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Items: 18

1.

Mucopolysaccharidosis, MPS-I-H/S

Mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I) is a progressive multisystem disorder with features ranging over a continuum of severity. While affected individuals have traditionally been classified as having one of three MPS I syndromes (Hurler syndrome, Hurler-Scheie syndrome, or Scheie syndrome), no easily measurable biochemical differences have been identified and the clinical findings overlap. Affected individuals are best described as having either a phenotype consistent with either severe (Hurler syndrome) or attenuated MPS I, a distinction that influences therapeutic options. Severe MPS I. Infants appear normal at birth. Typical early manifestations are nonspecific (e.g., umbilical or inguinal hernia, frequent upper respiratory tract infections before age 1 year). Coarsening of the facial features may not become apparent until after age one year. Gibbus deformity of the lower spine is common and often noted within the first year. Progressive skeletal dysplasia (dysostosis multiplex) involving all bones is universal, as is progressive arthropathy involving most joints. By age three years, linear growth decreases. Intellectual disability is progressive and profound but may not be readily apparent in the first year of life. Progressive cardiorespiratory involvement, hearing loss, and corneal clouding are common. Without treatment, death (typically from cardiorespiratory failure) usually occurs within the first ten years of life. Attenuated MPS I. Clinical onset is usually between ages three and ten years. The severity and rate of disease progression range from serious life-threatening complications leading to death in the second to third decade, to a normal life span complicated by significant disability from progressive joint manifestations and cardiorespiratory disease. While some individuals have no neurologic involvement and psychomotor development may be normal in early childhood, learning disabilities and psychiatric manifestations can be present later in life. Hearing loss, cardiac valvular disease, respiratory involvement, and corneal clouding are common. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
88566
Concept ID:
C0086431
Disease or Syndrome
2.

Neuronopathy, distal hereditary motor, type 5A

The phenotypic spectrum of GARS1-associated axonal neuropathy ranges from GARS1 infantile-onset SMA (GARS1-iSMA) to GARS1 adolescent- or early adult-onset hereditary motor/sensory neuropathy (GARS1-HMSN). GARS1-iSMA. Age of onset ranges from the neonatal period to the toddler years. Initial manifestations are typically respiratory distress, poor feeding, and muscle weakness (distal greater than proximal). Weakness is slowly progressive, ultimately requiring mechanical ventilation and feeding via gastrostomy tube. GARS1-HMSN. Age of onset is most commonly during the second decade (range eight to 36 years). Initial manifestations are typically muscle weakness in the hands sometimes with sensory deficits. Lower limb involvement (seen in ~50% of individuals) ranges from weakness and atrophy of the extensor digitorum brevis and weakness of toe dorsiflexors to classic peroneal muscular atrophy with foot drop and a high steppage gait. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
1723540
Concept ID:
C5399969
Disease or Syndrome
3.

Nemaline myopathy 2

Nemaline myopathy-2 (NEM2) is an autosomal recessive skeletal muscle disorder with a wide range of severity. The most common clinical presentation is early-onset (in infancy or childhood) muscle weakness predominantly affecting proximal limb muscles. Muscle biopsy shows accumulation of Z-disc and thin filament proteins into aggregates named 'nemaline bodies' or 'nemaline rods,' usually accompanied by disorganization of the muscle Z discs. The clinical and histologic spectrum of entities caused by variants in the NEB gene is a continuum, ranging in severity. The distribution of weakness can vary from generalized muscle weakness, more pronounced in proximal limb muscles, to distal-only involvement, although neck flexor weakness appears to be rather consistent. Histologic patterns range from a severe usually nondystrophic disturbance of the myofibrillar pattern to an almost normal pattern, with or without nemaline bodies, sometimes combined with cores (summary by Lehtokari et al., 2014). Genetic Heterogeneity of Nemaline Myopathy See also NEM1 (255310), caused by mutation in the tropomyosin-3 gene (TPM3; 191030) on chromosome 1q22; NEM3 (161800), caused by mutation in the alpha-actin-1 gene (ACTA1; 102610) on chromosome 1q42; NEM4 (609285), caused by mutation in the beta-tropomyosin gene (TPM2; 190990) on chromosome 9p13; NEM5A (605355), also known as Amish nemaline myopathy, NEM5B (620386), and NEM5C (620389), all caused by mutation in the troponin T1 gene (TNNT1; 191041) on chromosome 19q13; NEM6 (609273), caused by mutation in the KBTBD13 gene (613727) on chromosome 15q22; NEM7 (610687), caused by mutation in the cofilin-2 gene (CFL2; 601443) on chromosome 14q13; NEM8 (615348), caused by mutation in the KLHL40 gene (615340), on chromosome 3p22; NEM9 (615731), caused by mutation in the KLHL41 gene (607701) on chromosome 2q31; NEM10 (616165), caused by mutation in the LMOD3 gene (616112) on chromosome 3p14; and NEM11 (617336), caused by mutation in the MYPN gene (608517) on chromosome 10q21. Several of the genes encode components of skeletal muscle sarcomeric thin filaments (Sanoudou and Beggs, 2001). Mutations in the NEB gene are the most common cause of nemaline myopathy (Lehtokari et al., 2006). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
342534
Concept ID:
C1850569
Disease or Syndrome
4.

Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2D

The phenotypic spectrum of GARS1-associated axonal neuropathy ranges from GARS1 infantile-onset SMA (GARS1-iSMA) to GARS1 adolescent- or early adult-onset hereditary motor/sensory neuropathy (GARS1-HMSN). GARS1-iSMA. Age of onset ranges from the neonatal period to the toddler years. Initial manifestations are typically respiratory distress, poor feeding, and muscle weakness (distal greater than proximal). Weakness is slowly progressive, ultimately requiring mechanical ventilation and feeding via gastrostomy tube. GARS1-HMSN. Age of onset is most commonly during the second decade (range eight to 36 years). Initial manifestations are typically muscle weakness in the hands sometimes with sensory deficits. Lower limb involvement (seen in ~50% of individuals) ranges from weakness and atrophy of the extensor digitorum brevis and weakness of toe dorsiflexors to classic peroneal muscular atrophy with foot drop and a high steppage gait. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
316946
Concept ID:
C1832274
Disease or Syndrome
5.

Hereditary spastic paraplegia 11

Spastic paraplegia 11 (SPG11) is characterized by progressive spasticity and weakness of the lower limbs frequently associated with the following: mild intellectual disability with learning difficulties in childhood and/or progressive cognitive decline; peripheral neuropathy; pseudobulbar involvement; and increased reflexes in the upper limbs. Less frequent findings include: cerebellar signs (ataxia, nystagmus, saccadic pursuit); retinal degeneration; pes cavus; scoliosis; and parkinsonism with characteristic brain MRI features that include thinning of the corpus callosum. Onset occurs mainly during infancy or adolescence (range: age 1-31 years) and in rare cases as late as age 60 years. Most affected individuals become wheelchair bound one or two decades after disease onset. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
388073
Concept ID:
C1858479
Disease or Syndrome
6.

Hereditary spastic paraplegia 17

The spectrum of BSCL2-related neurologic disorders includes Silver syndrome and variants of Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy type 2, distal hereditary motor neuropathy (dHMN) type V, and spastic paraplegia 17. Features of these disorders include onset of symptoms ranging from the first to the seventh decade, slow disease progression, upper motor neuron involvement (gait disturbance with pyramidal signs ranging from mild to severe spasticity with hyperreflexia in the lower limbs and variable extensor plantar responses), lower motor neuron involvement (amyotrophy of the peroneal muscles and small muscles of the hand), and pes cavus and other foot deformities. Disease severity is variable among and within families. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
419034
Concept ID:
C2931276
Disease or Syndrome
7.

Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1E

A rare subtype of CMT1 characterized by a variable clinical presentation. Onset within the first two years of life with a delay in walking is not uncommon; however, onset may occur later. CMT1E is caused by point mutations in the <i>PMP22</i> (17p12) gene. The disease severity depends on the particular <i>PMP22</i> mutation, with some cases being very mild and even resembling hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies, while others having an earlier onset with a more severe phenotype (reminiscent of Dejerine-Sottas syndrome) than that seen in CMT1A, caused by gene duplication. These severe cases may also report deafness and much slower motor nerve conduction velocities compared to CMT1A patients. [from ORDO]

MedGen UID:
501212
Concept ID:
C3495591
Disease or Syndrome
8.

Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, spondylocheirodysplastic type

Ehlers-Danlos syndrome spondylodysplastic type 3 (EDSSPD3) is characterized by short stature, hyperelastic skin and hypermobile joints, protuberant eyes with bluish sclerae, finely wrinkled palms, and characteristic radiologic features (Giunta et al., 2008). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of the spondylodysplastic type of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, see 130070. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
393515
Concept ID:
C2676510
Disease or Syndrome
9.

Neuronopathy, distal hereditary motor, type 5B

Autosomal dominant distal hereditary motor neuronopathy-12 (HMND12) is a neurologic disorder characterized by onset in the first or second decade of distal muscle weakness and atrophy, primarily affecting the intrinsic hand muscles, but also affecting the lower legs, resulting in abnormal gait and pes cavus (summary by Beetz et al., 2012). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal dominant distal HMN, see HMND1 (182960). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
766570
Concept ID:
C3553656
Disease or Syndrome
10.

Neuronopathy, distal hereditary motor, type 5C

Autosomal dominant distal hereditary motor neuronopathy-13 (HMND13) is a neurologic disorder characterized by distal muscle weakness and atrophy affecting both the upper and lower limbs, resulting in difficulty walking and poor fine hand motor skills. Some patients show spasticity and hyperreflexia, mainly of the lower limbs: these features overlap with those observed in Silver syndrome, an allelic disorder. In addition, some patients with BSCL2 mutations show features of Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 2 (CMT2) with distal sensory impairment. HMND13, Silver syndrome (SPG17), and features of axonal sensorimotor peripheral neuropathy (CMT2) thus represent a phenotypic spectrum associated with heterozygous mutations in the BSCL2 gene. Individuals with the same mutation may manifest features consistent with any of those disorders; variability is even observed within the same family (summary by Van de Warrenburg et al., 2006; Luigetti et al., 2010; Choi et al., 2013). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of distal HMN, see HMND1 (182960). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1760720
Concept ID:
C5436838
Disease or Syndrome
11.

Bone fragility with contractures, arterial rupture, and deafness

Connective tissue disorder due to lysyl hydroxylase-3 deficiency is a rare, genetic disease, caused by lack of lysyl hydrohylase 3 (LH3) activity, characterized by multiple tissue and organ involvement, including skeletal abnormalities (club foot, progressive scoliosis, osteopenia, pathologic fractures), ocular involvement (flat retinae, myopia, cataracts) and hair, nail and skin anomalies (coarse, abnormally distributed hair, skin blistering, reduced palmar creases, hypoplastic nails). Patients also present intrauterine growth retardation, facial dysmorphism (flat facial profile, low-set ears, shallow orbits, short and upturned nose, downturned corners of mouth) and joint flexion contractures. Growth and developmental delay, bilateral sensorineural deafness, friable diaphragm and later-onset spontaneous vascular ruptures are additional reported features. [from ORDO]

MedGen UID:
382811
Concept ID:
C2676285
Disease or Syndrome
12.

Carpal tunnel syndrome 2

Carpal tunnel syndrome-2 (CTS2) is characterized by the relatively early onset of symptoms of median nerve compression in the wrist. Patients experience pain and numbness in the thumb, index, and middle fingers, correlating with the median nerve distribution in the hand. In addition to thickening of the tendons and ligaments of the wrist, thickening of other tendons has been observed (Li et al., 2020). For a general phenotypic description and discussion of genetic heterogeneity of carpal tunnel syndrome, see CTS1 (115430). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1725962
Concept ID:
C5436916
Disease or Syndrome
13.

Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, demyelinating, type 1J

Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1J (CMT1J) is an autosomal dominant sensorimotor peripheral neuropathy characterized by distal muscle weakness and atrophy, as well as distal sensory impairment, predominantly affecting the lower limbs and resulting in gait abnormalities. The age at onset is highly variable, ranging from early childhood to mid-adulthood, and the disorder is progressive, although the severity is also variable. Additional features may include foot deformities, upper limb or hand involvement, and decreased or absent deep tendon reflexes. Electrophysiologic studies tend to show nerve conduction velocities in the demyelinating range, although some patients may have results in the intermediate range, likely reflecting secondary axonal degeneration (summary by Ronkko et al., 2020). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal dominant Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1, see CMT1B (118200). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1824022
Concept ID:
C5774249
Disease or Syndrome
14.

Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, axonal, mitochondrial form, 1

Mitochondrial form of axonal Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease-1 (CMTMA1) is inherited only through the maternal line. The disorder is characterized by onset of distal muscle weakness and atrophy mainly affecting the lower limbs and resulting in difficulty walking in the second decade of life, although both earlier and later onset can occur. Upper limb involvement often develops with time, and affected individuals have weakness and atrophy of the intrinsic hand muscles. Other features may include distal sensory impairment, foot deformities, scoliosis, hypo- or hyperreflexia, spastic paraparesis, and neurogenic bladder. Electrophysiologic studies are compatible with an axonal sensorimotor peripheral neuropathy, and muscle and nerve biopsy show evidence of mitochondrial dysfunction with decreased activities of respiratory complexes, mtDNA deletions, and mitochondrial hyperplasia (summary by Fay et al., 2020). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1731194
Concept ID:
C5435765
Disease or Syndrome
15.

Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease, axonal, type 2GG

Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2GG (CMT2GG) is an autosomal dominant axonal peripheral neuropathy characterized by slowly progressive distal muscle weakness and atrophy primarily affecting the lower limbs and causing difficulty walking. The onset is usually in adulthood, although rare patients may have mild symptoms from childhood. Some individuals may also have involvement of the hands. Although most patients have hypo- or areflexia at the ankles, distal sensory impairment is not always present, indicating a spectrum of disease encompassing both distal hereditary neuropathy and axonal CMT. Electrophysiologic studies are consistent with a axonal process (summary by Mendoza-Ferreira et al., 2020). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of axonal CMT, see CMT2A1 (118210). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1794143
Concept ID:
C5561933
Disease or Syndrome
16.

Hereditary spastic paraplegia 38

A complex hereditary spastic paraplegia with characteristics of mild to severe lower limbs spasticity, hyperreflexia, extensor plantar responses, pes cavus and significant wasting and weakness of the small hand muscles. Impaired vibration sensation, temporal lobe epilepsy and cognitive dysfunction were also reported. [from SNOMEDCT_US]

MedGen UID:
436764
Concept ID:
C2676732
Disease or Syndrome
17.

Peripheral motor neuropathy, childhood-onset, biotin-responsive

Childhood-onset biotin-responsive peripheral motor neuropathy (COMNB) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized predominantly by the onset of distal muscle weakness and atrophy late in the first decade of life. The disorder predominantly affects the upper limbs and hands, resulting in difficulties with fine motor skills. Some patients may have lower limb involvement, resulting in gait difficulties. Electrophysiologic studies and muscle biopsy are consistent with chronic denervation with axonal and demyelinating features. Rare patients may have additional neurologic signs, including spasticity, ataxia, and cerebellar signs. Sensation is intact, and patients have normal cognitive development. Treatment with biotin, pantothenic acid, and lipoic acid may result in clinical improvement (Holling et al., 2022). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1809728
Concept ID:
C5676997
Disease or Syndrome
18.

Thenar muscle atrophy

Wasting of thenar muscles, which are located on palm of the hand at the base of the thumb. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
355274
Concept ID:
C1864715
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