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1.

Deficiency of alpha-mannosidase

Alpha-mannosidosis encompasses a continuum of clinical findings from mild to severe. Three major clinical subtypes have been suggested: A mild form recognized after age ten years with absence of skeletal abnormalities, myopathy, and slow progression (type 1). A moderate form recognized before age ten years with presence of skeletal abnormalities, myopathy, and slow progression (type 2). A severe form manifested as prenatal loss or early death from progressive central nervous system involvement or infection (type 3). Individuals with a milder phenotype have mild-to-moderate intellectual disability, impaired hearing, characteristic coarse features, clinical or radiographic skeletal abnormalities, immunodeficiency, and primary central nervous system disease – mainly cerebellar involvement causing ataxia. Periods of psychiatric symptoms are common. Associated medical problems can include corneal opacities, hepatosplenomegaly, aseptic destructive arthritis, and metabolic myopathy. Alpha-mannosidosis is insidiously progressive; some individuals may live into the sixth decade. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
7467
Concept ID:
C0024748
Disease or Syndrome
2.

Cockayne syndrome type 1

Cockayne syndrome (referred to as CS in this GeneReview) spans a continuous phenotypic spectrum that includes: CS type I, the "classic" or "moderate" form; CS type II, a more severe form with symptoms present at birth; this form overlaps with cerebrooculofacioskeletal (COFS) syndrome; CS type III, a milder and later-onset form; COFS syndrome, a fetal form of CS. CS type I is characterized by normal prenatal growth with the onset of growth and developmental abnormalities in the first two years. By the time the disease has become fully manifest, height, weight, and head circumference are far below the fifth percentile. Progressive impairment of vision, hearing, and central and peripheral nervous system function leads to severe disability; death typically occurs in the first or second decade. CS type II is characterized by growth failure at birth, with little or no postnatal neurologic development. Congenital cataracts or other structural anomalies of the eye may be present. Affected children have early postnatal contractures of the spine (kyphosis, scoliosis) and joints. Death usually occurs by age five years. CS type III is a phenotype in which major clinical features associated with CS only become apparent after age two years; growth and/or cognition exceeds the expectations for CS type I. COFS syndrome is characterized by very severe prenatal developmental anomalies (arthrogryposis and microphthalmia). [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
155488
Concept ID:
C0751039
Disease or Syndrome
3.

Mucolipidosis type II

GNPTAB-related disorders comprise the phenotypes mucolipidosis II (ML II) and mucolipidosis IIIa/ß (ML IIIa/ß), and phenotypes intermediate between ML II and ML IIIa/ß. ML II is evident at birth and slowly progressive; death most often occurs in early childhood. Orthopedic abnormalities present at birth may include thoracic deformity, kyphosis, clubfeet, deformed long bones, and/or dislocation of the hip(s). Growth often ceases in the second year of life; contractures develop in all large joints. The skin is thickened, facial features are coarse, and gingiva are hypertrophic. All children have cardiac involvement, most commonly thickening and insufficiency of the mitral valve and, less frequently, the aortic valve. Progressive mucosal thickening narrows the airways, and gradual stiffening of the thoracic cage contributes to respiratory insufficiency, the most common cause of death. ML IIIa/ß becomes evident at about age three years with slow growth rate and short stature; joint stiffness and pain initially in the shoulders, hips, and fingers; gradual mild coarsening of facial features; and normal to mildly impaired cognitive development. Pain from osteoporosis becomes more severe during adolescence. Cardiorespiratory complications (restrictive lung disease, thickening and insufficiency of the mitral and aortic valves, left and/or right ventricular hypertrophy) are common causes of death, typically in early to middle adulthood. Phenotypes intermediate between ML II and ML IIIa/ß are characterized by physical growth in infancy that resembles that of ML II and neuromotor and speech development that resemble that of ML IIIa/ß. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
435914
Concept ID:
C2673377
Disease or Syndrome
4.

Aspartylglucosaminuria

Aspartylglucosaminuria (AGU) is a severe autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder that involves the central nervous system and causes skeletal abnormalities as well as connective tissue lesions. The most characteristic feature is progressive mental retardation. The disorder is caused by deficient activity of the lysosomal enzyme glycosylasparaginase, which results in body fluid and tissue accumulation of a series of glycoasparagines, i.e., glycoconjugates with an aspartylglucosamine moiety at the reducing end. AGU belongs to the group of disorders commonly referred to as the Finnish disease heritage (summary by Mononen et al., 1993 and Arvio and Arvio, 2002). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
78649
Concept ID:
C0268225
Disease or Syndrome
5.

Coffin-Lowry syndrome

Coffin-Lowry syndrome (CLS) is usually characterized by severe-to-profound intellectual disability in males; less severely impaired individuals have been reported. Neuropsychiatric concerns can include behavioral problems, loss of strength, progressive spasticity or paraplegia, sleep apnea, or stroke. Stimulus-induced drop attacks (SIDAs) in which unexpected tactile or auditory stimuli or excitement triggers a brief collapse but no loss of consciousness are present in approximately 20% of affected individuals. Typically SIDAs begin between mid-childhood and the teens. Characteristic facial features may be more apparent with age. Upper-extremity differences may be subtle and include short, soft, fleshy hands with tapered fingers as well as fleshy forearms. Progressive kyphoscoliosis is one of the most difficult aspects of long-term care. Affected females tend to have intellectual disability in the mild-to-moderate range and may also have the typical facial, hand, and skeletal findings noted in males. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
75556
Concept ID:
C0265252
Disease or Syndrome
6.

Cleidocranial dysostosis

Cleidocranial dysplasia (CCD) spectrum disorder is a skeletal dysplasia that represents a clinical continuum ranging from classic CCD (triad of delayed closure of the cranial sutures, hypoplastic or aplastic clavicles, and dental abnormalities) to mild CCD to isolated dental anomalies without the skeletal features. Most individuals come to diagnosis because they have classic features. At birth, affected individuals typically have abnormally large, wide-open fontanelles that may remain open throughout life. Clavicular hypoplasia can result in narrow, sloping shoulders that can be opposed at the midline. Moderate short stature may be observed, with most affected individuals being shorter than their unaffected sibs. Dental anomalies may include supernumerary teeth, eruption failure of the permanent teeth, and presence of the second permanent molar with the primary dentition. Individuals with CCD spectrum disorder are at increased risk of developing recurrent sinus infections, recurrent ear infections leading to conductive hearing loss, and upper-airway obstruction. Intelligence is typically normal. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
3486
Concept ID:
C0008928
Disease or Syndrome
7.

Pseudohypoparathyroidism type I A

Disorders of GNAS inactivation include the phenotypes pseudohypoparathyroidism Ia, Ib, and Ic (PHP-Ia, -Ib, -Ic), pseudopseudohypoparathyroidism (PPHP), progressive osseous heteroplasia (POH), and osteoma cutis (OC). PHP-Ia and PHP-Ic are characterized by: End-organ resistance to endocrine hormones including parathyroid hormone (PTH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), gonadotropins (LH and FSH), growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH), and CNS neurotransmitters (leading to obesity and variable degrees of intellectual disability and developmental delay); and The Albright hereditary osteodystrophy (AHO) phenotype (short stature, round facies, and subcutaneous ossifications) and brachydactyly type E (shortening mainly of the 4th and/or 5th metacarpals and metatarsals and distal phalanx of the thumb). Although PHP-Ib is characterized principally by PTH resistance, some individuals also have partial TSH resistance and mild features of AHO (e.g., brachydactyly). PPHP, a more limited form of PHP-Ia, is characterized by various manifestations of the AHO phenotype without the hormone resistance or obesity. POH and OC are even more restricted variants of PPHP: POH consists of dermal ossification beginning in infancy, followed by increasing and extensive bone formation in deep muscle and fascia. OC consists of extra-skeletal ossification that is limited to the dermis and subcutaneous tissues. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
488447
Concept ID:
C3494506
Disease or Syndrome
8.

Salla disease

Free sialic acid storage disorders (FSASDs) are a spectrum of neurodegenerative disorders resulting from increased lysosomal storage of free sialic acid. Historically, FSASD was divided into separate allelic disorders: Salla disease, intermediate severe Salla disease, and infantile free sialic acid storage disease (ISSD). The mildest type was Salla disease, characterized by normal appearance and absence of neurologic findings at birth, followed by slowly progressive neurologic deterioration resulting in mild-to-moderate psychomotor delays, spasticity, athetosis, and epileptic seizures. Salla disease was named for a municipality in Finnish Lapland where a specific founder variant is relatively prevalent. However, the term Salla has been used in the literature to refer to less severe FSASD. More severe FSASD is historically referred to as ISSD, and is characterized by severe developmental delay, coarse facial features, hepatosplenomegaly, and cardiomegaly; death usually occurs in early childhood. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
203368
Concept ID:
C1096903
Disease or Syndrome
9.

Myhre syndrome

Myhre syndrome is a connective tissue disorder with multisystem involvement, progressive and proliferative fibrosis that may occur spontaneously or following trauma or surgery, mild-to-moderate intellectual disability, and in some instances, autistic-like behaviors. Organ systems primarily involved include: cardiovascular (congenital heart defects, long- and short-segment stenosis of the aorta and peripheral arteries, pericardial effusion, constrictive pericarditis, restrictive cardiomyopathy, and hypertension); respiratory (choanal stenosis, laryngotracheal narrowing, obstructive airway disease, or restrictive pulmonary disease), gastrointestinal (pyloric stenosis, duodenal strictures, severe constipation); and skin (thickened particularly on the hands and extensor surfaces). Additional findings include distinctive craniofacial features and skeletal involvement (intrauterine growth restriction, short stature, limited joint range of motion). To date, 55 individuals with molecularly confirmed Myhre syndrome have been reported. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
167103
Concept ID:
C0796081
Disease or Syndrome
10.

Cockayne syndrome type 2

Cockayne syndrome (referred to as CS in this GeneReview) spans a continuous phenotypic spectrum that includes: CS type I, the "classic" or "moderate" form; CS type II, a more severe form with symptoms present at birth; this form overlaps with cerebrooculofacioskeletal (COFS) syndrome; CS type III, a milder and later-onset form; COFS syndrome, a fetal form of CS. CS type I is characterized by normal prenatal growth with the onset of growth and developmental abnormalities in the first two years. By the time the disease has become fully manifest, height, weight, and head circumference are far below the fifth percentile. Progressive impairment of vision, hearing, and central and peripheral nervous system function leads to severe disability; death typically occurs in the first or second decade. CS type II is characterized by growth failure at birth, with little or no postnatal neurologic development. Congenital cataracts or other structural anomalies of the eye may be present. Affected children have early postnatal contractures of the spine (kyphosis, scoliosis) and joints. Death usually occurs by age five years. CS type III is a phenotype in which major clinical features associated with CS only become apparent after age two years; growth and/or cognition exceeds the expectations for CS type I. COFS syndrome is characterized by very severe prenatal developmental anomalies (arthrogryposis and microphthalmia). [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
155487
Concept ID:
C0751038
Disease or Syndrome
11.

Borjeson-Forssman-Lehmann syndrome

Borjeson-Forssman-Lehmann syndrome (BFLS) is an uncommon X-linked intellectual developmental disorder that evolves with age. Clinical manifestations in males are quite variable, with the most consistent features being initial hypotonia, mild to moderate impaired intellectual development, large fleshy ears, underdeveloped genitalia, gynecomastia, truncal obesity, tapering fingers, and shortening of the fourth and fifth toes. Heterozygous females may have a milder similar clinical phenotype, which can include hypothyroidism; however, many carrier females appear unaffected (summary by Crawford et al., 2006). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
78557
Concept ID:
C0265339
Disease or Syndrome
12.

Osteopathia striata with cranial sclerosis

Most females with osteopathia striata with cranial sclerosis (OS-CS) present with macrocephaly and characteristic facial features (frontal bossing, hypertelorism, epicanthal folds, depressed nasal bridge, and prominent jaw). Approximately half have associated features including orofacial clefting and hearing loss, and a minority have some degree of developmental delay (usually mild). Radiographic findings of cranial sclerosis, sclerosis of long bones, and metaphyseal striations (in combination with macrocephaly) can be considered pathognomonic. Males can present with a mild or severe phenotype. Mildly affected males have clinical features similar to affected females, including macrocephaly, characteristic facial features, orofacial clefting, hearing loss, and mild-to-moderate learning delays. Mildly affected males are more likely than females to have congenital or musculoskeletal anomalies. Radiographic findings include cranial sclerosis and sclerosis of the long bones; Metaphyseal striations are more common in males who are mosaic for an AMER1 pathogenic variant. The severe phenotype manifests in males as a multiple-malformation syndrome, lethal in mid-to-late gestation, or in the neonatal period. Congenital malformations include skeletal defects (e.g., polysyndactyly, absent or hypoplastic fibulae), congenital heart disease, and brain, genitourinary, and gastrointestinal anomalies. Macrocephaly is not always present and longitudinal metaphyseal striations have not been observed in severely affected males, except for those who are mosaic for the AMER1 pathogenic variant. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
96590
Concept ID:
C0432268
Disease or Syndrome
13.

Marshall syndrome

Marshall syndrome (MRSHS) is characterized by midfacial hypoplasia, cleft palate, ocular anomalies including high myopia and cataracts, sensorineural hearing loss, short stature with spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia, and arthropathy. In contrast to Stickler syndrome type II, it has less severe eye findings but striking ocular hypertelorism, more pronounced maxillary hypoplasia, and ectodermal abnormalities (summary by Shanske et al., 1997 and Ala-Kokko and Shanske, 2009). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
82694
Concept ID:
C0265235
Disease or Syndrome
14.

Autosomal dominant osteopetrosis 1

The osteopetroses are a heterogeneous group of genetic disorders characterized by increased bone density due to impaired bone resorption by osteoclasts. Autosomal dominant osteopetrosis-1 (OPTA1) is characterized by generalized osteosclerosis most pronounced in the cranial vault. Patients are often asymptomatic, but some suffer from pain and hearing loss. It appears to be the only type of osteopetrosis not associated with an increased fracture rate (summary by Van Hul et al., 2002). Genetic Heterogeneity of Autosomal Dominant Osteopetrosis Autosomal dominant osteopetrosis-2 (OPTA2; 166600) is caused by mutation in the CLCN7 gene (602727) on chromosome 16p13. Autosomal dominant osteopetrosis-3 (OPTA3; 618107) is caused by mutation in the PLEKHM1 gene (611466) on chromosome 17q21. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
335932
Concept ID:
C1843330
Disease or Syndrome
15.

Syndromic X-linked intellectual disability Snyder type

Snyder-Robinson syndrome (SRS) is an X-linked intellectual disability syndrome characterized by asthenic build, facial dysmorphism with a prominent lower lip, kyphoscoliosis, osteoporosis, speech abnormalities, and seizures. Developmental delay usually presents as failure to meet early developmental milestones and then evolves to moderate to profound intellectual disability (which appears to remain stable over time) and variable motor disability. Asthenic habitus and low muscle mass usually develop during the first year, even in males who are ambulatory. During the first decade, males with SRS develop osteoporosis, resulting in fractures in the absence of trauma. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
162918
Concept ID:
C0796160
Disease or Syndrome
16.

Hyperphosphatasemia with bone disease

Paget disease of bone-5 is an autosomal recessive, juvenile-onset form of Paget disease, a disorder of the skeleton resulting from abnormal bone resorption and formation. Clinical manifestations include short stature, progressive long bone deformities, fractures, vertebral collapse, skull enlargement, and hyperostosis with progressive deafness. There is phenotypic variability, with some patients presenting in infancy, while others present later in childhood (summary by Naot et al., 2014). For discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Paget disease of bone, see 167250. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
75678
Concept ID:
C0268414
Disease or Syndrome
17.

Dyggve-Melchior-Clausen syndrome

Dyggve-Melchior-Clausen disease (DMC) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by progressive spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia and impaired intellectual development. Short-trunk dwarfism and microcephaly are present, and specific radiologic appearances most likely reflect abnormalities of the growth plates, including platyspondyly with notched end plates, metaphyseal irregularities, laterally displaced capital femoral epiphyses, and small iliac wings with lacy iliac crests (summary by El Ghouzzi et al., 2003). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
120527
Concept ID:
C0265286
Disease or Syndrome
18.

Sclerosteosis 2

Sclerosteosis is a severe sclerosing bone dysplasia characterized by progressive skeletal overgrowth. Syndactyly is a variable manifestation. The disorder is rare and the majority of affected individuals have been reported in the Afrikaner population of South Africa (summary by Brunkow et al., 2001). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of sclerosteosis, see SOST1 (269500). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
482032
Concept ID:
C3280402
Disease or Syndrome
19.

Lateral meningocele syndrome

NOTCH3-related lateral meningocele syndrome (LMS) is characterized by multiple lateral spinal meningoceles (protrusions of the arachnoid and dura through spinal foramina), distinctive facial features, joint hyperextensibility, hypotonia, and skeletal, cardiac, and urogenital anomalies. Neurologic sequelæ of the meningoceles depend on size and location and can include neurogenic bladder, paresthesia, back pain, and/or paraparesis. Other neurologic findings can include Chiari I malformation, syringomyelia, and rarely, hydrocephalus. Additional findings of LMS include developmental delay, mixed or conductive hearing loss, and cleft palate. Skeletal abnormalities may include scoliosis, vertebral fusion, scalloping of vertebrae, and wormian bones. Infants may demonstrate feeding difficulties with poor weight gain. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
342070
Concept ID:
C1851710
Disease or Syndrome
20.

Hypertrophic osteoarthropathy, primary, autosomal recessive, 1

Autosomal recessive primary hypertrophic osteoarthropathy-1 (PHOAR1) is a rare familial disorder characterized by digital clubbing, osteoarthropathy, and acroosteolysis, with variable features of pachydermia, delayed closure of the fontanels, and congenital heart disease (summary by Uppal et al., 2008; Radhakrishnan et al., 2020). Secondary hypertrophic osteoarthropathy, or pulmonary hypertrophic osteoarthropathy, is a different disorder characterized by digital clubbing secondary to acquired diseases, most commonly intrathoracic neoplasm (Uppal et al., 2008). Touraine et al. (1935) recognized pachydermoperiostosis as a familial disorder with 3 clinical presentations or forms: a complete form characterized by periostosis and pachydermia; an incomplete form with bone changes but without pachydermia; and a 'forme fruste' with pachydermia and minimal skeletal changes. Genetic Heterogeneity Autosomal recessive primary hypertrophic osteoarthropathy-2-enteropathy syndrome (PHOAR2E; 614441) is caused by mutation in the SLCO2A1 gene (601460) on chromosome 3q22. Families with an autosomal dominant form of primary hypertrophic osteoarthropathy have also been reported (PHOAD; 167100). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1641972
Concept ID:
C4551679
Disease or Syndrome
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