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Items: 14

1.

X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency

The phenotypic spectrum of X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (X-SCID) ranges from typical X-SCID (early-onset disease in males that is fatal if not treated with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation [HSCT] or gene therapy) to atypical X-SCID (later-onset disease comprising phenotypes caused by variable immunodeficiency, immune dysregulation, and/or autoimmunity). Typical X-SCID. Prior to universal newborn screening (NBS) for SCID most males with typical X-SCID came to medical attention between ages three and six months because of recurrent infections, persistent infections, and infections with opportunistic organisms. With universal NBS for SCID, the common presentation for typical X-SCID is now an asymptomatic, healthy-appearing male infant. Atypical X-SCID, which usually is not detected by NBS, can manifest in the first years of life or later with one of the following: recurrent upper and lower respiratory tract infections with bronchiectasis; Omenn syndrome, a clinical phenotype caused by immune dysregulation; X-SCID combined immunodeficiency (often with recurrent infections, warts, and dermatitis); immune dysregulation and autoimmunity; or Epstein-Barr virus-related lymphoproliferative complications. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
220906
Concept ID:
C1279481
Disease or Syndrome
2.

Severe combined immunodeficiency, autosomal recessive, T cell-negative, B cell-negative, NK cell-negative, due to adenosine deaminase deficiency

Adenosine deaminase (ADA) deficiency is a systemic purine metabolic disorder that primarily affects lymphocyte development, viability, and function. The clinical phenotypic spectrum includes: Severe combined immunodeficiency disease (SCID), often diagnosed by age six months and usually by age 12 months; Less severe "delayed" onset combined immune deficiency (CID), usually diagnosed between age one and ten years; "Late/adult onset" CID, diagnosed in the second to fourth decades; Benign "partial ADA deficiency" (very low or absent ADA activity in erythrocytes but greater ADA activity in nucleated cells), which is compatible with normal immune function. Infants with typical early-onset ADA-deficient SCID have failure to thrive and opportunistic infections associated with marked depletion of T, B, and NK lymphocytes, and an absence of both humoral and cellular immune function. If immune function is not restored, children with ADA-deficient SCID rarely survive beyond age one to two years. Infections in delayed- and late-onset types (commonly, recurrent otitis, sinusitis, and upper respiratory) may initially be less severe than those in individuals with ADA-deficient SCID; however, by the time of diagnosis these individuals often have chronic pulmonary insufficiency and may have autoimmune phenomena (cytopenias, anti-thyroid antibodies), allergies, and elevated serum concentration of IgE. The longer the disorder goes unrecognized, the more immune function deteriorates and the more likely are chronic sequelae of recurrent infection. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
354935
Concept ID:
C1863236
Disease or Syndrome
3.

Hyper-IgE recurrent infection syndrome 1, autosomal dominant

STAT3 hyper IgE syndrome (STAT3-HIES) is a primary immune deficiency syndrome characterized by elevated serum IgE, eczema, and recurrent skin and respiratory tract infections, together with several nonimmune features. This disorder typically manifests in the newborn period with a rash (often diagnosed as eosinophilic pustulosis) that subsequently evolves into an eczematoid dermatitis. Recurrent staphylococcal skin boils and bacterial pneumonias usually manifest in the first years of life. Pneumatoceles and bronchiectasis often result from aberrant healing of pneumonias. Mucocutaneous candidiasis is common. Nonimmune features may include retained primary teeth, scoliosis, bone fractures following minimal trauma, joint hyperextensibility, and characteristic facial appearance, which typically emerges in adolescence. Vascular abnormalities have been described and include middle-sized artery tortuosity and aneurysms, with infrequent clinical sequelae of myocardial infarction and subarachnoid hemorrhage. Gastrointestinal (GI) manifestations include gastroesophageal reflux disease, esophageal dysmotility, and spontaneous intestinal perforations (some of which are associated with diverticuli). Fungal infections of the GI tract (typically histoplasmosis, Cryptococcus, and Coccidioides) also occur infrequently. Survival is typically into adulthood, with most individuals now living into or past the sixth decade. Most deaths are associated with gram-negative (Pseudomonas) or filamentous fungal pneumonias resulting in hemoptysis. Lymphomas occur at an increased frequency. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
1648470
Concept ID:
C4721531
Disease or Syndrome
4.

MHC class II deficiency

A rare autosomal recessive primary immunodeficiency characterized by absence of HLA class II molecules on the surface of immune cells, leading to severely impaired cellular and humoral immune response to foreign antigens, severe CD4+ T-cell lymphopenia, and hypogammaglobulinemia. The disease clinically manifests with early onset of severe and recurrent infections mainly of the respiratory and gastrointestinal tract, protracted diarrhea with failure to thrive, and autoimmune disease, and is frequently fatal in childhood. [from ORDO]

MedGen UID:
444051
Concept ID:
C2931418
Disease or Syndrome
5.

Histiocytic medullary reticulosis

Omenn syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) associated with erythrodermia, hepatosplenomegaly, lymphadenopathy, and alopecia. B cells are mostly absent, T-cell counts are normal to elevated, and T cells are frequently activated and express a restricted T-cell receptor (TCR) repertoire (summary by Ege et al., 2005). Another distinct form of familial histiocytic reticulocytosis (267700) is caused by mutation in the perforin-1 gene (PRF1; 170280) on chromosome 10q22. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
398130
Concept ID:
C2700553
Disease or Syndrome
6.

Monocytopenia with susceptibility to infections

This primary immunodeficiency, designated IMD21, DCML, or MONOMAC, is characterized by profoundly decreased or absent monocytes, B lymphocytes, natural killer (NK) lymphocytes, and circulating and tissue dendritic cells (DCs), with little or no effect on T-cell numbers. Clinical features of IMD21 are variable and include susceptibility to disseminated nontuberculous mycobacterial infections, papillomavirus infections, opportunistic fungal infections, and pulmonary alveolar proteinosis. Bone marrow hypocellularity and dysplasia of myeloid, erythroid, and megakaryocytic lineages are present in most patients, as are karyotypic abnormalities, including monosomy 7 and trisomy 8. In the absence of cytogenetic abnormalities or overt dysplasia, hypoplastic bone marrow may initially be diagnosed as aplastic anemia. Bone marrow transplantation is the only cure. Some patients may have an increased risk of miscarriage. Both autosomal dominant transmission and sporadic cases occur. Less common manifestations of GATA2 deficiency include lymphedema and sensorineural hearing loss, a phenotype usually termed 'Emberger syndrome' (614038) (summary by Bigley et al. (2011), Hsu et al. (2011), and Spinner et al. (2014)). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
481660
Concept ID:
C3280030
Disease or Syndrome
7.

Vici syndrome

With the current widespread use of multigene panels and comprehensive genomic testing, it has become apparent that the phenotypic spectrum of EPG5-related disorder represents a continuum. At the most severe end of the spectrum is classic Vici syndrome (defined as a neurodevelopmental disorder with multisystem involvement characterized by the combination of agenesis of the corpus callosum, cataracts, hypopigmentation, cardiomyopathy, combined immunodeficiency, microcephaly, and failure to thrive); at the milder end of the spectrum are attenuated neurodevelopmental phenotypes with variable multisystem involvement. Median survival in classic Vici syndrome appears to be 24 months, with only 10% of children surviving longer than age five years; the most common causes of death are respiratory infections as a result of primary immunodeficiency and/or cardiac insufficiency resulting from progressive cardiac failure. No data are available on life span in individuals at the milder end of the spectrum. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
340962
Concept ID:
C1855772
Disease or Syndrome
8.

Combined immunodeficiency due to DOCK8 deficiency

Hyper-IgE syndrome-2 with recurrent infections (HIES2) is an autosomal recessive immunologic disorder characterized by recurrent staphylococcal infections of the skin and respiratory tract, eczema, elevated serum immunoglobulin E, and hypereosinophilia. It is distinguished from autosomal dominant HIES1 (147060) by the lack of connective tissue and skeletal involvement (Renner et al., 2004). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of hyper-IgE syndrome, see 147060. See also TYK2 deficiency (611521), a clinically distinct disease entity that includes characteristic features of both autosomal recessive HIES2 and mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial disease (MSMD; 209950) (Minegishi et al., 2006). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1648410
Concept ID:
C4722305
Disease or Syndrome
9.

Pancytopenia due to IKZF1 mutations

Common variable immunodeficiency-13 (CVID13) is an autosomal dominant primary immunodeficiency disorder characterized by recurrent bacterial infections, mainly affecting the respiratory tract, and associated with hypogammaglobulinemia and decreased numbers of B cells. The age at onset of clinical features can range from infancy to adulthood, and some patients may have a mild disorder or even remain clinically asymptomatic (summary by Kuehn et al., 2016). For a general description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of common variable immunodeficiency, see CVID1 (607594). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
905078
Concept ID:
C4225173
Disease or Syndrome
10.

Immunodeficiency due to CD25 deficiency

Immunodeficiency-41 is an autosomal recessive complex disorder of immune dysregulation. Affected individuals present in infancy with recurrent viral, fungal, and bacterial infections, lymphadenopathy, and variable autoimmune features, such as autoimmune enteropathy and eczematous skin lesions. Immunologic studies show a defect in T-cell regulation (summary by Goudy et al., 2013). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
377894
Concept ID:
C1853392
Disease or Syndrome
11.

Immunodeficiency 35

Immunodeficiency-35 (IMD35) is an autosomal recessive primary immunodeficiency characterized by increased susceptibility to localized or disseminated mycobacterial infection after BCG vaccination. Some patients may have increased susceptibility to infection with other intracellular organisms and/or viral infections. Fungal infections are not observed. Laboratory studies show normal levels of immune cells but defective signaling in specific immunologic pathways (summary by Kreins et al., 2015). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
409751
Concept ID:
C1969086
Disease or Syndrome
12.

Combined immunodeficiency due to STK4 deficiency

Immunodeficiency-110 (IMD110) is an autosomal recessive primary T-cell immunodeficiency syndrome characterized by progressive loss of naive T cells, recurrent bacterial, viral, and fungal infections, warts, and abscesses, and autoimmune manifestations. Patients are at risk for developing lymphoproliferative disorders or lymphoma, particularly associated with EBV. Some patients may show cardiac malformations, including atrial septal defect (Abdollahpour et al., 2012; Nehme et al., 2012). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
766857
Concept ID:
C3553943
Disease or Syndrome
13.

Immunodeficiency 87 and autoimmunity

Immunodeficiency-87 and autoimmunity (IMD87) is an autosomal recessive immunologic disorder with wide phenotypic variation and severity. Affected individuals usually present in infancy or early childhood with increased susceptibility to infections, often Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), as well as with lymphadenopathy or autoimmune manifestations, predominantly hemolytic anemia. Laboratory studies may show low or normal lymphocyte numbers, often with skewed T-cell subset ratios. The disorder results primarily from defects in T-cell function, which causes both immunodeficiency and overall immune dysregulation (summary by Serwas et al., 2019 and Fournier et al., 2021). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1794280
Concept ID:
C5562070
Disease or Syndrome
14.

Recurrent fungal infections

Increased susceptibility to fungal infections, as manifested by multiple episodes of fungal infection. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
336166
Concept ID:
C1844384
Disease or Syndrome; Finding
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