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1.

Nephropathic cystinosis

Cystinosis comprises three allelic phenotypes: Nephropathic cystinosis in untreated children is characterized by renal Fanconi syndrome, poor growth, hypophosphatemic/calcipenic rickets, impaired glomerular function resulting in complete glomerular failure, and accumulation of cystine in almost all cells, leading to cellular dysfunction with tissue and organ impairment. The typical untreated child has short stature, rickets, and photophobia. Failure to thrive is generally noticed after approximately age six months; signs of renal tubular Fanconi syndrome (polyuria, polydipsia, dehydration, and acidosis) appear as early as age six months; corneal crystals can be present before age one year and are always present after age 16 months. Prior to the use of renal transplantation and cystine-depleting therapy, the life span in nephropathic cystinosis was no longer than ten years. With these interventions, affected individuals can survive at least into the mid-forties or fifties with satisfactory quality of life. Intermediate cystinosis is characterized by all the typical manifestations of nephropathic cystinosis, but onset is at a later age. Renal glomerular failure occurs in all untreated affected individuals, usually between ages 15 and 25 years. The non-nephropathic (ocular) form of cystinosis is characterized clinically only by photophobia resulting from corneal cystine crystal accumulation. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
419735
Concept ID:
C2931187
Disease or Syndrome
2.

X-linked Alport syndrome

In Alport syndrome (AS) a spectrum of phenotypes ranging from progressive renal disease with extrarenal abnormalities to isolated hematuria with a non-progressive or very slowly progressive course is observed. Approximately two thirds of AS is X-linked (XLAS); approximately 15% is autosomal recessive (ARAS), and approximately 20% is autosomal dominant (ADAS). In the absence of treatment, renal disease progresses from microscopic hematuria (microhematuria) to proteinuria, progressive renal insufficiency, and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in all males with XLAS, and in all males and females with ARAS. Progressive sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) is usually present by late childhood or early adolescence. Ocular findings include anterior lenticonus (which is virtually pathognomonic), maculopathy (whitish or yellowish flecks or granulations in the perimacular region), corneal endothelial vesicles (posterior polymorphous dystrophy), and recurrent corneal erosion. In individuals with ADAS, ESRD is frequently delayed until later adulthood, SNHL is relatively late in onset, and ocular involvement is rare. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
1648433
Concept ID:
C4746986
Disease or Syndrome
3.

Upshaw-Schulman syndrome

Hereditary thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP), also known as Upshaw-Schulman syndrome (USS), is a rare autosomal recessive thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA). Clinically, acute phases of TTP are defined by microangiopathic mechanical hemolytic anemia, severe thrombocytopenia, and visceral ischemia. Hereditary TTP makes up 5% of TTP cases and is caused mostly by biallelic mutation in the ADAMTS13 gene, or in very rare cases, by monoallelic ADAMTS13 mutation associated with a cluster of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs); most cases of all TTP (95%) are acquired via an autoimmune mechanism (see 188030). Hereditary TTP is more frequent among child-onset TTP compared with adult-onset TTP, and its clinical presentation is significantly different as a function of its age of onset. Child-onset TTP usually starts in the neonatal period with hematological features and severe jaundice. In contrast, almost all cases of adult-onset hereditary TTP are unmasked during the first pregnancy of a woman whose disease was silent during childhood (summary by Joly et al., 2018). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
224783
Concept ID:
C1268935
Disease or Syndrome
4.

Autosomal dominant Alport syndrome

In Alport syndrome (AS) a spectrum of phenotypes ranging from progressive renal disease with extrarenal abnormalities to isolated hematuria with a non-progressive or very slowly progressive course is observed. Approximately two thirds of AS is X-linked (XLAS); approximately 15% is autosomal recessive (ARAS), and approximately 20% is autosomal dominant (ADAS). In the absence of treatment, renal disease progresses from microscopic hematuria (microhematuria) to proteinuria, progressive renal insufficiency, and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in all males with XLAS, and in all males and females with ARAS. Progressive sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) is usually present by late childhood or early adolescence. Ocular findings include anterior lenticonus (which is virtually pathognomonic), maculopathy (whitish or yellowish flecks or granulations in the perimacular region), corneal endothelial vesicles (posterior polymorphous dystrophy), and recurrent corneal erosion. In individuals with ADAS, ESRD is frequently delayed until later adulthood, SNHL is relatively late in onset, and ocular involvement is rare. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
1648326
Concept ID:
C4746547
Disease or Syndrome
5.

Dent disease type 1

Dent disease, an X-linked disorder of proximal renal tubular dysfunction, is characterized by low molecular weight (LMW) proteinuria, hypercalciuria, and at least one additional finding including nephrocalcinosis, nephrolithiasis, hematuria, hypophosphatemia, chronic kidney disease (CKD), and evidence of X-linked inheritance. Males younger than age ten years may manifest only LMW proteinuria and/or hypercalciuria, which are usually asymptomatic. Thirty to 80% of affected males develop end-stage renal disease (ESRD) between ages 30 and 50 years; in some instances ESRD does not develop until the sixth decade of life or later. The disease may also be accompanied by rickets or osteomalacia, growth restriction, and short stature. Disease severity can vary within the same family. Males with Dent disease 2 (caused by pathogenic variants in OCRL) may also have mild intellectual disability, cataracts, and/or elevated muscle enzymes. Due to random X-chromosome inactivation, some female carriers may manifest hypercalciuria and, rarely, renal calculi and moderate LMW proteinuria. Females rarely develop CKD. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
336322
Concept ID:
C1848336
Disease or Syndrome
6.

CFHR5 deficiency

C3 glomerulopathy-3 (C3G3) is an autosomal dominant kidney disease characterized by the onset of microscopic or macroscopic hematuria in the first 3 decades of life, followed by variable progression of renal disease. After age 30, about half of patients continue to have episodic hematuria while maintaining normal renal function, whereas the other half develop proteinuria and progressive renal failure or end-stage renal disease. In some cases, renal dysfunction may be triggered or exacerbated by an infectious disease, often an upper respiratory infection or pharyngitis. Some patients may also develop hypertension. Renal biopsy shows glomerular C3 deposition and mesangial proliferation with glomerulonephritis. Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) may also be observed on renal biopsy. Males tend to have a more severe phenotype than females and are more likely to develop end-stage renal disease, often necessitating dialysis or renal transplant (summary by Athanasiou et al., 2011). For a general description and discussion of genetic heterogeneity of C3G, see C3G1 (609814). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
766634
Concept ID:
C3553720
Disease or Syndrome
7.

Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis 5

Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is a pathologic entity associated clinically with proteinuria, the nephrotic syndrome (NPHS), and progressive loss of renal function. It is a common cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) (Meyrier, 2005). Dominant intermediate Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease E and focal segmental glomerulonephritis (CMTDIE; 614455) is also caused by heterozygous mutation in the INF2 gene. For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and nephrotic syndrome, see FSGS1 (603278). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
413315
Concept ID:
C2750475
Disease or Syndrome
8.

Imerslund-Grasbeck syndrome type 1

Imerslund-Grasbeck syndrome-1 (IGS1) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by onset of megaloblastic anemia associated with decreased serum vitamin B12 (cobalamin, Cbl) in infancy or early childhood. Low molecular weight (LMW) proteinuria is frequently present, but sometimes occurs later and is usually mild or subclinical. Patients often present with vague symptoms, including failure to thrive, loss of appetite, fatigue, lethargy, and/or recurrent infections. Some patients may present later in childhood with neurologic abnormalities related to B12 deficiency, such as sensorimotor neuropathy and/or cognitive disturbances. Treatment with vitamin B12 results in sustained clinical improvement of the anemia and resolution of the neurologic symptoms, if present. The proteinuria is nonprogressive, and affected individuals do not have deterioration of kidney function; correct diagnosis is important to prevent unnecessary treatment. The disorder results from a combination of vitamin B12 deficiency due to selective malabsorption of the vitamin, and impaired reabsorption of LMW proteins in the proximal renal tubule. These defects are caused by disruption of the AMN (605799)/CUBN complex that forms the 'cubam' receptor responsible for intestinal uptake of B12/GIF (CBLIF; 609342). In the kidney, AMN/CUBN interacts with the endocytic receptor megalin (LRP2; 600073), which is important for the reabsorption of plasma proteins (summary by Grasbeck, 2006, Storm et al., 2011, Storm et al., 2013). Genetic Heterogeneity of Imerslund-Grasbeck Syndrome See also IGS2 (618882), caused by mutation in the AMN gene (605799) on chromosome 14q32. Congenital pernicious anemia (261000), a distinct disorder with overlapping features, is caused by mutation in the GIF (CBLIF) gene (609342). Adult pernicious anemia (170900) is another distinct autoimmune disorder associated with plasma autoantibodies to gastric parietal cells or gastric intrinsic factor. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
865256
Concept ID:
C4016819
Finding
9.

X-linked recessive nephrolithiasis with renal failure

X-linked recessive nephrolithiasis with renal failure (XRN) is a form of X-linked hypercalciuric nephrolithiasis, which comprises a group of disorders characterized by proximal renal tubular reabsorptive failure, hypercalciuria, nephrolithiasis, and renal insufficiency. These disorders have also been referred to as the 'Dent disease complex' (Scheinman, 1998; Gambaro et al., 2004). For a general discussion of Dent disease, see 300009. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
96047
Concept ID:
C0403720
Disease or Syndrome
10.

Proteinuria, low molecular weight, with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis

Low molecular weight proteinuria with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis is a form of X-linked hypercalciuric nephrocalcinosis, a group of disorders characterized by proximal renal tubular reabsorptive failure, hypercalciuria, nephrocalcinosis, and renal insufficiency. These disorders have also been referred to as the 'Dent disease complex' (Scheinman, 1998; Gambaro et al., 2004). For a general discussion of Dent disease, see 300009. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
333426
Concept ID:
C1839874
Disease or Syndrome
11.

Hyperhydroxyprolinemia

Hydroxyproline is an imino acid normally present in human plasma. It is derived primarily from endogenous collagen turnover and the breakdown of dietary collagen. The finding of elevated (5- to 10-fold increase from the normal of less than 50 micromoles) serum hydroxyproline is thought to be an inherited defect in the catabolism of hydroxyproline. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
75691
Concept ID:
C0268531
Disease or Syndrome
12.

Glomerulopathy with fibronectin deposits 2

Glomerulopathy with fibronectin deposits is a genetically heterogeneous autosomal dominant disorder characterized clinically by proteinuria, microscopic hematuria, and hypertension that leads to end-stage renal failure in the second to fifth decade of life. Pathologic examination shows enlarged glomeruli with mesangial and subendothelial fibrillary deposits that show strong immunoreactivity to fibronectin (Castelletti et al., 2008). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of GFND, see 137950. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
356149
Concept ID:
C1866075
Disease or Syndrome
13.

X-linked diffuse leiomyomatosis-Alport syndrome

A rare renal disease characterized by the association of X-linked Alport syndrome (glomerular nephropathy, sensorineural deafness and ocular anomalies) and benign proliferation of visceral smooth muscle cells along the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and female genital tracts and clinically manifests with dysphagia, dyspnea, cough, stridor, postprandial vomiting, retrosternal or epigastric pain, recurrent pneumonia, and clitoral hypertrophy in females. [from ORDO]

MedGen UID:
333429
Concept ID:
C1839884
Disease or Syndrome
14.

Congenital disorder of glycosylation, type IIw

Congenital disorder of glycosylation type IIw (CDG2W) is an autosomal dominant metabolic disorder characterized by liver dysfunction, coagulation deficiencies, and profound abnormalities in N-glycosylation of serum specific proteins. All reported patients carry the same mutation (602671.0017) (summary by Ng et al., 2021). For an overview of congenital disorders of glycosylation, see CDG1A (212065) and CDG2A (212066). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1794196
Concept ID:
C5561986
Disease or Syndrome
15.

Glomerulopathy with fibronectin deposits 1

Glomerulopathy with fibronectin deposits (GFND) is a genetically heterogeneous autosomal dominant disorder characterized clinically by proteinuria, microscopic hematuria, and hypertension that leads to end-stage renal failure in the second to fifth decade of life. Pathologic examination shows enlarged glomeruli with mesangial and subendothelial fibrillary deposits that show strong immunoreactivity to fibronectin (FN1; 135600) (Castelletti et al., 2008). Genetic Heterogeneity of Glomerulopathy with Fibronectin Deposits The GFND1 locus maps to chromosome 1q32. See also GFND2 (601894), which is caused by mutation in the FN1 gene (135600) on chromosome 2q35. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
98017
Concept ID:
C0403557
Disease or Syndrome
16.

Progressive hereditary glomerulonephritis without deafness

A rare, genetic hypertension characterized by an adult onset of increased blood pressure associated with nephropathy progressing to end-stage renal disease. Renal biopsy may show interstitial fibrosis, glomerulosclerosis and mild tubular atrophy. Increased serum creatinine and proteinuria have also been reported. [from ORDO]

MedGen UID:
98012
Concept ID:
C0403443
Disease or Syndrome
17.

Nephrotic syndrome, type 17

NPHS17, a disease of the renal glomerular filter, is characterized by proteinuria, edema, and hypoalbuminemia. It does not respond to drug treatment and inevitably progresses to end-stage renal disease, thus requiring dialysis or renal transplantation for survival. Renal histology shows focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (Braun et al., 2018). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of nephrotic syndrome, see NPHS1 (256300). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1648294
Concept ID:
C4748545
Disease or Syndrome
18.

Hematuria, benign familial, 2

Benign familial hematuria (BFH) is an autosomal dominant condition manifest as nonprogressive isolated microscopic hematuria that does not result in renal failure. It is characterized pathologically by thinning of the glomerular basement membrane (GBM), and can be considered the mildest end of the spectrum of renal diseases due to type IV collagen defects of the basement membrane. The most severe end of the spectrum is represented by Alport syndrome (see 301050), which results in end-stage renal failure and may be associated with hearing loss and ocular anomalies (review by Lemmink et al. (1996)). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of BFH, see BFH1 (141200). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1841057
Concept ID:
C5830421
Disease or Syndrome
19.

Infundibulopelvic stenosis-multicystic kidney syndrome

Infundibulopelvic stenosis-multicystic kidney syndrome is a rare, genetic renal malformation syndrome characterized by variable degrees of malformation in the pelvicalyceal system (including unilateral or bilateral calyceal dilatation, infundibular stenosis, hypoplasia or stenosis of the renal pelvis) which lead to multicystic kidney. Clinically it exhibits abdominal, lumbar or flank pain, recurrent urinary tract infections, hypertension, proteinuria and often progresses to renal insufficiency. Calyceal dilatation and hydronephrosis are frequently seen on imaging. [from MONDO]

MedGen UID:
318751
Concept ID:
C1832949
Disease or Syndrome
20.

Nephrotic syndrome, type 22

Nephrotic syndrome type 22 (NPHS22) is an autosomal recessive renal disease characterized by onset of progressive kidney dysfunction in infancy. Affected individuals usually present with edema associated with hypoproteinemia, proteinuria, and microscopic hematuria. Renal biopsy shows effacement of the podocyte foot processes, glomerulosclerosis, and thickening of the glomerular basement membrane. The disease is steroid-resistant and progressive, resulting in end-stage renal disease usually necessitating kidney transplant (Majmundar et al., 2021). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of nephrotic syndrome, see NPHS1 (256300). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1745920
Concept ID:
C5436909
Disease or Syndrome
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