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Aortic regurgitation

MedGen UID:
8153
Concept ID:
C0003504
Disease or Syndrome
Synonym: Aortic valve insufficiency
SNOMED CT: Aortic valve regurgitation (60234000); Aortic valve insufficiency (60234000); Aortic valve incompetence (60234000); Aortic regurgitation (60234000); Aortic incompetence (60234000); AI - Aortic incompetence (60234000); AR - Aortic regurgitation (60234000); Aortic insufficiency (60234000)
 
HPO: HP:0001659
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0005648

Definition

An insufficiency of the aortic valve, leading to regurgitation (backward flow) of blood from the aorta into the left ventricle. [from HPO]

Conditions with this feature

Marfan syndrome
MedGen UID:
44287
Concept ID:
C0024796
Disease or Syndrome
FBN1-related Marfan syndrome (Marfan syndrome), a systemic disorder of connective tissue with a high degree of clinical variability, comprises a broad phenotypic continuum ranging from mild (features of Marfan syndrome in one or a few systems) to severe and rapidly progressive neonatal multiorgan disease. Cardinal manifestations involve the ocular, skeletal, and cardiovascular systems. Ocular findings include myopia (>50% of affected individuals); ectopia lentis (seen in approximately 60% of affected individuals); and an increased risk for retinal detachment, glaucoma, and early cataracts. Skeletal system manifestations include bone overgrowth and joint laxity; disproportionately long extremities for the size of the trunk (dolichostenomelia); overgrowth of the ribs that can push the sternum in (pectus excavatum) or out (pectus carinatum); and scoliosis that ranges from mild to severe and progressive. The major morbidity and early mortality in Marfan syndrome relate to the cardiovascular system and include dilatation of the aorta at the level of the sinuses of Valsalva (predisposing to aortic tear and rupture), mitral valve prolapse with or without regurgitation, tricuspid valve prolapse, and enlargement of the proximal pulmonary artery. Severe and prolonged regurgitation of the mitral and/or aortic valve can predispose to left ventricular dysfunction and occasionally heart failure. With proper management, the life expectancy of someone with Marfan syndrome approximates that of the general population.
Mucopolysaccharidosis, MPS-I-S
MedGen UID:
6453
Concept ID:
C0026708
Disease or Syndrome
Mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I) is a progressive multisystem disorder with features ranging over a continuum of severity. While affected individuals have traditionally been classified as having one of three MPS I syndromes (Hurler syndrome, Hurler-Scheie syndrome, or Scheie syndrome), no easily measurable biochemical differences have been identified and the clinical findings overlap. Affected individuals are best described as having either a phenotype consistent with either severe (Hurler syndrome) or attenuated MPS I, a distinction that influences therapeutic options. Severe MPS I. Infants appear normal at birth. Typical early manifestations are nonspecific (e.g., umbilical or inguinal hernia, frequent upper respiratory tract infections before age 1 year). Coarsening of the facial features may not become apparent until after age one year. Gibbus deformity of the lower spine is common and often noted within the first year. Progressive skeletal dysplasia (dysostosis multiplex) involving all bones is universal, as is progressive arthropathy involving most joints. By age three years, linear growth decreases. Intellectual disability is progressive and profound but may not be readily apparent in the first year of life. Progressive cardiorespiratory involvement, hearing loss, and corneal clouding are common. Without treatment, death (typically from cardiorespiratory failure) usually occurs within the first ten years of life. Attenuated MPS I. Clinical onset is usually between ages three and ten years. The severity and rate of disease progression range from serious life-threatening complications leading to death in the second to third decade, to a normal life span complicated by significant disability from progressive joint manifestations and cardiorespiratory disease. While some individuals have no neurologic involvement and psychomotor development may be normal in early childhood, learning disabilities and psychiatric manifestations can be present later in life. Hearing loss, cardiac valvular disease, respiratory involvement, and corneal clouding are common.
Pseudo-Hurler polydystrophy
MedGen UID:
10988
Concept ID:
C0033788
Disease or Syndrome
GNPTAB-related disorders comprise the phenotypes mucolipidosis II (ML II) and mucolipidosis IIIa/ß (ML IIIa/ß), and phenotypes intermediate between ML II and ML IIIa/ß. ML II is evident at birth and slowly progressive; death most often occurs in early childhood. Orthopedic abnormalities present at birth may include thoracic deformity, kyphosis, clubfeet, deformed long bones, and/or dislocation of the hip(s). Growth often ceases in the second year of life; contractures develop in all large joints. The skin is thickened, facial features are coarse, and gingiva are hypertrophic. All children have cardiac involvement, most commonly thickening and insufficiency of the mitral valve and, less frequently, the aortic valve. Progressive mucosal thickening narrows the airways, and gradual stiffening of the thoracic cage contributes to respiratory insufficiency, the most common cause of death. ML IIIa/ß becomes evident at about age three years with slow growth rate and short stature; joint stiffness and pain initially in the shoulders, hips, and fingers; gradual mild coarsening of facial features; and normal to mildly impaired cognitive development. Pain from osteoporosis becomes more severe during adolescence. Cardiorespiratory complications (restrictive lung disease, thickening and insufficiency of the mitral and aortic valves, left and/or right ventricular hypertrophy) are common causes of death, typically in early to middle adulthood. Phenotypes intermediate between ML II and ML IIIa/ß are characterized by physical growth in infancy that resembles that of ML II and neuromotor and speech development that resemble that of ML IIIa/ß.
Mucopolysaccharidosis, MPS-I-H/S
MedGen UID:
88566
Concept ID:
C0086431
Disease or Syndrome
Mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I) is a progressive multisystem disorder with features ranging over a continuum of severity. While affected individuals have traditionally been classified as having one of three MPS I syndromes (Hurler syndrome, Hurler-Scheie syndrome, or Scheie syndrome), no easily measurable biochemical differences have been identified and the clinical findings overlap. Affected individuals are best described as having either a phenotype consistent with either severe (Hurler syndrome) or attenuated MPS I, a distinction that influences therapeutic options. Severe MPS I. Infants appear normal at birth. Typical early manifestations are nonspecific (e.g., umbilical or inguinal hernia, frequent upper respiratory tract infections before age 1 year). Coarsening of the facial features may not become apparent until after age one year. Gibbus deformity of the lower spine is common and often noted within the first year. Progressive skeletal dysplasia (dysostosis multiplex) involving all bones is universal, as is progressive arthropathy involving most joints. By age three years, linear growth decreases. Intellectual disability is progressive and profound but may not be readily apparent in the first year of life. Progressive cardiorespiratory involvement, hearing loss, and corneal clouding are common. Without treatment, death (typically from cardiorespiratory failure) usually occurs within the first ten years of life. Attenuated MPS I. Clinical onset is usually between ages three and ten years. The severity and rate of disease progression range from serious life-threatening complications leading to death in the second to third decade, to a normal life span complicated by significant disability from progressive joint manifestations and cardiorespiratory disease. While some individuals have no neurologic involvement and psychomotor development may be normal in early childhood, learning disabilities and psychiatric manifestations can be present later in life. Hearing loss, cardiac valvular disease, respiratory involvement, and corneal clouding are common.
Hurler syndrome
MedGen UID:
39698
Concept ID:
C0086795
Disease or Syndrome
Mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I) is a progressive multisystem disorder with features ranging over a continuum of severity. While affected individuals have traditionally been classified as having one of three MPS I syndromes (Hurler syndrome, Hurler-Scheie syndrome, or Scheie syndrome), no easily measurable biochemical differences have been identified and the clinical findings overlap. Affected individuals are best described as having either a phenotype consistent with either severe (Hurler syndrome) or attenuated MPS I, a distinction that influences therapeutic options. Severe MPS I. Infants appear normal at birth. Typical early manifestations are nonspecific (e.g., umbilical or inguinal hernia, frequent upper respiratory tract infections before age 1 year). Coarsening of the facial features may not become apparent until after age one year. Gibbus deformity of the lower spine is common and often noted within the first year. Progressive skeletal dysplasia (dysostosis multiplex) involving all bones is universal, as is progressive arthropathy involving most joints. By age three years, linear growth decreases. Intellectual disability is progressive and profound but may not be readily apparent in the first year of life. Progressive cardiorespiratory involvement, hearing loss, and corneal clouding are common. Without treatment, death (typically from cardiorespiratory failure) usually occurs within the first ten years of life. Attenuated MPS I. Clinical onset is usually between ages three and ten years. The severity and rate of disease progression range from serious life-threatening complications leading to death in the second to third decade, to a normal life span complicated by significant disability from progressive joint manifestations and cardiorespiratory disease. While some individuals have no neurologic involvement and psychomotor development may be normal in early childhood, learning disabilities and psychiatric manifestations can be present later in life. Hearing loss, cardiac valvular disease, respiratory involvement, and corneal clouding are common.
Cardiac valvular dysplasia, X-linked
MedGen UID:
78083
Concept ID:
C0262436
Disease or Syndrome
FLNA deficiency is associated with a phenotypic spectrum that includes FLNA-related periventricular nodular heterotopia (Huttenlocher syndrome), congenital heart disease (patent ductus arteriosus, atrial and ventricular septal defects), valvular dystrophy, dilation and rupture of the thoracic aortic, pulmonary disease (pulmonary hypertension, alveolar hypoplasia, emphysema, asthma, chronic bronchitis), gastrointestinal dysmotility and obstruction, joint hypermobility, and macrothrombocytopenia.
Cutis laxa, autosomal recessive, type 1A
MedGen UID:
78663
Concept ID:
C0268351
Disease or Syndrome
FBLN5-related cutis laxa is characterized by cutis laxa, early childhood-onset pulmonary emphysema, peripheral pulmonary artery stenosis, and other evidence of a generalized connective disorder such as inguinal hernias and hollow viscus diverticula (e.g., intestine, bladder). Occasionally, supravalvar aortic stenosis is observed. Intrafamilial variability in age of onset is observed. Cardiorespiratory failure from complications of pulmonary emphysema (respiratory or cardiac insufficiency) is the most common cause of death.
Sick sinus syndrome 2, autosomal dominant
MedGen UID:
320273
Concept ID:
C1834144
Disease or Syndrome
Sick sinus syndrome (also known as sinus node dysfunction) is a group of related heart conditions that can affect how the heart beats. "Sick sinus" refers to the sino-atrial (SA) node, which is an area of specialized cells in the heart that functions as a natural pacemaker. The SA node generates electrical impulses that start each heartbeat. These signals travel from the SA node to the rest of the heart, signaling the heart (cardiac) muscle to contract and pump blood. In people with sick sinus syndrome, the SA node does not function normally. In some cases, it does not produce the right signals to trigger a regular heartbeat. In others, abnormalities disrupt the electrical impulses and prevent them from reaching the rest of the heart.\n\nSick sinus syndrome tends to cause the heartbeat to be too slow (bradycardia), although occasionally the heartbeat is too fast (tachycardia). In some cases, the heartbeat rapidly switches from being too fast to being too slow, a condition known as tachycardia-bradycardia syndrome. Symptoms related to abnormal heartbeats can include dizziness, light-headedness, fainting (syncope), a sensation of fluttering or pounding in the chest (palpitations), and confusion or memory problems. During exercise, many affected individuals experience chest pain, difficulty breathing, or excessive tiredness (fatigue). Once symptoms of sick sinus syndrome appear, they usually worsen with time. However, some people with the condition never experience any related health problems.\n\nSick sinus syndrome occurs most commonly in older adults, although it can be diagnosed in people of any age. The condition increases the risk of several life-threatening problems involving the heart and blood vessels. These include a heart rhythm abnormality called atrial fibrillation, heart failure, cardiac arrest, and stroke.
Goldberg-Shprintzen syndrome
MedGen UID:
332131
Concept ID:
C1836123
Disease or Syndrome
Goldberg-Shprintzen syndrome (GOSHS) is an autosomal recessive multiple congenital anomaly syndrome characterized by impaired intellectual development, microcephaly, and dysmorphic facial features. Most patients also have Hirschsprung disease and/or gyral abnormalities of the brain, consistent with defects in migration of neural crest cells and neurons. Other features, such as megalocornea or urogenital anomalies, may also be present. Goldberg-Shprintzen syndrome has some resemblance to Mowat-Wilson syndrome (MOWS; 235730) but is genetically distinct (summary by Drevillon et al., 2013).
Marfanoid habitus with situs inversus
MedGen UID:
323046
Concept ID:
C1836994
Disease or Syndrome
Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia with congenital joint dislocations
MedGen UID:
373381
Concept ID:
C1837657
Disease or Syndrome
CHST3-related skeletal dysplasia is characterized by short stature of prenatal onset, joint dislocations (knees, hips, radial heads), clubfeet, and limitation of range of motion that can involve all large joints. Kyphosis and occasionally scoliosis with slight shortening of the trunk develop in childhood. Minor heart valve dysplasia has been described in several persons. Intellect and vision are normal.
Atrial septal defect 2
MedGen UID:
334249
Concept ID:
C1842778
Congenital Abnormality
Any atrial heart septal defect in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the GATA4 gene.
Aortic aneurysm, familial thoracic 4
MedGen UID:
338704
Concept ID:
C1851504
Disease or Syndrome
Any familial thoracic aortic aneurysm and aortic dissection in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the MYH11 gene.
GNPTG-mucolipidosis
MedGen UID:
340743
Concept ID:
C1854896
Disease or Syndrome
Mucolipidosis III gamma (ML III?) is a slowly progressive inborn error of metabolism mainly affecting skeletal, joint, and connective tissues. Clinical onset is in early childhood; the progressive course results in severe functional impairment and significant morbidity from chronic pain. Cardiorespiratory complications (restrictive lung disease from thoracic involvement, and thickening and insufficiency of the mitral and aortic valves) are rarely clinically significant. A few (probably <10%) affected individuals display mild cognitive impairment.
Temtamy syndrome
MedGen UID:
347474
Concept ID:
C1857512
Disease or Syndrome
Temtamy syndrome is a mental retardation/multiple congenital anomaly syndrome characterized by variable craniofacial dysmorphism, ocular coloboma, seizures, and brain abnormalities, including abnormalities of the corpus callosum and thalamus (summary by Akizu et al., 2013).
Arterial tortuosity syndrome
MedGen UID:
347942
Concept ID:
C1859726
Disease or Syndrome
Arterial tortuosity syndrome (ATS) is characterized by widespread elongation and tortuosity of the aorta and mid-sized arteries as well as focal stenosis of segments of the pulmonary arteries and/or aorta combined with findings of a generalized connective tissue disorder, which may include soft or doughy hyperextensible skin, joint hypermobility, inguinal hernia, and diaphragmatic hernia. Skeletal findings include pectus excavatum or carinatum, arachnodactyly, scoliosis, knee/elbow contractures, and camptodactyly. The cardiovascular system is the major source of morbidity and mortality with increased risk at any age for aneurysm formation and dissection both at the aortic root and throughout the arterial tree, and for ischemic vascular events involving cerebrovascular circulation (resulting in non-hemorrhagic stroke) and the abdominal arteries (resulting in infarctions of abdominal organs).
Calcific aortic disease with immunologic abnormalities, familial
MedGen UID:
354631
Concept ID:
C1861974
Disease or Syndrome
Spondyloarthropathy, susceptibility to, 1
MedGen UID:
400145
Concept ID:
C1862852
Finding
Spondyloarthropathy (SpA), one of the commonest chronic rheumatic diseases, includes a spectrum of related disorders comprising the prototype ankylosing spondylitis (AS), a subset of psoriatic arthritis (PsA), reactive arthritis (ReA), arthritis associated with inflammatory bowel disease, and undifferentiated spondyloarthropathy (Miceli-Richard et al., 2004). These phenotypes are difficult to differentiate because they may occur simultaneously or sequentially in the same patient. Studies have suggested that a predominant shared component, including HLA-B27, predisposes to all phenotypic subsets, and that these subsets should be considered as various phenotypic expressions of the same disease (Said-Nahal et al., 2000, Said-Nahal et al., 2001). Braun and Sieper (2007) provided a detailed review of ankylosing spondylitis, including clinical features, pathogenesis, and management. Genetic Heterogeneity of Susceptibility to Spondyloarthropathy Additional susceptibility loci for spondyloarthropathy have been identified on chromosome 9q31-q34 (SPDA2; 183840) and chromosome 2q36 (SPDA3; 613238).
Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, musculocontractural type
MedGen UID:
356497
Concept ID:
C1866294
Disease or Syndrome
Other types of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome have additional signs and symptoms. The cardiac-valvular type causes severe problems with the valves that control the movement of blood through the heart. People with the kyphoscoliotic type experience severe curvature of the spine that worsens over time and can interfere with breathing by restricting lung expansion. A type of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome called brittle cornea syndrome is characterized by thinness of the clear covering of the eye (the cornea) and other eye abnormalities. The spondylodysplastic type features short stature and skeletal abnormalities such as abnormally curved (bowed) limbs. Abnormalities of muscles, including hypotonia and permanently bent joints (contractures), are among the characteristic signs of the musculocontractural and myopathic forms of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. The periodontal type causes abnormalities of the teeth and gums.\n\nBleeding problems are common in the vascular type of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome and are caused by unpredictable tearing (rupture) of blood vessels and organs. These complications can lead to easy bruising, internal bleeding, a hole in the wall of the intestine (intestinal perforation), or stroke. During pregnancy, women with vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome may experience rupture of the uterus. Additional forms of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome that involve rupture of the blood vessels include the kyphoscoliotic, classical, and classical-like types.\n\nMany people with the Ehlers-Danlos syndromes have soft, velvety skin that is highly stretchy (elastic) and fragile. Affected individuals tend to bruise easily, and some types of the condition also cause abnormal scarring. People with the classical form of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome experience wounds that split open with little bleeding and leave scars that widen over time to create characteristic "cigarette paper" scars. The dermatosparaxis type of the disorder is characterized by loose skin that sags and wrinkles, and extra (redundant) folds of skin may be present.\n\nAn unusually large range of joint movement (hypermobility) occurs in most forms of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, and it is a hallmark feature of the hypermobile type. Infants and children with hypermobility often have weak muscle tone (hypotonia), which can delay the development of motor skills such as sitting, standing, and walking. The loose joints are unstable and prone to dislocation and chronic pain. In the arthrochalasia type of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, infants have hypermobility and dislocations of both hips at birth.\n\nThe various forms of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome have been classified in several different ways. Originally, 11 forms of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome were named using Roman numerals to indicate the types (type I, type II, and so on). In 1997, researchers proposed a simpler classification (the Villefranche nomenclature) that reduced the number of types to six and gave them descriptive names based on their major features. In 2017, the classification was updated to include rare forms of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome that were identified more recently. The 2017 classification describes 13 types of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.\n\nEhlers-Danlos syndrome is a group of disorders that affect connective tissues supporting the skin, bones, blood vessels, and many other organs and tissues. Defects in connective tissues cause the signs and symptoms of these conditions, which range from mildly loose joints to life-threatening complications.
SLC35A1-congenital disorder of glycosylation
MedGen UID:
370234
Concept ID:
C1970344
Disease or Syndrome
An extremely rare form of carbohydrate deficient glycoprotein syndrome characterized clinically in the single reported case by repeated hemorrhagic incidents, including severe pulmonary hemorrhage.
Mucolipidosis type II
MedGen UID:
435914
Concept ID:
C2673377
Disease or Syndrome
GNPTAB-related disorders comprise the phenotypes mucolipidosis II (ML II) and mucolipidosis IIIa/ß (ML IIIa/ß), and phenotypes intermediate between ML II and ML IIIa/ß. ML II is evident at birth and slowly progressive; death most often occurs in early childhood. Orthopedic abnormalities present at birth may include thoracic deformity, kyphosis, clubfeet, deformed long bones, and/or dislocation of the hip(s). Growth often ceases in the second year of life; contractures develop in all large joints. The skin is thickened, facial features are coarse, and gingiva are hypertrophic. All children have cardiac involvement, most commonly thickening and insufficiency of the mitral valve and, less frequently, the aortic valve. Progressive mucosal thickening narrows the airways, and gradual stiffening of the thoracic cage contributes to respiratory insufficiency, the most common cause of death. ML IIIa/ß becomes evident at about age three years with slow growth rate and short stature; joint stiffness and pain initially in the shoulders, hips, and fingers; gradual mild coarsening of facial features; and normal to mildly impaired cognitive development. Pain from osteoporosis becomes more severe during adolescence. Cardiorespiratory complications (restrictive lung disease, thickening and insufficiency of the mitral and aortic valves, left and/or right ventricular hypertrophy) are common causes of death, typically in early to middle adulthood. Phenotypes intermediate between ML II and ML IIIa/ß are characterized by physical growth in infancy that resembles that of ML II and neuromotor and speech development that resemble that of ML IIIa/ß.
Chromosome 1q21.1 deletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
393913
Concept ID:
C2675897
Congenital Abnormality
The 1q21.1 recurrent microdeletion itself does not appear to lead to a clinically recognizable syndrome as some persons with the deletion have no obvious clinical findings and others have variable findings that most commonly include microcephaly (50%), mild intellectual disability (30%), mildly dysmorphic facial features, and eye abnormalities (26%). Other findings can include cardiac defects, genitourinary anomalies, skeletal malformations, and seizures (~15%). Psychiatric and behavioral abnormalities can include autism spectrum disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, autistic features, and sleep disturbances.
Hunter-Macdonald syndrome
MedGen UID:
383181
Concept ID:
C2677745
Disease or Syndrome
D-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria 1
MedGen UID:
463405
Concept ID:
C3152055
Disease or Syndrome
D-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria is a neurometabolic disorder first described by Chalmers et al. (1980). Clinical symptoms include developmental delay, epilepsy, hypotonia, and dysmorphic features. Mild and severe phenotypes were characterized (van der Knaap et al., 1999). The severe phenotype is homogeneous and is characterized by early infantile-onset epileptic encephalopathy and, often, cardiomyopathy. The mild phenotype has a more variable clinical presentation. Genetic Heterogeneity of D-2-Hydroxyglutaric Aciduria D-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria-2 (D2HGA2; 613657) is caused by heterozygous mutation in the mitochondrial isocitrate dehydrogenase-2 gene (IDH2; 147650) on chromosome 15q26.
Cutis laxa, autosomal dominant 1
MedGen UID:
478169
Concept ID:
C3276539
Disease or Syndrome
FBLN5-related cutis laxa is characterized by cutis laxa, early childhood-onset pulmonary emphysema, peripheral pulmonary artery stenosis, and other evidence of a generalized connective disorder such as inguinal hernias and hollow viscus diverticula (e.g., intestine, bladder). Occasionally, supravalvar aortic stenosis is observed. Intrafamilial variability in age of onset is observed. Cardiorespiratory failure from complications of pulmonary emphysema (respiratory or cardiac insufficiency) is the most common cause of death.
Mosaic variegated aneuploidy syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
481473
Concept ID:
C3279843
Disease or Syndrome
Mosaic variegated aneuploidy syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by poor growth and variable phenotypic manifestations, such as facial dysmorphism and congenital heart defects, associated with mosaic aneuploidies resulting from defects in cell division (summary by Snape et al., 2011). See also MVA1 (257300), caused by mutation in the BUB1B gene (602860) on chromosome 15q15.
Aortic valve disease 2
MedGen UID:
762200
Concept ID:
C3542024
Disease or Syndrome
Any aortic valve disease in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the SMAD6 gene.
Deafness-encephaloneuropathy-obesity-valvulopathy syndrome
MedGen UID:
766268
Concept ID:
C3553354
Disease or Syndrome
Primary coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) deficiency is usually associated with multisystem involvement, including neurologic manifestations such as fatal neonatal encephalopathy with hypotonia; a late-onset slowly progressive multiple-system atrophy-like phenotype (neurodegeneration with autonomic failure and various combinations of parkinsonism and cerebellar ataxia, and pyramidal dysfunction); and dystonia, spasticity, seizures, and intellectual disability. Steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS), the hallmark renal manifestation, is often the initial manifestation either as isolated renal involvement that progresses to end-stage renal disease (ESRD), or associated with encephalopathy (seizures, stroke-like episodes, severe neurologic impairment) resulting in early death. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), retinopathy or optic atrophy, and sensorineural hearing loss can also be seen.
Peroxisome biogenesis disorder 5A (Zellweger)
MedGen UID:
766854
Concept ID:
C3553940
Disease or Syndrome
The peroxisomal biogenesis disorder (PBD) Zellweger syndrome (ZS) is an autosomal recessive multiple congenital anomaly syndrome. Affected children present in the newborn period with profound hypotonia, seizures, and inability to feed. Characteristic craniofacial anomalies, eye abnormalities, neuronal migration defects, hepatomegaly, and chondrodysplasia punctata are present. Children with this condition do not show any significant development and usually die in the first year of life (summary by Steinberg et al., 2006). For a complete phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Zellweger syndrome, see 214100. Individuals with PBDs of complementation group 5 (CG5, equivalent to CG10 and CGF) have mutations in the PEX2 gene. For information on the history of PBD complementation groups, see 214100.
Congenital heart defects, multiple types, 2
MedGen UID:
767193
Concept ID:
C3554279
Disease or Syndrome
Multiple types of congenital heart defects-2 (CHTD2) is characterized by variable congenital heart defects, primarily involving the valves, but also including septal defects or aneurysms, and complex defects such as tetralogy of Fallot. Dilated cardiomyopathy and myocardial noncompaction have been reported in some patients. In addition, some affected individuals exhibit facial dysmorphism and features of connective tissue disease (Thienpont et al., 2010; Ackerman et al., 2016; Ritelli et al., 2018). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of CHTD, see 306955.
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 18
MedGen UID:
815954
Concept ID:
C3809624
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-18 (DEE18) is a severe autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by lack of psychomotor development apparent from birth, dysmorphic facial features, and early onset of refractory seizures. Brain imaging shows a thick corpus callosum and persistent cavum septum pellucidum on brain imaging (summary by Basel-Vanagaite et al., 2013). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Cutis laxa, autosomal dominant 3
MedGen UID:
899774
Concept ID:
C4225268
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal dominant cutis laxa-3 is characterized by thin skin with visible veins and wrinkles, cataract or corneal clouding, clenched fingers, pre- and postnatal growth retardation, and moderate intellectual disability. In addition, patients exhibit a combination of muscular hypotonia with brisk muscle reflexes (Fischer-Zirnsak et al., 2015). For a general phenotypic description and discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal dominant cutis laxa, see ARCL1 (123700).
Cardioencephalomyopathy, fatal infantile, due to cytochrome c oxidase deficiency 4
MedGen UID:
905398
Concept ID:
C4225304
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial complex IV deficiency nuclear type 13 (MC4DN13) is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder characterized by the onset of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy soon after birth. Affected individuals have hypotonia, weakness, and failure to thrive, resulting in death in infancy. Laboratory studies show increased serum lactate and decreased levels and activity of mitochondrial respiratory complex IV (summary by Baertling et al., 2015). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of mitochondrial complex IV (cytochrome c oxidase) deficiency, see 220110.
Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, cardiac valvular type
MedGen UID:
929458
Concept ID:
C4303789
Disease or Syndrome
Ehlers-Danlos syndrome is a group of disorders that affect connective tissues supporting the skin, bones, blood vessels, and many other organs and tissues. Defects in connective tissues cause the signs and symptoms of these conditions, which range from mildly loose joints to life-threatening complications.\n\nThe various forms of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome have been classified in several different ways. Originally, 11 forms of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome were named using Roman numerals to indicate the types (type I, type II, and so on). In 1997, researchers proposed a simpler classification (the Villefranche nomenclature) that reduced the number of types to six and gave them descriptive names based on their major features. In 2017, the classification was updated to include rare forms of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome that were identified more recently. The 2017 classification describes 13 types of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.\n\nMany people with the Ehlers-Danlos syndromes have soft, velvety skin that is highly stretchy (elastic) and fragile. Affected individuals tend to bruise easily, and some types of the condition also cause abnormal scarring. People with the classical form of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome experience wounds that split open with little bleeding and leave scars that widen over time to create characteristic "cigarette paper" scars. The dermatosparaxis type of the disorder is characterized by loose skin that sags and wrinkles, and extra (redundant) folds of skin may be present.\n\nBleeding problems are common in the vascular type of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome and are caused by unpredictable tearing (rupture) of blood vessels and organs. These complications can lead to easy bruising, internal bleeding, a hole in the wall of the intestine (intestinal perforation), or stroke. During pregnancy, women with vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome may experience rupture of the uterus. Additional forms of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome that involve rupture of the blood vessels include the kyphoscoliotic, classical, and classical-like types.\n\nAn unusually large range of joint movement (hypermobility) occurs in most forms of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, and it is a hallmark feature of the hypermobile type. Infants and children with hypermobility often have weak muscle tone (hypotonia), which can delay the development of motor skills such as sitting, standing, and walking. The loose joints are unstable and prone to dislocation and chronic pain. In the arthrochalasia type of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, infants have hypermobility and dislocations of both hips at birth.\n\nOther types of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome have additional signs and symptoms. The cardiac-valvular type causes severe problems with the valves that control the movement of blood through the heart. People with the kyphoscoliotic type experience severe curvature of the spine that worsens over time and can interfere with breathing by restricting lung expansion. A type of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome called brittle cornea syndrome is characterized by thinness of the clear covering of the eye (the cornea) and other eye abnormalities. The spondylodysplastic type features short stature and skeletal abnormalities such as abnormally curved (bowed) limbs. Abnormalities of muscles, including hypotonia and permanently bent joints (contractures), are among the characteristic signs of the musculocontractural and myopathic forms of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. The periodontal type causes abnormalities of the teeth and gums.
ZTTK syndrome
MedGen UID:
934663
Concept ID:
C4310696
Disease or Syndrome
ZTTK syndrome (ZTTKS) is a severe multisystem developmental disorder characterized by delayed psychomotor development and intellectual disability. Affected individuals have characteristic dysmorphic facial features, hypotonia, poor feeding, poor overall growth, and eye or visual abnormalities. Most patients also have musculoskeletal abnormalities, and some have congenital defects of the heart and urogenital system. Brain imaging usually shows developmental abnormalities such as gyral changes, cortical and/or cerebellar atrophy, and thin corpus callosum (summary by Kim et al., 2016).
Noonan syndrome-like disorder with loose anagen hair 1
MedGen UID:
1379805
Concept ID:
C4478716
Disease or Syndrome
Noonan syndrome-like disorder with loose anagen hair is characterized by facial features similar to those observed in Noonan syndrome (163950), including hypertelorism, ptosis, downslanting palpebral fissures, low-set posteriorly angulated ears, and overfolded pinnae. In addition, patients display short stature, frequently with growth hormone (GH; see 139250) deficiency; cognitive deficits; relative macrocephaly; small posterior fossa resulting in Chiari I malformation; hypernasal voice; cardiac defects, especially dysplasia of the mitral valve and septal defects; and ectodermal abnormalities, in which the most characteristic feature is the hair anomaly, including easily pluckable, sparse, thin, slow-growing hair (summary by Bertola et al., 2017). Reviews Komatsuzaki et al. (2010) reviewed the clinical manifestations of patients with Noonan syndrome, Costello syndrome (218040), and cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome (CFC; see 115150) compared to patients with mutations in the SHOC2 gene. They noted that although there is phenotypic overlap among the disorders, loose anagen/easily pluckable hair had not been reported in mutation-positive patients with Noonan, CFC, or Costello syndrome, and appeared to be a distinctive feature of SHOC2 mutation-positive patients. Genetic Heterogeneity of Noonan Syndrome-Like Disorder with Loose Anagen Hair NSLH2 (617506) is caused by mutation in the PPP1CB gene (600590) on chromosome 2p23.
Autosomal recessive cutis laxa type 2C
MedGen UID:
1385755
Concept ID:
C4479387
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive cutis laxa type IIC (ARCL2C) is characterized by generalized skin wrinkling with sparse subcutaneous fat and dysmorphic progeroid facial features. Most patients also exhibit severe hypotonia as well as cardiovascular involvement (summary by Van Damme et al., 2017). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal recessive cutis laxa, see ARCL1A (219100).
Trichohepatoenteric syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1644087
Concept ID:
C4551982
Disease or Syndrome
Trichohepatoenteric syndrome (THES), generally considered to be a neonatal enteropathy, is characterized by intractable diarrhea (seen in almost all affected children), woolly hair (seen in all), intrauterine growth restriction, facial dysmorphism, and short stature. Additional findings include poorly characterized immunodeficiency, recurrent infections, skin abnormalities, and liver disease. Mild intellectual disability (ID) is seen in about 50% of affected individuals. Less common findings include congenital heart defects and platelet anomalies. To date 52 affected individuals have been reported.
Turnpenny-fry syndrome
MedGen UID:
1683283
Concept ID:
C5193060
Disease or Syndrome
Turnpenny-Fry syndrome (TPFS) is characterized by developmental delay, impaired intellectual development, impaired growth, and recognizable facial features that include frontal bossing, sparse hair, malar hypoplasia, small palpebral fissures and oral stoma, and dysplastic 'satyr' ears. Other common findings include feeding problems, constipation, and a range of brain, cardiac, vascular, and skeletal malformations (Turnpenny et al., 2018).
Developmental delay, impaired speech, and behavioral abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1794167
Concept ID:
C5561957
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental delay, impaired speech, and behavioral abnormalities (DDISBA) is characterized by global developmental delay apparent from early childhood. Intellectual disability can range from mild to severe. Additional variable features may include dysmorphic facial features, seizures, hypotonia, motor abnormalities such as Tourette syndrome or dystonia, and hearing loss (summary by Cousin et al., 2021).
Biliary, renal, neurologic, and skeletal syndrome
MedGen UID:
1794200
Concept ID:
C5561990
Disease or Syndrome
Biliary, renal, neurologic, and skeletal syndrome (BRENS) is an autosomal recessive complex ciliopathy with multisystemic manifestations. The most common presentation is severe neonatal cholestasis that progresses to liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. Most patients have additional clinical features suggestive of a ciliopathy, including postaxial polydactyly, hydrocephalus, retinal abnormalities, and situs inversus. Additional features of the syndrome may include congenital cardiac defects, echogenic kidneys with renal failure, ocular abnormalities, joint hyperextensibility, and dysmorphic facial features. Some patients have global developmental delay. Brain imaging typically shows dilated ventricles, hypomyelination, and white matter abnormalities, although some patients have been described with abnormal pituitary development (summary by Shaheen et al., 2020 and David et al., 2020).
Mucopolysaccharidosis, type 10
MedGen UID:
1794274
Concept ID:
C5562064
Disease or Syndrome
Mucopolysaccharidosis type X (MPS10) is an autosomal recessive childhood-onset disorder associated with disproportionate short-trunk short stature and skeletal, cardiac, and ophthalmologic abnormalities (Verheyen et al., 2022).
Noonan syndrome 14
MedGen UID:
1807988
Concept ID:
C5676916
Disease or Syndrome
Noonan syndrome-14 (NS14) is a recessive developmental disorder within the RASopathy clinical spectrum. Patients exhibit developmental delay, impaired intellectual development, and short stature, as well as distinctive dysmorphic features including bitemporal narrowing, hypertelorism, low-set posteriorly rotated ears, prominent nasal bridge, low posterior hairline with a short webbed neck, and pectus excavatum (Motta et al., 2021). For a general phenotypic description and discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Noonan syndrome, see NS1 (163950).
Aortic aneurysm, familial thoracic 12
MedGen UID:
1802657
Concept ID:
C5676959
Disease or Syndrome
Familial thoracic aortic aneurysm-12 (AAT12) is characterized by dilation of the arterial wall associated with a progressive loss of its ability to withstand the wall tension generated by high intraluminal pressure, which can lead to intramural or complete acute vessel wall rupture. Some patients have dolichostenomelia (summary by Elbitar et al., 2021). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of thoracic aortic aneurysm, see AAT1 (607086).
Cardiomyopathy, dilated, 2G
MedGen UID:
1801983
Concept ID:
C5676995
Disease or Syndrome
Dilated cardiomyopathy-2G (CMD2G) is characterized by early-onset severe dilated cardiomyopathy that progresses rapidly to heart failure in the neonatal period without evidence of intervening hypertrophy. Cardiac tissue exhibits markedly shortened thin filaments, disorganized myofibrils, and reduced contractile force generation, resulting in the severe ventricular dysfunction observed. There is no evidence of skeletal muscle hypertrophy (Ahrens-Nicklas et al., 2019). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of dilated cardiomyopathy, see 115200.
Neurodevelopmental disorder with microcephaly, cerebral atrophy, and visual impairment
MedGen UID:
1823998
Concept ID:
C5774225
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with microcephaly, cerebral atrophy, and visual impairment (NEDMVIC) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by global developmental delay, impaired intellectual development, facial dysmorphism, and microcephaly (Ziegler et al., 2022).
Cardiac valvular dysplasia 2
MedGen UID:
1823999
Concept ID:
C5774226
Disease or Syndrome
Cardiac valvular dysplasia-2 (CVDP2) is characterized primarily by congenital stenosis and insufficiency of the semilunar valves, although mild insufficiency of the atrioventricular valves has been observed as well. Other features include subaortic stenosis and dilation of the ascending aorta and/or pulmonary artery in some patients (Wunnemann et al., 2020; Massadeh et al., 2020). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of CVDP, see CVDP1 (212093).
Diamond-Blackfan anemia 21
MedGen UID:
1824003
Concept ID:
C5774230
Disease or Syndrome
Diamond-Blackfan anemia-21 (DBA21) is an autosomal recessive bone marrow failure syndrome that includes selective erythroid hypoplasia, anemia with transient thrombocytopenia, short stature, facial dysmorphism, limb abnormalities, cardiac defects, and intellectual disability (O'Donohue et al., 2022). For a general phenotypic description and discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Diamond-Blackfan anemia, see DBA1 (105650).

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Vahanian A, Beyersdorf F, Praz F, Milojevic M, Baldus S, Bauersachs J, Capodanno D, Conradi L, De Bonis M, De Paulis R, Delgado V, Freemantle N, Gilard M, Haugaa KH, Jeppsson A, Jüni P, Pierard L, Prendergast BD, Sádaba JR, Tribouilloy C, Wojakowski W; ESC/EACTS Scientific Document Group
Eur Heart J 2022 Feb 12;43(7):561-632. doi: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehab395. PMID: 34453165
Otto CM, Nishimura RA, Bonow RO, Carabello BA, Erwin JP 3rd, Gentile F, Jneid H, Krieger EV, Mack M, McLeod C, O'Gara PT, Rigolin VH, Sundt TM 3rd, Thompson A, Toly C
Circulation 2021 Feb 2;143(5):e72-e227. Epub 2020 Dec 17 doi: 10.1161/CIR.0000000000000923. PMID: 33332150
Otto CM, Nishimura RA, Bonow RO, Carabello BA, Erwin JP 3rd, Gentile F, Jneid H, Krieger EV, Mack M, McLeod C, O'Gara PT, Rigolin VH, Sundt TM 3rd, Thompson A, Toly C
Circulation 2021 Feb 2;143(5):e35-e71. Epub 2020 Dec 17 doi: 10.1161/CIR.0000000000000932. PMID: 33332149

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Malahfji M, Saeed M, Zoghbi WA
Curr Cardiol Rep 2023 Oct;25(10):1373-1380. Epub 2023 Sep 16 doi: 10.1007/s11886-023-01955-x. PMID: 37715804
Kunihara T
J Cardiol 2023 Feb;81(2):119-130. Epub 2022 Oct 20 doi: 10.1016/j.jjcc.2022.10.006. PMID: 36272618
Jentzer JC, Ternus B, Eleid M, Rihal C
J Intensive Care Med 2021 Sep;36(9):975-988. Epub 2020 Apr 21 doi: 10.1177/0885066620918776. PMID: 32314662
Flint N, Wunderlich NC, Shmueli H, Ben-Zekry S, Siegel RJ, Beigel R
Curr Cardiol Rep 2019 Jun 3;21(7):65. doi: 10.1007/s11886-019-1144-6. PMID: 31161305
Akinseye OA, Pathak A, Ibebuogu UN
Curr Probl Cardiol 2018 Aug;43(8):315-334. Epub 2017 Nov 2 doi: 10.1016/j.cpcardiol.2017.10.004. PMID: 29174586

Diagnosis

Kisling A, Gallagher R
Prim Care 2024 Mar;51(1):95-109. Epub 2023 Sep 7 doi: 10.1016/j.pop.2023.08.003. PMID: 38278576
Ehrlich T, de Kerchove L, Vojacek J, Boodhwani M, El-Hamamsy I, De Paulis R, Lansac E, Bavaria JE, El Khoury G, Schäfers HJ
Prog Cardiovasc Dis 2020 Jul-Aug;63(4):457-464. Epub 2020 May 5 doi: 10.1016/j.pcad.2020.04.010. PMID: 32380025
Flint N, Wunderlich NC, Shmueli H, Ben-Zekry S, Siegel RJ, Beigel R
Curr Cardiol Rep 2019 Jun 3;21(7):65. doi: 10.1007/s11886-019-1144-6. PMID: 31161305
ElZein C, Roberson D, Hammad N, Ilbawi M
Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg Pediatr Card Surg Annu 2018 Mar;21:33-40. doi: 10.1053/j.pcsu.2017.11.009. PMID: 29425523
Akinseye OA, Pathak A, Ibebuogu UN
Curr Probl Cardiol 2018 Aug;43(8):315-334. Epub 2017 Nov 2 doi: 10.1016/j.cpcardiol.2017.10.004. PMID: 29174586

Therapy

Eng MH, Tandon V, Greenbaum AB, Fang K
Interv Cardiol Clin 2022 Jul;11(3):233-243. doi: 10.1016/j.iccl.2022.03.004. PMID: 35710279
UK TAVI Trial Investigators, Toff WD, Hildick-Smith D, Kovac J, Mullen MJ, Wendler O, Mansouri A, Rombach I, Abrams KR, Conroy SP, Flather MD, Gray AM, MacCarthy P, Monaghan MJ, Prendergast B, Ray S, Young CP, Crossman DC, Cleland JGF, de Belder MA, Ludman PF, Jones S, Densem CG, Tsui S, Kuduvalli M, Mills JD, Banning AP, Sayeed R, Hasan R, Fraser DGW, Trivedi U, Davies SW, Duncan A, Curzen N, Ohri SK, Malkin CJ, Kaul P, Muir DF, Owens WA, Uren NG, Pessotto R, Kennon S, Awad WI, Khogali SS, Matuszewski M, Edwards RJ, Ramesh BC, Dalby M, Raja SG, Mariscalco G, Lloyd C, Cox ID, Redwood SR, Gunning MG, Ridley PD
JAMA 2022 May 17;327(19):1875-1887. doi: 10.1001/jama.2022.5776. PMID: 35579641Free PMC Article
Makkar RR, Thourani VH, Mack MJ, Kodali SK, Kapadia S, Webb JG, Yoon SH, Trento A, Svensson LG, Herrmann HC, Szeto WY, Miller DC, Satler L, Cohen DJ, Dewey TM, Babaliaros V, Williams MR, Kereiakes DJ, Zajarias A, Greason KL, Whisenant BK, Hodson RW, Brown DL, Fearon WF, Russo MJ, Pibarot P, Hahn RT, Jaber WA, Rogers E, Xu K, Wheeler J, Alu MC, Smith CR, Leon MB; PARTNER 2 Investigators
N Engl J Med 2020 Feb 27;382(9):799-809. Epub 2020 Jan 29 doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1910555. PMID: 31995682
Akinseye OA, Pathak A, Ibebuogu UN
Curr Probl Cardiol 2018 Aug;43(8):315-334. Epub 2017 Nov 2 doi: 10.1016/j.cpcardiol.2017.10.004. PMID: 29174586
Mack MJ, Leon MB, Smith CR, Miller DC, Moses JW, Tuzcu EM, Webb JG, Douglas PS, Anderson WN, Blackstone EH, Kodali SK, Makkar RR, Fontana GP, Kapadia S, Bavaria J, Hahn RT, Thourani VH, Babaliaros V, Pichard A, Herrmann HC, Brown DL, Williams M, Akin J, Davidson MJ, Svensson LG; PARTNER 1 trial investigators
Lancet 2015 Jun 20;385(9986):2477-84. Epub 2015 Mar 15 doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(15)60308-7. PMID: 25788234

Prognosis

Arora S, Lahewala S, Zuzek Z, Thakkar S, Jani C, Jaswaney R, Singh A, Bhyan P, Arora N, Main A, Osman MN, Hoit BD, Attizzani GF, Panaich SS
Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 2021 Jul 1;98(1):E153-E162. Epub 2020 Nov 9 doi: 10.1002/ccd.29379. PMID: 33166062
Ali N, Patel PA, Lindsay SJ
Eur J Heart Fail 2018 Apr;20(4):642-650. Epub 2018 Jan 25 doi: 10.1002/ejhf.1141. PMID: 29368369
Akinseye OA, Pathak A, Ibebuogu UN
Curr Probl Cardiol 2018 Aug;43(8):315-334. Epub 2017 Nov 2 doi: 10.1016/j.cpcardiol.2017.10.004. PMID: 29174586
Masri A, Svensson LG, Griffin BP, Desai MY
Heart 2017 Sep;103(17):1323-1330. Epub 2017 May 10 doi: 10.1136/heartjnl-2016-309916. PMID: 28490615
Mack MJ, Leon MB, Smith CR, Miller DC, Moses JW, Tuzcu EM, Webb JG, Douglas PS, Anderson WN, Blackstone EH, Kodali SK, Makkar RR, Fontana GP, Kapadia S, Bavaria J, Hahn RT, Thourani VH, Babaliaros V, Pichard A, Herrmann HC, Brown DL, Williams M, Akin J, Davidson MJ, Svensson LG; PARTNER 1 trial investigators
Lancet 2015 Jun 20;385(9986):2477-84. Epub 2015 Mar 15 doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(15)60308-7. PMID: 25788234

Clinical prediction guides

Holst T, Petersen J, Ameling S, Müller L, Christ T, Gedeon N, Eschenhagen T, Reichenspurner H, Hammer E, Girdauskas E
Cells 2023 Mar 11;12(6) doi: 10.3390/cells12060878. PMID: 36980219Free PMC Article
Liu L, Chen S, Shi J, Qin C, Guo Y
Ann Thorac Surg 2020 Dec;110(6):1959-1965. Epub 2020 May 11 doi: 10.1016/j.athoracsur.2020.03.112. PMID: 32407852
Hagendorff A, Evangelista A, Fehske W, Schäfers HJ
JACC Cardiovasc Imaging 2019 Nov;12(11 Pt 1):2225-2244. Epub 2019 Mar 13 doi: 10.1016/j.jcmg.2018.06.032. PMID: 30878428
Katsi V, Georgiopoulos G, Oikonomou D, Aggeli C, Grassos C, Papadopoulos DP, Thomopoulos C, Marketou M, Dimitriadis K, Toutouzas K, Nihoyannopoulos P, Tsioufis C, Tousoulis D
Curr Vasc Pharmacol 2019;17(2):180-190. doi: 10.2174/1570161116666180101165306. PMID: 29295699
Akinseye OA, Pathak A, Ibebuogu UN
Curr Probl Cardiol 2018 Aug;43(8):315-334. Epub 2017 Nov 2 doi: 10.1016/j.cpcardiol.2017.10.004. PMID: 29174586

Recent systematic reviews

Fath AR, Mookadam F, Aglan A, Eldaly AS, Jahanyar J, Shamoun F, Lee HR, Solsi A, Israr S, Mihyawi N, Agasthi P, Arsanjani R
Perm J 2022 Sep 14;26(3):103-113. Epub 2022 Aug 2 doi: 10.7812/TPP/21.017. PMID: 35939573Free PMC Article
Galusko V, Thornton G, Jozsa C, Sekar B, Aktuerk D, Treibel TA, Petersen SE, Ionescu A, Ricci F, Khanji MY
Eur Heart J Qual Care Clin Outcomes 2022 Mar 2;8(2):113-126. doi: 10.1093/ehjqcco/qcac001. PMID: 35026012
Katsi V, Georgiopoulos G, Oikonomou D, Aggeli C, Grassos C, Papadopoulos DP, Thomopoulos C, Marketou M, Dimitriadis K, Toutouzas K, Nihoyannopoulos P, Tsioufis C, Tousoulis D
Curr Vasc Pharmacol 2019;17(2):180-190. doi: 10.2174/1570161116666180101165306. PMID: 29295699
Lee JC, Branch KR, Hamilton-Craig C, Krieger EV
Heart 2018 Jan;104(2):103-110. Epub 2017 Aug 19 doi: 10.1136/heartjnl-2016-310819. PMID: 28822982
Barbanti M, Buccheri S, Rodés-Cabau J, Gulino S, Généreux P, Pilato G, Dvir D, Picci A, Costa G, Tamburino C, Leon MB, Webb JG
Int J Cardiol 2017 Oct 15;245:83-89. Epub 2017 Jul 25 doi: 10.1016/j.ijcard.2017.07.083. PMID: 28760396

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