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1.

Osteogenesis imperfecta type I

COL1A1/2 osteogenesis imperfecta (COL1A1/2-OI) is characterized by fractures with minimal or absent trauma, variable dentinogenesis imperfecta (DI), and, in adult years, hearing loss. The clinical features of COL1A1/2-OI represent a continuum ranging from perinatal lethality to individuals with severe skeletal deformities, mobility impairments, and very short stature to nearly asymptomatic individuals with a mild predisposition to fractures, normal dentition, normal stature, and normal life span. Fractures can occur in any bone but are most common in the extremities. DI is characterized by gray or brown teeth that may appear translucent, wear down, and break easily. COL1A1/2-OI has been classified into four types based on clinical presentation and radiographic findings. This classification system can be helpful in providing information about prognosis and management for a given individual. The four more common OI types are now referred to as follows: Classic non-deforming OI with blue sclerae (previously OI type I). Perinatally lethal OI (previously OI type II). Progressively deforming OI (previously OI type III). Common variable OI with normal sclerae (previously OI type IV). [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
9799
Concept ID:
C0023931
Disease or Syndrome
2.

Osteogenesis imperfecta, perinatal lethal

COL1A1/2 osteogenesis imperfecta (COL1A1/2-OI) is characterized by fractures with minimal or absent trauma, variable dentinogenesis imperfecta (DI), and, in adult years, hearing loss. The clinical features of COL1A1/2-OI represent a continuum ranging from perinatal lethality to individuals with severe skeletal deformities, mobility impairments, and very short stature to nearly asymptomatic individuals with a mild predisposition to fractures, normal dentition, normal stature, and normal life span. Fractures can occur in any bone but are most common in the extremities. DI is characterized by gray or brown teeth that may appear translucent, wear down, and break easily. COL1A1/2-OI has been classified into four types based on clinical presentation and radiographic findings. This classification system can be helpful in providing information about prognosis and management for a given individual. The four more common OI types are now referred to as follows: Classic non-deforming OI with blue sclerae (previously OI type I). Perinatally lethal OI (previously OI type II). Progressively deforming OI (previously OI type III). Common variable OI with normal sclerae (previously OI type IV). [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
75673
Concept ID:
C0268358
Congenital Abnormality; Disease or Syndrome
3.

Osteogenesis imperfecta type III

COL1A1/2 osteogenesis imperfecta (COL1A1/2-OI) is characterized by fractures with minimal or absent trauma, variable dentinogenesis imperfecta (DI), and, in adult years, hearing loss. The clinical features of COL1A1/2-OI represent a continuum ranging from perinatal lethality to individuals with severe skeletal deformities, mobility impairments, and very short stature to nearly asymptomatic individuals with a mild predisposition to fractures, normal dentition, normal stature, and normal life span. Fractures can occur in any bone but are most common in the extremities. DI is characterized by gray or brown teeth that may appear translucent, wear down, and break easily. COL1A1/2-OI has been classified into four types based on clinical presentation and radiographic findings. This classification system can be helpful in providing information about prognosis and management for a given individual. The four more common OI types are now referred to as follows: Classic non-deforming OI with blue sclerae (previously OI type I). Perinatally lethal OI (previously OI type II). Progressively deforming OI (previously OI type III). Common variable OI with normal sclerae (previously OI type IV). [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
78664
Concept ID:
C0268362
Disease or Syndrome
4.

Hyper-IgE recurrent infection syndrome 1, autosomal dominant

STAT3 hyper IgE syndrome (STAT3-HIES) is a primary immune deficiency syndrome characterized by elevated serum IgE, eczema, and recurrent skin and respiratory tract infections, together with several nonimmune features. This disorder typically manifests in the newborn period with a rash (often diagnosed as eosinophilic pustulosis) that subsequently evolves into an eczematoid dermatitis. Recurrent staphylococcal skin boils and bacterial pneumonias usually manifest in the first years of life. Pneumatoceles and bronchiectasis often result from aberrant healing of pneumonias. Mucocutaneous candidiasis is common. Nonimmune features may include retained primary teeth, scoliosis, bone fractures following minimal trauma, joint hyperextensibility, and characteristic facial appearance, which typically emerges in adolescence. Vascular abnormalities have been described and include middle-sized artery tortuosity and aneurysms, with infrequent clinical sequelae of myocardial infarction and subarachnoid hemorrhage. Gastrointestinal (GI) manifestations include gastroesophageal reflux disease, esophageal dysmotility, and spontaneous intestinal perforations (some of which are associated with diverticuli). Fungal infections of the GI tract (typically histoplasmosis, Cryptococcus, and Coccidioides) also occur infrequently. Survival is typically into adulthood, with most individuals now living into or past the sixth decade. Most deaths are associated with gram-negative (Pseudomonas) or filamentous fungal pneumonias resulting in hemoptysis. Lymphomas occur at an increased frequency. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
1648470
Concept ID:
C4721531
Disease or Syndrome
5.

Adult hypophosphatasia

Hypophosphatasia is characterized by defective mineralization of growing or remodeling bone, with or without root-intact tooth loss, in the presence of low activity of serum and bone alkaline phosphatase. Clinical features range from stillbirth without mineralized bone at the severe end to pathologic fractures of the lower extremities in later adulthood at the mild end. While the disease spectrum is a continuum, seven clinical forms of hypophosphatasia are usually recognized based on age at diagnosis and severity of features: Perinatal (severe): characterized by pulmonary insufficiency and hypercalcemia. Perinatal (benign): prenatal skeletal manifestations that slowly resolve into one of the milder forms. Infantile: onset between birth and age six months of clinical features of rickets without elevated serum alkaline phosphatase activity. Severe childhood (juvenile): variable presenting features progressing to rickets. Mild childhood: low bone mineral density for age, increased risk of fracture, and premature loss of primary teeth with intact roots. Adult: characterized by stress fractures and pseudofractures of the lower extremities in middle age, sometimes associated with early loss of adult dentition. Odontohypophosphatasia: characterized by premature exfoliation of primary teeth and/or severe dental caries without skeletal manifestations. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
120636
Concept ID:
C0268413
Disease or Syndrome
6.

Osteogenesis imperfecta with normal sclerae, dominant form

COL1A1/2 osteogenesis imperfecta (COL1A1/2-OI) is characterized by fractures with minimal or absent trauma, variable dentinogenesis imperfecta (DI), and, in adult years, hearing loss. The clinical features of COL1A1/2-OI represent a continuum ranging from perinatal lethality to individuals with severe skeletal deformities, mobility impairments, and very short stature to nearly asymptomatic individuals with a mild predisposition to fractures, normal dentition, normal stature, and normal life span. Fractures can occur in any bone but are most common in the extremities. DI is characterized by gray or brown teeth that may appear translucent, wear down, and break easily. COL1A1/2-OI has been classified into four types based on clinical presentation and radiographic findings. This classification system can be helpful in providing information about prognosis and management for a given individual. The four more common OI types are now referred to as follows: Classic non-deforming OI with blue sclerae (previously OI type I). Perinatally lethal OI (previously OI type II). Progressively deforming OI (previously OI type III). Common variable OI with normal sclerae (previously OI type IV). [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
78665
Concept ID:
C0268363
Congenital Abnormality; Disease or Syndrome
7.

Lysinuric protein intolerance

Lysinuric protein intolerance (LPI) typically presents after an infant is weaned from breast milk or formula; variable findings include recurrent vomiting and episodes of diarrhea, episodes of stupor and coma after a protein-rich meal, poor feeding, aversion to protein-rich food, failure to thrive, hepatosplenomegaly, and muscular hypotonia. Over time, findings include: poor growth, osteoporosis, involvement of the lungs (progressive interstitial changes, pulmonary alveolar proteinosis) and of the kidneys (progressive glomerular and proximal tubular disease), hematologic abnormalities (normochromic or hypochromic anemia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, erythroblastophagocytosis in the bone marrow aspirate), and a clinical presentation resembling the hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis/macrophagic activation syndrome. Hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and acute pancreatitis can also be seen. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
75704
Concept ID:
C0268647
Disease or Syndrome
8.

Autosomal dominant osteopetrosis 2

The spectrum of CLCN7-related osteopetrosis includes infantile malignant CLCN7-related autosomal recessive osteopetrosis (ARO), intermediate autosomal osteopetrosis (IAO), and autosomal dominant osteopetrosis type II (ADOII; Albers-Schönberg disease). ARO. Onset is at birth. Findings may include: fractures; reduced growth; sclerosis of the skull base (with or without choanal stenosis or hydrocephalus) resulting in optic nerve compression, facial palsy, and hearing loss; absence of the bone marrow cavity resulting in severe anemia and thrombocytopenia; dental abnormalities, odontomas, and risk for mandibular osteomyelitis; and hypocalcemia with tetanic seizures and secondary hyperparathyroidism. Without treatment maximal life span in ARO is ten years. IAO. Onset is in childhood. Findings may include: fractures after minor trauma, characteristic skeletal radiographic changes found incidentally, mild anemia, and occasional visual impairment secondary to optic nerve compression. Life expectancy in IAO is usually normal. ADOII. Onset is usually late childhood or adolescence. Findings may include: fractures (in any long bone and/or the posterior arch of a vertebra), scoliosis, hip osteoarthritis, and osteomyelitis of the mandible or septic osteitis or osteoarthritis elsewhere. Cranial nerve compression is rare. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
465707
Concept ID:
C3179239
Disease or Syndrome
9.

Exudative vitreoretinopathy 1

Familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR) is an inherited disorder characterized by the incomplete development of the retinal vasculature. Its clinical appearance varies considerably, even within families, with severely affected patients often registered as blind during infancy, whereas mildly affected patients with few or no visual problems may have such a small area of avascularity in their peripheral retina that it is visible only by fluorescein angiography. It is believed that this peripheral avascularity is the primary anomaly in FEVR and results from defective retinal angiogenesis. The sight-threatening features of the FEVR phenotype are considered secondary to retinal avascularity and develop because of the resulting retinal ischemia; they include the development of hyperpermeable blood vessels, neovascularization, vitreoretinal traction, retinal folds, and retinal detachments (summary by Poulter et al., 2010). In 31 Chinese pedigrees clinically diagnosed with FEVR, Rao et al. (2017) analyzed 6 FEVR-associated genes and identified mutations in 12 of the probands, including 5 (16.1%) in LRP5, 3 (9.7%) in NDP, 2 (6.5%) in FZD4, and 1 (3.2%) in TSPAN12. In addition, a mutation in the KIF11 gene (148760) was identified in a patient who also exhibited microcephaly (MCLMR; 152950). The authors noted that their detection rate did not exceed 50%, suggesting that other FEVR-associated genes remained to be discovered. Genetic Heterogeneity of Familial Exudative Vitreoretinopathy Also see EVR2 (305390), caused by mutation in the NDP gene (300658) on chromosome Xp11; EVR3 (605750), mapped to 11p13-p12; EVR4 (601813), caused by mutations in the LRP5 gene (603506) on 11q13.4; EVR5 (613310), caused by mutation in the TSPAN12 gene (613138) on 7q31; EVR6 (616468), caused by mutation in the ZNF408 gene (616454) on 11p11; and EVR7 (617572), caused by mutation in the CTNNB1 gene (116806) on chromosome 3p22. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
343561
Concept ID:
C1851402
Disease or Syndrome
10.

Larsen-like syndrome, B3GAT3 type

CHST3-related skeletal dysplasia is characterized by short stature of prenatal onset, joint dislocations (knees, hips, radial heads), clubfeet, and limitation of range of motion that can involve all large joints. Kyphosis and occasionally scoliosis with slight shortening of the trunk develop in childhood. Minor heart valve dysplasia has been described in several persons. Intellect and vision are normal. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
480034
Concept ID:
C3278404
Disease or Syndrome
11.

Dent disease type 1

Dent disease, an X-linked disorder of proximal renal tubular dysfunction, is characterized by low molecular weight (LMW) proteinuria, hypercalciuria, and at least one additional finding including nephrocalcinosis, nephrolithiasis, hematuria, hypophosphatemia, chronic kidney disease (CKD), and evidence of X-linked inheritance. Males younger than age ten years may manifest only LMW proteinuria and/or hypercalciuria, which are usually asymptomatic. Thirty to 80% of affected males develop end-stage renal disease (ESRD) between ages 30 and 50 years; in some instances ESRD does not develop until the sixth decade of life or later. The disease may also be accompanied by rickets or osteomalacia, growth restriction, and short stature. Disease severity can vary within the same family. Males with Dent disease 2 (caused by pathogenic variants in OCRL) may also have mild intellectual disability, cataracts, and/or elevated muscle enzymes. Due to random X-chromosome inactivation, some female carriers may manifest hypercalciuria and, rarely, renal calculi and moderate LMW proteinuria. Females rarely develop CKD. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
336322
Concept ID:
C1848336
Disease or Syndrome
12.

Vitamin D-dependent rickets type II with alopecia

Vitamin D-dependent rickets type 2A (VDDR2A) is caused by a defect in the vitamin D receptor gene. This defect leads to an increase in the circulating ligand, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. Most patients have total alopecia in addition to rickets. VDDR2B (600785) is a form of vitamin D-dependent rickets with a phenotype similar to VDDR2A but a normal vitamin D receptor, in which end-organ resistance to vitamin D has been shown to be caused by a nuclear ribonucleoprotein that interferes with the vitamin D receptor-DNA interaction. For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of rickets due to disorders in vitamin D metabolism or action, see vitamin D-dependent rickets type 1A (VDDR1A; 264700). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
90989
Concept ID:
C0342646
Disease or Syndrome
13.

Freeman-Sheldon syndrome

Freeman-Sheldon syndrome (FSS), or DA2A, is phenotypically similar to DA1. In addition to contractures of the hands and feet, FSS is characterized by oropharyngeal abnormalities, scoliosis, and a distinctive face that includes a very small oral orifice (often only a few millimeters in diameter at birth), puckered lips, and an H-shaped dimple of the chin; hence, FSS has been called 'whistling face syndrome.' The limb phenotypes of DA1 and FSS may be so similar that they can only be distinguished by the differences in facial morphology (summary by Bamshad et al., 2009). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of distal arthrogryposis, see DA1 (108120). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
120516
Concept ID:
C0265224
Disease or Syndrome
14.

Linear nevus sebaceous syndrome

Schimmelpenning-Feuerstein-Mims syndrome, also known as linear sebaceous nevus syndrome, is characterized by sebaceous nevi, often on the face, associated with variable ipsilateral abnormalities of the central nervous system, ocular anomalies, and skeletal defects (summary by Happle, 1991 and Ernst et al., 2007). The linear sebaceous nevi follow the lines of Blaschko (Hornstein and Knickenberg, 1974; Bouwes Bavinck and van de Kamp, 1985). All cases are sporadic. The syndrome is believed to be caused by an autosomal dominant lethal mutation that survives by somatic mosaicism (Gorlin et al., 2001). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1646345
Concept ID:
C4552097
Disease or Syndrome
15.

Osteogenesis imperfecta type 5

Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a connective tissue disorder characterized by bone fragility and low bone mass. Due to considerable phenotypic variability, Sillence et al. (1979) developed a classification of OI subtypes based on clinical features and disease severity: OI type I, with blue sclerae (166200); perinatal lethal OI type II, also known as congenital OI (166210); OI type III, a progressively deforming form with normal sclerae (259420); and OI type IV, with normal sclerae (166220). Most forms of OI are autosomal dominant with mutations in one of the 2 genes that code for type I collagen alpha chains, COL1A1 (120150) and COL1A2 (120160). Glorieux et al. (2000) described a novel autosomal dominant form of OI, which they designated OI type V (OI5), in 7 patients. The disorder was similar to OI type IV but had distinctive clinical, histologic, and molecular characteristics. OI type V is characterized by calcification of the forearm interosseous membrane, radial head dislocation, a subphyseal metaphyseal radiodense line, and hyperplastic callus formation (summary by Cho et al., 2012). OI type V has a variable phenotype. For example, in patients with the more common c.-14C-T variant (614757.0001), distinctive radiographic findings (calcification of the forearm interosseous membrane, radial head dislocation, a subphyseal metaphyseal radiodense line, and hyperplastic callus formation) are often seen, whereas these findings are not seen in patients with the less common S40L variant (614757.0002). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
419332
Concept ID:
C2931093
Disease or Syndrome
16.

Autosomal recessive osteopetrosis 4

The spectrum of CLCN7-related osteopetrosis includes infantile malignant CLCN7-related autosomal recessive osteopetrosis (ARO), intermediate autosomal osteopetrosis (IAO), and autosomal dominant osteopetrosis type II (ADOII; Albers-Schönberg disease). ARO. Onset is at birth. Findings may include: fractures; reduced growth; sclerosis of the skull base (with or without choanal stenosis or hydrocephalus) resulting in optic nerve compression, facial palsy, and hearing loss; absence of the bone marrow cavity resulting in severe anemia and thrombocytopenia; dental abnormalities, odontomas, and risk for mandibular osteomyelitis; and hypocalcemia with tetanic seizures and secondary hyperparathyroidism. Without treatment maximal life span in ARO is ten years. IAO. Onset is in childhood. Findings may include: fractures after minor trauma, characteristic skeletal radiographic changes found incidentally, mild anemia, and occasional visual impairment secondary to optic nerve compression. Life expectancy in IAO is usually normal. ADOII. Onset is usually late childhood or adolescence. Findings may include: fractures (in any long bone and/or the posterior arch of a vertebra), scoliosis, hip osteoarthritis, and osteomyelitis of the mandible or septic osteitis or osteoarthritis elsewhere. Cranial nerve compression is rare. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
370598
Concept ID:
C1969106
Disease or Syndrome
17.

Osteoporosis with pseudoglioma

Osteoporosis-pseudoglioma syndrome is a rare condition characterized by severe thinning of the bones (osteoporosis) and eye abnormalities that lead to vision loss. In people with this condition, osteoporosis is usually recognized in early childhood. It is caused by a shortage of minerals, such as calcium, in bones (decreased bone mineral density), which makes the bones brittle and prone to fracture. Affected individuals often have multiple bone fractures, including in the bones that form the spine (vertebrae). Multiple fractures can cause collapse of the affected vertebrae (compressed vertebrae), abnormal side-to-side curvature of the spine (scoliosis), short stature, and limb deformities. Decreased bone mineral density can also cause softening or thinning of the skull (craniotabes).

Most affected individuals have impaired vision at birth or by early infancy and are blind by young adulthood. Vision problems are usually caused by one of several eye conditions, grouped together as pseudoglioma, that affect the light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye (the retina), although other eye conditions have been identified in affected individuals. Pseudogliomas are so named because, on examination, the conditions resemble an eye tumor known as a retinal glioma.

Rarely, people with osteoporosis-pseudoglioma syndrome have additional signs or symptoms such as mild intellectual disability, weak muscle tone (hypotonia), abnormally flexible joints, or seizures. [from MedlinePlus Genetics]

MedGen UID:
98480
Concept ID:
C0432252
Disease or Syndrome
18.

Osteogenesis imperfecta type 7

Osteogenesis imperfecta is a connective tissue disorder characterized by bone fragility and low bone mass. OI type VII is an autosomal recessive form of severe or lethal OI (summary by Barnes et al., 2006). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
343981
Concept ID:
C1853162
Disease or Syndrome
19.

Autosomal dominant osteopetrosis 1

The osteopetroses are a heterogeneous group of genetic disorders characterized by increased bone density due to impaired bone resorption by osteoclasts. Autosomal dominant osteopetrosis-1 (OPTA1) is characterized by generalized osteosclerosis most pronounced in the cranial vault. Patients are often asymptomatic, but some suffer from pain and hearing loss. It appears to be the only type of osteopetrosis not associated with an increased fracture rate (summary by Van Hul et al., 2002). Genetic Heterogeneity of Autosomal Dominant Osteopetrosis Autosomal dominant osteopetrosis-2 (OPTA2; 166600) is caused by mutation in the CLCN7 gene (602727) on chromosome 16p13. Autosomal dominant osteopetrosis-3 (OPTA3; 618107) is caused by mutation in the PLEKHM1 gene (611466) on chromosome 17q21. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
335932
Concept ID:
C1843330
Disease or Syndrome
20.

Brittle cornea syndrome 2

Brittle cornea syndrome (BCS) is characterized by blue sclerae, corneal rupture after minor trauma, keratoconus or keratoglobus, hyperelasticity of the skin, and hypermobility of the joints (Al-Hussain et al., 2004). It is classified as a form of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (Malfait et al., 2017). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of brittle cornea syndrome, see BCS1 (229200). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
481641
Concept ID:
C3280011
Disease or Syndrome
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