, and gastrointestinal systems. Most affected individuals die before 3 years of age (summary by Maydan et al., 2011). The disorder is caused by a defect in glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) biosynthesis. For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of MCAHS, see MCAHS1 (614080). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of GPI biosynthesis defects, see GPIBD1 (610293). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
815686
Concept ID:
C3809356
Disease or Syndrome
16.

DeSanto-Shinawi syndrome due to WAC point mutation

WAC-related intellectual disability (ID) is typically characterized by variable degrees of developmental delay and/or intellectual disability. Behavioral abnormalities including anxiety, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and/or autism spectrum disorder are observed in the majority of older children and adults. Most affected infants have significant but nonspecific features at birth such as neonatal hypotonia and feeding problems. Some affected individuals come to medical attention with respiratory or vision problems. Facial features may be mildly dysmorphic, but are nonspecific. To date, 18 individuals have been identified with WAC-related ID. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
1841517
Concept ID:
C5681129
Disease or Syndrome
17.

Rafiq syndrome

Rafiq syndrome (RAFQS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by variably impaired intellectual and motor development, a characteristic facial dysmorphism, truncal obesity, and hypotonia. The facial dysmorphism comprises prominent eyebrows with lateral thinning, downward-slanting palpebral fissures, bulbous tip of the nose, large ears, and a thin upper lip. Behavioral problems, including overeating, verbal and physical aggression, have been reported in some cases. Serum transferrin isoelectric focusing shows a type 2 pattern (summary by Balasubramanian et al., 2019). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
481757
Concept ID:
C3280127
Disease or Syndrome
18.

Peroxisome biogenesis disorder 10B

MedGen UID:
1379481
Concept ID:
C4479254
Disease or Syndrome
19.

Barber-Say syndrome

Barber-Say syndrome (BBRSAY) is a rare congenital condition characterized by severe hypertrichosis, especially of the back, skin abnormalities such as hyperlaxity and redundancy, and facial dysmorphism, including macrostomia, eyelid deformities, ocular telecanthus, abnormal and low-set ears, bulbous nasal tip with hypoplastic alae nasi, and low frontal hairline (summary by Roche et al., 2010). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
230818
Concept ID:
C1319466
Disease or Syndrome
20.

Regressive spondylometaphyseal dysplasia

Rhizomelic skeletal dysplasia with or without Pelger-Huet anomaly (SKPHA) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by rhizomelic skeletal dysplasia of variable severity with or without abnormal nuclear shape and chromatin organization in blood granulocytes (Hoffmann et al., 2002; Borovik et al., 2013; Collins et al., 2020). Initial skeletal features may improve with age (Sobreira et al., 2014). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1648288
Concept ID:
C4747922
Disease or Syndrome
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