U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Format
Items per page

Send to:

Choose Destination

Search results

Items: 20

1.

Danon disease

Danon disease is a multisystem condition with predominant involvement of the heart, skeletal muscles, and retina, with overlying cognitive dysfunction. Males are typically more severely affected than females. Males usually present with childhood onset concentric hypertrophic cardiomyopathy that is progressive and often requires heart transplantation. Rarely, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy can evolve to resemble dilated cardiomyopathy. Most affected males also have cardiac conduction abnormalities. Skeletal muscle weakness may lead to delayed acquisition of motor milestones. Learning disability and intellectual disability, most often in the mild range, are common. Additionally, affected males can develop retinopathy with subsequent visual impairment. The clinical features in females are broader and more variable. Females are more likely to have dilated cardiomyopathy, with a smaller proportion requiring heart transplantation compared to affected males. Cardiac conduction abnormalities, skeletal muscle weakness, mild cognitive impairment, and pigmentary retinopathy are variably seen in affected females. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
209235
Concept ID:
C0878677
Disease or Syndrome
2.

Hereditary spastic paraplegia 5A

Spastic paraplegia-5A (SPG5A) is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder with a wide phenotypic spectrum. Some patients have pure spastic paraplegia affecting only gait, whereas others may have a complicated phenotype with additional manifestations, including optic atrophy or cerebellar ataxia (summary by Arnoldi et al., 2012). The hereditary spastic paraplegias (SPG) are a group of clinically and genetically diverse disorders characterized by progressive, usually severe, lower extremity spasticity; see reviews of Fink et al. (1996) and Fink (1997). Inheritance is most often autosomal dominant (see 182600), but X-linked (see 303350) and autosomal recessive forms also occur. Genetic Heterogeneity of Autosomal Recessive Spastic Paraplegia Autosomal recessive forms of SPG include SPG7 (607259), caused by mutation in the paraplegin gene (602783) on chromosome 16q24; SPG9B (616586), caused by mutation in the ALDH18A1 gene (138250) on 10q24; SPG11 (604360), caused by mutation in the spatacsin gene (610844) on 15q21; SPG15 (270700), caused by mutation in the ZFYVE26 gene (612012) on 14q24; SPG18 (611225), caused by mutation in the ERLIN2 gene (611605) on 8p11; SPG20 (275900), caused by mutation in the spartin gene (607111) on 13q12; SPG21 (248900), caused by mutation in the maspardin gene (608181) on 15q21; SPG26 (609195), caused by mutation in the B4GALNT1 gene (601873) on 12q13; SPG28 (609340), caused by mutation in the DDHD1 gene (614603) on 14q22; SPG30 (610357), caused by mutation in the KIF1A gene (601255) on 2q37; SPG35 (612319), caused by mutation in the FA2H gene (611026) on 16q23; SPG39 (612020), caused by mutation in the PNPLA6 gene (603197) on 19p13.3; SPG43 (615043), caused by mutation in the C19ORF12 gene (614297) on 19q12; SPG44 (613206), caused by mutation in the GJC2 gene (608803) on 1q42; SPG45 (613162), caused by mutation in the NT5C2 gene (600417) on 10q24; SPG46 (614409), caused by mutation in the GBA2 gene (609471) on 9p13; SPG48 (613647), caused by mutation in the KIAA0415 gene (613653) on 7p22.1; SPG50 (612936), caused by mutation in the AP4M1 gene (602296) on 7q22; SPG51 (613744), caused by mutation in the AP4E1 gene (607244) on 15q21; SPG52 (614067), caused by mutation in the AP4S1 gene (607243) on 14q12; SPG53 (614898), caused by mutation in the VPS37A gene (609927) on 8p22; SPG54 (615033), caused by mutation in the DDHD2 gene (615003) on 8p11; SPG55 (615035), caused by mutation in the MTRFR gene on 12q24; SPG56 (615030), caused by mutation in the CYP2U1 gene (610670) on 4q25; SPG57 (615658), caused by mutation in the TFG gene (602498) on 3q12; SPG61 (615685), caused by mutation in the ARL6IP1 gene (607669) on 1p12; SPG62 (615681), caused by mutation in the ERLIN1 gene on 10q24; SPG63 (615686), caused by mutation in the AMPD2 gene (102771) on 1p13; SPG64 (615683), caused by mutation in the ENTPD1 gene (601752) on 10q24; SPG72 (615625), caused by mutation in the REEP2 gene (609347) on 5q31; SPG74 (616451), caused by mutation in the IBA57 gene (615316) on 1q42; SPG75 (616680), caused by mutation in the MAG gene (159460) on 19q13; SPG76 (616907), caused by mutation in the CAPN1 gene (114220) on 11q13; SPG77 (617046), caused by mutation in the FARS2 gene (611592) on 6p25; SPG78 (617225), caused by mutation in the ATP13A2 gene (610513) on 1p36; SPG79 (615491), caused by mutation in the UCHL1 gene (191342) on 4p13; SPG81 (618768), caused by mutation in the SELENOI gene (607915) on 2p23; SPG82 (618770), caused by mutation in the PCYT2 gene (602679) on 17q25; SPG83 (619027), caused by mutation in the HPDL gene (618994) on 1p34; SPG84 (619621), caused by mutation in the PI4KA gene (600286) on 22q11; SPG85 (619686), caused by mutation in the RNF170 gene (614649) on 8p11; SPG86 (619735), caused by mutation in the ABHD16A gene (142620) on 6p21; SPG87 (619966), caused by mutation in the TMEM63C gene (619953) on 14q24; SPG89 (620379), caused by mutation in the AMFR gene (603243) on 16q13; and SPG90B (620417), caused by mutation in the SPTSSA gene (613540) on 14q13. Additional autosomal recessive forms of SPG have been mapped to chromosomes 3q (SPG14; 605229), 13q14 (SPG24; 607584), 6q (SPG25; 608220), and 10q22 (SPG27; 609041). A disorder that was formerly designated SPG49 has been reclassified as hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy-9 with developmental delay (HSAN9; 615031). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
376521
Concept ID:
C1849115
Disease or Syndrome
3.

Hypomyelination and Congenital Cataract

Hypomyelination and congenital cataract (HCC) is usually characterized by bilateral congenital cataracts and normal psychomotor or only mildly delayed development in the first year of life, followed by slowly progressive neurologic impairment manifest as ataxia, spasticity (brisk tendon reflexes and bilateral extensor plantar responses), and mild-to-moderate cognitive impairment. Dysarthria and truncal hypotonia are observed. Cerebellar signs (truncal titubation and intention tremor) and peripheral neuropathy (muscle weakness and wasting of the legs) are present in the majority of affected individuals. Seizures can occur. Cataracts may be absent in some individuals. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
501134
Concept ID:
C1864663
Congenital Abnormality; Disease or Syndrome
4.

Hereditary spastic paraplegia 30

Spastic paraplegia-30 (SPG30) is a neurologic disorder characterized by onset of slowly progressive spastic paraplegia in the first or second decades of life. Affected individuals have unsteady spastic gait and hyperreflexia of the lower limbs. Some patients have a 'pure' form of the disorder, limited to spastic paraplegia, whereas others may have a 'complicated' form that includes cognitive dysfunction, learning disabilities, or behavioral abnormalities, peripheral sensorimotor neuropathy, urinary sphincter problems, and/or cerebellar atrophy with thin corpus callosum on brain imaging. The phenotypic features represent a spectrum of abnormalities of the central, peripheral, and autonomic nervous system (summary by Pennings et al., 2020). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal dominant spastic paraplegia, see SPG3A (182600). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal recessive spastic paraplegia, see SPG5A (270800). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1710020
Concept ID:
C5235139
Disease or Syndrome
5.

Hypomyelinating leukodystrophy 3

Autosomal recessive hypomyelinating leukodystrophy-3 (HLD3) is a severe neurologic disorder characterized by early infantile onset of global developmental delay, lack of development, lack of speech acquisition, and peripheral spasticity associated with decreased myelination in the central nervous system (summary by Feinstein et al., 2010). The disorder is phenotypically similar to X-linked Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease (PMD; 312080), which is caused by mutation in the PLP1 gene (300401). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of HLD, see 312080. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
342403
Concept ID:
C1850053
Disease or Syndrome
6.

Hereditary spastic paraplegia 77

The spectrum of FARS2 deficiency ranges from the infantile-onset phenotype, characterized by epileptic encephalopathy with lactic acidosis and poor prognosis (70% of affected individuals), to the later-onset phenotype, characterized by spastic paraplegia, less severe neurologic manifestations, and longer survival (30% of affected individuals). To date FARS2 deficiency has been reported in 37 individuals from 25 families. Infantile-onset phenotype. Seizures are difficult to control and may progress quickly at an early age to intractable seizures with frequent status epilepticus; some children have hypsarrhythmia on EEG. All have developmental delay; most are nonverbal and unable to walk. Feeding difficulties are common. More than half of affected children die in early childhood. Later-onset phenotype. All affected individuals have spastic paraplegia manifested by weakness, spasticity, and exaggerated reflexes of the lower extremities associated with walking difficulties; some have developmental delay/intellectual disability; some have brief seizures that resolve over time. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
1800430
Concept ID:
C5569007
Disease or Syndrome
7.

Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, axonal, autosomal recessive, type 2a2b;

MFN2 hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (MFN2-HMSN) is a classic axonal peripheral sensorimotor neuropathy, inherited in either an autosomal dominant (AD) manner (~90%) or an autosomal recessive (AR) manner (~10%). MFN2-HMSN is characterized by more severe involvement of the lower extremities than the upper extremities, distal upper-extremity involvement as the neuropathy progresses, more prominent motor deficits than sensory deficits, and normal (>42 m/s) or only slightly decreased nerve conduction velocities (NCVs). Postural tremor is common. Median onset is age 12 years in the AD form and age eight years in the AR form. The prevalence of optic atrophy is approximately 7% in the AD form and approximately 20% in the AR form. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
934692
Concept ID:
C4310725
Disease or Syndrome
8.

Hereditary spastic paraplegia 55

A rare complex type of hereditary spastic paraplegia with characteristics of childhood onset of progressive spastic paraplegia associated with optic atrophy (with reduced visual acuity and central scotoma), ophthalmoplegia, reduced upper-extremity strength and dexterity, muscular atrophy in the lower extremities and sensorimotor neuropathy. Caused by mutations in the C12ORF65 gene (12q24.31) encoding probable peptide chain release factor C12ORF65, mitochondrial. [from SNOMEDCT_US]

MedGen UID:
761342
Concept ID:
C3539506
Disease or Syndrome
9.

Autosomal dominant childhood-onset proximal spinal muscular atrophy with contractures

SMALED2A is an autosomal dominant form of spinal muscular atrophy characterized by early childhood onset of muscle weakness and atrophy predominantly affecting the proximal and distal muscles of the lower extremity, although some patients may show upper extremity involvement. The disorder results in delayed walking, waddling gait, difficulty walking, and loss of distal reflexes. Some patients may have foot deformities or hyperlordosis, and some show mild upper motor signs, such as spasticity. Sensation, bulbar function, and cognitive function are preserved. The disorder shows very slow progression throughout life (summary by Oates et al., 2013). For discussion of genetic heterogeneity of lower extremity-predominant spinal muscular atrophy, see SMALED1 (158600). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1669929
Concept ID:
C4747715
Disease or Syndrome
10.

X-linked intellectual disability, Cantagrel type

X-linked intellectual developmental disorder-98 (XLID98) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by delayed psychomotor development, poor speech, behavioral abnormalities, poor overall growth, dysmorphic facial features, and often early-onset seizures. Some carrier females are unaffected, whereas other females with mutations are affected; males tend to be more severely affected than females. It is believed that the phenotypic variability and disease manifestations in female carriers results from skewed X-inactivation or cellular mosaicism (summary by de Lange et al., 2016). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
813060
Concept ID:
C3806730
Disease or Syndrome
11.

Hereditary spastic paraplegia 57

An extremely rare, complex type of hereditary spastic paraplegia, with onset in infancy of pronounced leg spasticity (leading to the inability to walk independently), reduced visual acuity due to optic atrophy and distal wasting of the hands and feet due to an axonal demyelinating sensorimotor neuropathy. Caused by mutations in the TFG gene (3q12.2) encoding protein TFG, which is thought to play a role in ER microtubular architecture and function. [from SNOMEDCT_US]

MedGen UID:
811490
Concept ID:
C3714897
Disease or Syndrome
12.

Autosomal dominant intellectual disability-craniofacial anomalies-cardiac defects syndrome

Arboleda-Tham syndrome (ARTHS) is an autosomal dominant disorder with the core features of impaired intellectual development, speech delay, microcephaly, cardiac anomalies, and gastrointestinal complications (summary by Kennedy et al., 2019). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
903767
Concept ID:
C4225396
Disease or Syndrome
13.

Neuronopathy, distal hereditary motor, type 2D

Autosomal dominant distal hereditary motor neuronopathy-6 (HMND6) is a neurologic disorder characterized by onset of slowly progressive distal lower limb weakness and atrophy between the second and fourth decades of life. Weakness usually begins in the calf muscles and later involves more proximal muscles. The severity is variable, and some patients have difficulty walking or running. Most also have upper limb involvement, particularly of the triceps and intrinsic hand muscles. Some patients may lose independent ambulation later in the disease course. Sensory impairment is typically not present, and cognition and bulbar function are normal (summary by Sumner et al., 2013). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal dominant distal HMN (dHMN), see HMND1 (182960). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
854832
Concept ID:
C3888271
Disease or Syndrome
14.

Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, dominant intermediate G

CMTDIG is an autosomal dominant neurologic disorder with a highly variable phenotype. Most affected individuals have onset in the first or second decades of slowly progressive distal motor weakness and atrophy, resulting in gait instability and distal upper limb impairment, as well as distal sensory impairment. More severely affected individuals may have pes cavus and claw hands and become wheelchair-bound, whereas other affected individuals have later onset with a milder disease course. Electrophysiologic studies tend to show median motor nerve conduction velocities (NCV) in the 'intermediate' range, between 25 and 45 m/s (summary by Berciano et al., 2017). In a review of intermediate CMT, Berciano et al. (2017) noted that advanced axonal degeneration may induce secondary demyelinating changes resulting in decreased NCV and attenuated compound muscle action potential (CMAP) in median nerve conduction studies. They thus suggested that testing the upper arm, axilla to elbow, may provide more accurate assessment of NCV and CMAP and reveal an intermediate phenotype (review by Berciano et al., 2017). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of CMTDI, see 606482. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1642893
Concept ID:
C4693509
Disease or Syndrome
15.

Neuropathy, hereditary motor and sensory, type VIc, with optic atrophy

Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy type VIC with optic atrophy (HMSN6C) is an autosomal recessive axonal sensorimotor peripheral neuropathy characterized by progressive distal muscle weakness and atrophy primarily affecting the lower limbs. Onset of neuropathy is in the first decade, manifest by difficulty walking and running and followed by similar involvement of the upper limbs and hands. The disorder is associated with distal sensory impairment, particularly of position and vibration sense, as well as areflexia; individuals usually have pes cavus, hammertoes, and atrophy of the intrinsic hand muscles. In addition, progressive optic atrophy and visual impairment occur during adulthood. Treatment with pyridoxal 5-prime phosphate supplementation (vitamin B6) may result in amelioration of symptoms and slow progression of the disease (summary by Chelban et al., 2019). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of HMSN6, see HMSN6A (601152). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1680245
Concept ID:
C5193137
Disease or Syndrome
16.

Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease axonal type 2CC

Axonal Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2CC is an autosomal dominant peripheral neuropathy that predominantly affects the lower limbs, resulting in muscle weakness and atrophy and gait impairment. Other features include distal sensory impairment and less severe involvement of the upper limbs. The age at onset and severity are variable (summary by Rebelo et al., 2016). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of axonal CMT type 2, see CMT2A (118210). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
934757
Concept ID:
C4310790
Disease or Syndrome
17.

Siddiqi syndrome

Siddiqi syndrome (SIDDIS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by global developmental delay, early-onset progressive sensorineural hearing impairment, regression of motor skills, dystonia, poor overall growth, and low body mass index (BMI). More variable features may include ichthyosis-like skin abnormalities or sensory neuropathy (summary by Zazo Seco et al., 2017). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1684813
Concept ID:
C5231435
Disease or Syndrome
18.

Hereditary spastic paraplegia 16

Spastic paraplegias (SPGs) are a genetically heterogeneous group of neurologic disorders characterized by progressive weakness and spasticity of the legs. Complicated SPGs are accompanied by additional neurologic symptoms such as cerebellar ataxia, sensory loss, mental retardation, nystagmus, and optic atrophy (summary by Steinmuller et al., 1997). A locus for spastic paraplegia-16 has been mapped to Xq11.2-q23 (Steinmuller et al., 1997). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of X-linked spastic paraplegia, see 303350. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
375796
Concept ID:
C1846046
Disease or Syndrome
19.

Neuronopathy, distal hereditary motor, autosomal recessive 7

Autosomal recessive distal hereditary motor neuronopathy-7 (HMNR7) is characterized by onset of lower leg weakness in the first decade. Affected individuals have difficulty climbing stairs and problems standing on the heels. Some patients have later onset well into the adult years. Most patients have foot deformities, and some may have leg muscle atrophy. The disorder is slowly progressive and often involves the upper limbs. Muscle biopsy and electrophysiologic studies are consistent with both a myopathic process and an axonal motor neuropathy. Sensory abnormalities are not typically present, and patients remain ambulatory. The phenotype shows phenotypic overlap with distal hereditary motor neuropathy, but can distinguished by the presence of myopathic features (summary by Deschauer et al., 2021 and Pagnamenta et al., 2021). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal recessive HMN, see HMNR1 (604320). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1786836
Concept ID:
C5543119
Disease or Syndrome
20.

Lower limb amyotrophy

Muscular atrophy affecting the lower limb. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
870475
Concept ID:
C4024921
Disease or Syndrome; Finding
Format
Items per page

Send to:

Choose Destination

Supplemental Content

Find related data

Search details

See more...

Recent activity