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1.

Focal dermal hypoplasia

Focal dermal hypoplasia is a multisystem disorder characterized primarily by involvement of the skin, skeletal system, eyes, and face. Skin manifestations present at birth include atrophic and hypoplastic areas of skin; cutis aplasia; fat nodules in the dermis manifesting as soft, yellow-pink cutaneous nodules; and pigmentary changes. Verrucoid papillomas of the skin and mucous membranes may appear later. The nails can be ridged, dysplastic, or hypoplastic; hair can be sparse or absent. Limb malformations include oligo-/syndactyly and split hand/foot. Developmental abnormalities of the eye can include anophthalmia/microphthalmia, iris and chorioretinal coloboma, and lacrimal duct abnormalities. Craniofacial findings can include facial asymmetry, notched alae nasi, cleft lip and palate, and pointed chin. Occasional findings include dental anomalies, abdominal wall defects, diaphragmatic hernia, and renal anomalies. Psychomotor development is usually normal; some individuals have cognitive impairment. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
42055
Concept ID:
C0016395
Disease or Syndrome
2.

Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome type 1

Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder of morphogenesis that results in abnormal development of the anterior segment of the eye, and results in blindness from glaucoma in approximately 50% of affected individuals (Fitch and Kaback, 1978). Systemic anomalies are associated, including dental hypoplasia, failure of involution of periumbilical skin, and maxillary hypoplasia (Alkemade, 1969). Genetic Heterogeneity of Axenfeld-Rieger Syndrome Linkage studies indicate that a second type of Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome maps to chromosome 13q14 (RIEG2; 601499). A third form of Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome (RIEG3; 602482) is caused by mutation in the FOXC1 gene (601090) on chromosome 6p25. See 109120 for a form of Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome associated with partially absent eye muscles, hydrocephalus, and skeletal abnormalities. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
811487
Concept ID:
C3714873
Disease or Syndrome
3.

Incontinentia pigmenti syndrome

Incontinentia pigmenti (IP) is a disorder that affects the skin, hair, teeth, nails, eyes, and central nervous system; it occurs primarily in females and on occasion in males. Characteristic skin lesions evolve through four stages: I. Blistering (birth to age ~4 months). II. Wart-like rash (for several months). III. Swirling macular hyperpigmentation (age ~6 months into adulthood). IV. Linear hypopigmentation. Alopecia, hypodontia, abnormal tooth shape, and dystrophic nails are observed. Neovascularization of the retina, present in some individuals, predisposes to retinal detachment. Neurologic findings including seizures, intellectual disability, and developmental delays are occasionally seen. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
7049
Concept ID:
C0021171
Disease or Syndrome
4.

Andersen Tawil syndrome

Andersen-Tawil syndrome (ATS) is characterized by a triad of: episodic flaccid muscle weakness (i.e., periodic paralysis); ventricular arrhythmias and prolonged QT interval; and anomalies including low-set ears, widely spaced eyes, small mandible, fifth-digit clinodactyly, syndactyly, short stature, and scoliosis. Affected individuals present in the first or second decade with either cardiac symptoms (palpitations and/or syncope) or weakness that occurs spontaneously following prolonged rest or following rest after exertion. Mild permanent weakness is common. Mild learning difficulties and a distinct neurocognitive phenotype (i.e., deficits in executive function and abstract reasoning) have been described. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
327586
Concept ID:
C1563715
Disease or Syndrome
5.

Oculofaciocardiodental syndrome

Oculofaciocardiodental (OFCD) syndrome is a condition that affects the development of the eyes (oculo-), facial features (facio-), heart (cardio-) and teeth (dental). This condition occurs only in females.

The eye abnormalities associated with OFCD syndrome can affect one or both eyes. Many people with this condition are born with eyeballs that are abnormally small (microphthalmia). Other eye problems can include clouding of the lens (cataract) and a higher risk of glaucoma, an eye disease that increases the pressure in the eye. These abnormalities can lead to vision loss or blindness.

People with OFCD syndrome often have a long, narrow face with distinctive facial features, including deep-set eyes and a broad nasal tip that is divided by a cleft. Some affected people have an opening in the roof of the mouth called a cleft palate.

Heart defects are another common feature of OFCD syndrome. Babies with this condition may be born with a hole between two chambers of the heart (an atrial or ventricular septal defect) or a leak in one of the valves that controls blood flow through the heart (mitral valve prolapse).

Teeth with very large roots (radiculomegaly) are characteristic of OFCD syndrome. Additional dental abnormalities can include delayed loss of primary (baby) teeth, missing or abnormally small teeth, misaligned teeth, and defective tooth enamel. [from MedlinePlus Genetics]

MedGen UID:
337547
Concept ID:
C1846265
Disease or Syndrome
6.

Chromosome 2q32-q33 deletion syndrome

SATB2-associated syndrome (SAS) is a multisystem disorder characterized by significant neurodevelopmental compromise with limited to absent speech, behavioral issues, and craniofacial anomalies. All individuals described to date have manifest developmental delay / intellectual disability, with severe speech delay. Affected individuals often have hypotonia and feeding difficulties in infancy. Behavioral issues may include autistic features, hyperactivity, and aggressiveness. Craniofacial anomalies may include palatal abnormalities (cleft palate, high-arched palate, and bifid uvula), micrognathia, and abnormal shape or size of the upper central incisors. Less common features include skeletal anomalies (osteopenia, pectus deformities, kyphosis/lordosis, and scoliosis), growth restriction, strabismus/refractive errors, congenital heart defects, genitourinary anomalies, and epilepsy. While dysmorphic features have been described in individuals with this condition, these features are not typically distinctive enough to allow for a clinical diagnosis of SAS. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
436765
Concept ID:
C2676739
Disease or Syndrome
7.

KBG syndrome

KBG syndrome is typically characterized by macrodontia (especially of the upper central incisors), characteristic facial features (triangular face, brachycephaly, synophrys, widely spaced eyes, broad or bushy eyebrows, prominent ears, prominent nasal bridge, bulbous nose, anteverted nares, long philtrum, and thin vermilion of the upper lip), short stature, developmental delay / intellectual disability, and behavioral issues. Affected individuals may have feeding difficulties (particularly in infancy), skeletal anomalies (brachydactyly, large anterior fontanelle with delayed closure, scoliosis), hearing loss (conductive, mixed, and sensorineural), seizure disorder, and brain malformations. There is significant variability in the clinical findings, even between affected members of the same family. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
66317
Concept ID:
C0220687
Disease or Syndrome
8.

Hypomyelinating leukodystrophy 8 with or without oligodontia and-or hypogonadotropic hypogonadism

POLR3-related leukodystrophy, a hypomyelinating leukodystrophy with specific features on brain MRI, is characterized by varying combinations of four major clinical findings: Neurologic dysfunction, typically predominated by motor dysfunction (progressive cerebellar dysfunction, and to a lesser extent extrapyramidal [i.e., dystonia], pyramidal [i.e., spasticity] and cognitive dysfunctions). Abnormal dentition (delayed dentition, hypodontia, oligodontia, and abnormally placed or shaped teeth). Endocrine abnormalities such as short stature (in ~50% of individuals) with or without growth hormone deficiency, and more commonly, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism manifesting as delayed, arrested, or absent puberty. Ocular abnormality in the form of myopia, typically progressing over several years and becoming severe. POLR3-related leukodystrophy and 4H leukodystrophy are the two recognized terms for five previously described overlapping clinical phenotypes (initially described as distinct entities before their molecular basis was known). These include: Hypomyelination, hypodontia, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (4H syndrome); Ataxia, delayed dentition, and hypomyelination (ADDH); Tremor-ataxia with central hypomyelination (TACH); Leukodystrophy with oligodontia (LO); Hypomyelination with cerebellar atrophy and hypoplasia of the corpus callosum (HCAHC). Age of onset is typically in early childhood but later-onset cases have also been reported. An infant with Wiedemann-Rautenstrauch syndrome (neonatal progeroid syndrome) was recently reported to have pathogenic variants in POLR3A on exome sequencing. Confirmation of this as a very severe form of POLR3-related leukodystrophy awaits replication in other individuals with a clinical diagnosis of Wiedemann-Rautenstrauch syndrome. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
482274
Concept ID:
C3280644
Disease or Syndrome
9.

ADULT syndrome

The TP63-related disorders comprise six overlapping phenotypes: Ankyloblepharon-ectodermal defects-cleft lip/palate (AEC) syndrome (which includes Rapp-Hodgkin syndrome). Acro-dermo-ungual-lacrimal-tooth (ADULT) syndrome. Ectrodactyly, ectodermal dysplasia, cleft lip/palate syndrome 3 (EEC3). Limb-mammary syndrome. Split-hand/foot malformation type 4 (SHFM4). Isolated cleft lip/cleft palate (orofacial cleft 8). Individuals typically have varying combinations of ectodermal dysplasia (hypohidrosis, nail dysplasia, sparse hair, tooth abnormalities), cleft lip/palate, split-hand/foot malformation/syndactyly, lacrimal duct obstruction, hypopigmentation, hypoplastic breasts and/or nipples, and hypospadias. Findings associated with a single phenotype include ankyloblepharon filiforme adnatum (tissue strands that completely or partially fuse the upper and lower eyelids), skin erosions especially on the scalp associated with areas of scarring, and alopecia, trismus, and excessive freckling. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
400232
Concept ID:
C1863204
Disease or Syndrome
10.

Leukoencephalopathy-ataxia-hypodontia-hypomyelination syndrome

POLR3-related leukodystrophy, a hypomyelinating leukodystrophy with specific features on brain MRI, is characterized by varying combinations of four major clinical findings: Neurologic dysfunction, typically predominated by motor dysfunction (progressive cerebellar dysfunction, and to a lesser extent extrapyramidal [i.e., dystonia], pyramidal [i.e., spasticity] and cognitive dysfunctions). Abnormal dentition (delayed dentition, hypodontia, oligodontia, and abnormally placed or shaped teeth). Endocrine abnormalities such as short stature (in ~50% of individuals) with or without growth hormone deficiency, and more commonly, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism manifesting as delayed, arrested, or absent puberty. Ocular abnormality in the form of myopia, typically progressing over several years and becoming severe. POLR3-related leukodystrophy and 4H leukodystrophy are the two recognized terms for five previously described overlapping clinical phenotypes (initially described as distinct entities before their molecular basis was known). These include: Hypomyelination, hypodontia, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (4H syndrome); Ataxia, delayed dentition, and hypomyelination (ADDH); Tremor-ataxia with central hypomyelination (TACH); Leukodystrophy with oligodontia (LO); Hypomyelination with cerebellar atrophy and hypoplasia of the corpus callosum (HCAHC). Age of onset is typically in early childhood but later-onset cases have also been reported. An infant with Wiedemann-Rautenstrauch syndrome (neonatal progeroid syndrome) was recently reported to have pathogenic variants in POLR3A on exome sequencing. Confirmation of this as a very severe form of POLR3-related leukodystrophy awaits replication in other individuals with a clinical diagnosis of Wiedemann-Rautenstrauch syndrome. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
390993
Concept ID:
C2676243
Disease or Syndrome
11.

Ectodermal dysplasia 10B, hypohidrotic/hair/tooth type, autosomal recessive

Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED) is characterized by hypotrichosis (sparseness of scalp and body hair), hypohidrosis (reduced ability to sweat), and hypodontia (congenital absence of teeth). The cardinal features of classic HED become obvious during childhood. The scalp hair is thin, lightly pigmented, and slow growing. Sweating, although present, is greatly deficient, leading to episodes of hyperthermia until the affected individual or family acquires experience with environmental modifications to control temperature. Only a few abnormally formed teeth erupt, at a later-than-average age. Physical growth and psychomotor development are otherwise within normal limits. Mild HED is characterized by mild manifestations of any or all the characteristic features. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
854356
Concept ID:
C3887494
Disease or Syndrome
12.

Fibrous dysplasia of jaw

Cherubism is a childhood-onset, autoinflammatory bone disease characterized by bilateral and symmetric proliferative fibroosseous lesions limited to the mandible and maxilla. The enlargement is usually symmetric in nature. The phenotype ranges from no clinical manifestations to severe mandibular and maxillary overgrowth with respiratory, vision, speech, and swallowing problems. In most affected persons, teeth are displaced, unerupted, unformed, or absent, or may appear to be floating in cystlike spaces; malocclusion, premature exfoliation of deciduous teeth, and root resorption have also been reported. The course and duration of the active process of bone destruction varies between affected individuals; the onset is usually in early childhood, and typically new lesions can occur until puberty. Regression of the lesions occurs as they become filled with bone and remodel during the second and third decade of life. By age 30 years, the facial abnormalities associated with cherubism are not usually recognizable and residual deformity of the jaws is rare. Typically, cherubism is an isolated benign condition; the affected person has normal intellectual skills and is without other physical anomalies. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
40219
Concept ID:
C0008029
Disease or Syndrome
13.

Hennekam lymphangiectasia-lymphedema syndrome 1

Hennekam lymphangiectasia-lymphedema syndrome (HKLLS1) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by generalized lymphatic dysplasia affecting various organs, including the intestinal tract, pericardium, and limbs. Additional features of the disorder include facial dysmorphism and cognitive impairment (summary by Alders et al., 2014). Genetic Heterogeneity of Hennekam Lymphangiectasia-Lymphedema Syndrome See also HKLLS2 (616006), caused by mutation in the FAT4 gene (612411) on chromosome 4q28, and HKLLS3 (618154), caused by mutation in the ADAMTS3 gene (605011) on chromosome 4q13. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
860487
Concept ID:
C4012050
Disease or Syndrome
14.

ADNP-related multiple congenital anomalies - intellectual disability - autism spectrum disorder

ADNP-related disorder is characterized by hypotonia, severe speech and motor delay, mild-to-severe intellectual disability, and characteristic facial features (prominent forehead, high anterior hairline, wide and depressed nasal bridge, and short nose with full, upturned nasal tip) based on a cohort of 78 individuals. Features of autism spectrum disorder are common (stereotypic behavior, impaired social interaction). Other common findings include additional behavioral problems, sleep disturbance, brain abnormalities, seizures, feeding issues, gastrointestinal problems, visual dysfunction (hypermetropia, strabismus, cortical visual impairment), musculoskeletal anomalies, endocrine issues including short stature and hormonal deficiencies, cardiac and urinary tract anomalies, and hearing loss. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
862975
Concept ID:
C4014538
Disease or Syndrome
15.

Seckel syndrome 5

Seckel syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by proportionate short stature, severe microcephaly, mental retardation, and a typical 'bird-head' facial appearance (summary by Kalay et al., 2011). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Seckel syndrome, see 210600. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
462537
Concept ID:
C3151187
Disease or Syndrome
16.

Oligodontia-cancer predisposition syndrome

Oligodontia-cancer predisposition syndrome is a rare, genetic, odontologic disease characterized by congenital absence of six or more permanent teeth (excluding the third molars) in association with an increased risk for malignancies, ranging from gastrointestinal polyposis to early-onset colorectal cancer and/or breast cancer. Ectodermal dysplasia (manifesting with sparse hair and/or eyebrows) may also be associated. [from ORDO]

MedGen UID:
324868
Concept ID:
C1837750
Neoplastic Process
17.

Intellectual disability, X-linked syndromic, Turner type

Turner-type X-linked syndromic intellectual developmental disorder (MRXST) is a neurodevelopmental disorder with a highly variable phenotype. Some affected families show X-linked recessive inheritance, with only males being affected and carrier females having no abnormal findings. In other affected families, males are severely affected, and female mutation carriers show milder cognitive abnormalities or dysmorphic features. In addition, there are female patients with de novo mutations who show the full phenotype, despite skewed X-chromosome inactivation. Affected individuals show global developmental delay from infancy, with variably impaired intellectual development and poor or absent speech, often with delayed walking. Dysmorphic features are common and can include macrocephaly, microcephaly, deep-set eyes, hypotelorism, small palpebral fissures, dysplastic, large, or low-set ears, long face, bitemporal narrowing, high-arched palate, thin upper lip, and scoliosis or mild distal skeletal anomalies, such as brachydactyly or tapered fingers. Males tend to have cryptorchidism. Other features, such as hypotonia, seizures, and delayed bone age, are more variable (summary by Moortgat et al., 2018). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
394425
Concept ID:
C2678046
Disease or Syndrome
18.

Ectrodactyly, ectodermal dysplasia, and cleft lip-palate syndrome 1

An EEC syndrome characterized by autosomal dominant inheritance that has material basis in variation in the chromosome region 7q11.2-q21.3. [from MONDO]

MedGen UID:
343663
Concept ID:
C1851841
Disease or Syndrome
19.

Au-Kline syndrome

Au-Kline syndrome is characterized by developmental delay and hypotonia with moderate-to-severe intellectual disability, and typical facial features that include long palpebral fissures, ptosis, shallow orbits, large and deeply grooved tongue, broad nose with a wide nasal bridge, and downturned mouth. There is frequently variable autonomic dysfunction (gastrointestinal dysmotility, high pain threshold, heat intolerance, recurrent fevers, abnormal sweating). Congenital heart disease, hydronephrosis, palate abnormalities, and oligodontia are also reported in the majority of affected individuals. Additional complications can include craniosynostosis, feeding difficulty, vision issues, osteopenia, and other skeletal anomalies. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
900671
Concept ID:
C4225274
Disease or Syndrome
20.

Fontaine progeroid syndrome

SLC25A24 Fontaine progeroid syndrome is a multisystem connective tissue disorder characterized by poor growth, abnormal skeletal features, and distinctive craniofacial features with sagging, thin skin, and decreased subcutaneous fat suggesting an aged appearance that is most pronounced in infancy and improves with time. Characteristic radiographic features include turribrachycephaly with widely open anterior fontanelle, craniosynostosis, and anomalies of the terminal phalanges. Cardiovascular, genitourinary, ocular, and gastrointestinal abnormalities may also occur. To date, 13 individuals with a molecularly confirmed diagnosis of SLC25A24 Fontaine progeroid syndrome have been described. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
394125
Concept ID:
C2676780
Disease or Syndrome
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