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Blepharophimosis

MedGen UID:
2670
Concept ID:
C0005744
Congenital Abnormality
Synonym: Blepharophimosis (disease)
 
HPO: HP:0000581
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0001008

Definition

A fixed reduction in the vertical distance between the upper and lower eyelids with short palpebral fissures. [from HPO]

Conditions with this feature

DiGeorge syndrome
MedGen UID:
4297
Concept ID:
C0012236
Disease or Syndrome
Individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) can present with a wide range of features that are highly variable, even within families. The major clinical manifestations of 22q11.2DS include congenital heart disease, particularly conotruncal malformations (ventricular septal defect, tetralogy of Fallot, interrupted aortic arch, and truncus arteriosus), palatal abnormalities (velopharyngeal incompetence, submucosal cleft palate, bifid uvula, and cleft palate), immune deficiency, characteristic facial features, and learning difficulties. Hearing loss can be sensorineural and/or conductive. Laryngotracheoesophageal, gastrointestinal, ophthalmologic, central nervous system, skeletal, and genitourinary anomalies also occur. Psychiatric illness and autoimmune disorders are more common in individuals with 22q11.2DS.
Facial hemiatrophy
MedGen UID:
8761
Concept ID:
C0015458
Disease or Syndrome
Unilateral atrophy of facial tissues, including muscles, bones and skin.
Waardenburg syndrome type 3
MedGen UID:
86948
Concept ID:
C0079661
Disease or Syndrome
Waardenburg syndrome type 3 is an auditory-pigmentary syndrome characterized by pigmentary abnormalities of the hair, skin, and eyes; congenital sensorineural hearing loss; presence of 'dystopia canthorum,' the lateral displacement of the ocular inner canthi; and upper limb abnormalities (reviews by Read and Newton, 1997 and Pingault et al., 2010). WS type 3 is also referred to as 'Klein-Waardenburg syndrome' (Gorlin et al., 1976). Clinical Variability of Waardenburg Syndrome Types 1-4 Waardenburg syndrome has been classified into 4 main phenotypes. Type I Waardenburg syndrome (WS1; 193500) is characterized by pigmentary abnormalities of the hair, including a white forelock and premature graying; pigmentary changes of the iris, such as heterochromia iridis and brilliant blue eyes; congenital sensorineural hearing loss; and 'dystopia canthorum.' WS type II (WS2) is distinguished from type I by the absence of dystopia canthorum. WS type III has dystopia canthorum and is distinguished by the presence of upper limb abnormalities. WS type IV (WS4; 277580), also known as Waardenburg-Shah syndrome, has the additional feature of Hirschsprung disease (reviews by Read and Newton, 1997 and Pingault et al., 2010).
Dubowitz syndrome
MedGen UID:
59797
Concept ID:
C0175691
Disease or Syndrome
Dubowitz syndrome (DS) is a rare multiple congenital syndrome characterized primarly by growth retardation, microcephaly, distinctive facial dysmorphism, cutaneous eczema, a mild to severe intellectual deficit and genital abnormalities.
Williams syndrome
MedGen UID:
59799
Concept ID:
C0175702
Disease or Syndrome
Williams syndrome (WS) is characterized by cardiovascular disease (elastin arteriopathy, peripheral pulmonary stenosis, supravalvar aortic stenosis, hypertension), distinctive facies, connective tissue abnormalities, intellectual disability (usually mild), a specific cognitive profile, unique personality characteristics, growth abnormalities, and endocrine abnormalities (hypercalcemia, hypercalciuria, hypothyroidism, and early puberty). Feeding difficulties often lead to poor weight gain in infancy. Hypotonia and hyperextensible joints can result in delayed attainment of motor milestones.
Blepharophimosis, ptosis, and epicanthus inversus syndrome
MedGen UID:
66312
Concept ID:
C0220663
Disease or Syndrome
Blepharophimosis, ptosis, and epicanthus inversus syndrome (BPES) is defined by a complex eyelid malformation characterized by four major features, all present at birth: blepharophimosis, ptosis, epicanthus inversus, and telecanthus. BPES type I includes the four major features and primary ovarian insufficiency; BPES type II includes only the four major features. Other ophthalmic manifestations that can be associated with BPES include dysplastic eyelids, lacrimal duct anomalies, strabismus, refractive errors, and amblyopia. Other craniofacial features may include a broad nasal bridge and low-set ears.
Velocardiofacial syndrome
MedGen UID:
65085
Concept ID:
C0220704
Disease or Syndrome
Individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) can present with a wide range of features that are highly variable, even within families. The major clinical manifestations of 22q11.2DS include congenital heart disease, particularly conotruncal malformations (ventricular septal defect, tetralogy of Fallot, interrupted aortic arch, and truncus arteriosus), palatal abnormalities (velopharyngeal incompetence, submucosal cleft palate, bifid uvula, and cleft palate), immune deficiency, characteristic facial features, and learning difficulties. Hearing loss can be sensorineural and/or conductive. Laryngotracheoesophageal, gastrointestinal, ophthalmologic, central nervous system, skeletal, and genitourinary anomalies also occur. Psychiatric illness and autoimmune disorders are more common in individuals with 22q11.2DS.
Cerebrooculofacioskeletal syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
66320
Concept ID:
C0220722
Disease or Syndrome
An autosomal recessive subtype of cerebrooculofacioskeletal syndrome caused by mutation(s) in the ERCC6 gene, encoding DNA excision repair protein ERCC-6.
Fryns syndrome
MedGen UID:
65088
Concept ID:
C0220730
Disease or Syndrome
Fryns syndrome is characterized by diaphragmatic defects (diaphragmatic hernia, eventration, hypoplasia, or agenesis); characteristic facial appearance (coarse facies, wide-set eyes, a wide and depressed nasal bridge with a broad nasal tip, long philtrum, low-set and anomalous ears, tented vermilion of the upper lip, wide mouth, and a small jaw); short distal phalanges of the fingers and toes (the nails may also be small); pulmonary hypoplasia; and associated anomalies (polyhydramnios, cloudy corneas and/or microphthalmia, orofacial clefting, renal dysplasia / renal cortical cysts, and/or malformations involving the brain, cardiovascular system, gastrointestinal system, and/or genitalia). Survival beyond the neonatal period is rare. Data on postnatal growth and psychomotor development are limited; however, severe developmental delay and intellectual disability are common.
Freeman-Sheldon syndrome
MedGen UID:
120516
Concept ID:
C0265224
Disease or Syndrome
Freeman-Sheldon syndrome (FSS), or DA2A, is phenotypically similar to DA1. In addition to contractures of the hands and feet, FSS is characterized by oropharyngeal abnormalities, scoliosis, and a distinctive face that includes a very small oral orifice (often only a few millimeters in diameter at birth), puckered lips, and an H-shaped dimple of the chin; hence, FSS has been called 'whistling face syndrome.' The limb phenotypes of DA1 and FSS may be so similar that they can only be distinguished by the differences in facial morphology (summary by Bamshad et al., 2009). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of distal arthrogryposis, see DA1 (108120).
Craniofacial microsomia
MedGen UID:
75554
Concept ID:
C0265240
Disease or Syndrome
A rare congenital malformation syndrome, most commonly presenting with hemifacial microsomia associated with ear and/or eye malformations and vertebral anomalies of variable severity. Additional malformations involving the heart, kidneys, central nervous, digestive and skeletal systems may also be associated. The phenotypic spectrum ranges from isolated mild facial asymmetry to severe bilateral craniofacial microsomia and additional multiple extracranial abnormalities. Intelligence is typically normal. The aetiology is poorly understood but is suspected to be heterogeneous and multifactorial. The gene MYT1 (20q13.33) has been implicated in a few rare cases, and chromosomal abnormalities have been associated with some of the congenital malformations associated with this condition. The condition usually occurs sporadically, but autosomal dominant inheritance has been reported.
Borjeson-Forssman-Lehmann syndrome
MedGen UID:
78557
Concept ID:
C0265339
Disease or Syndrome
Borjeson-Forssman-Lehmann syndrome (BFLS) is an uncommon X-linked intellectual developmental disorder that evolves with age. Clinical manifestations in males are quite variable, with the most consistent features being initial hypotonia, mild to moderate impaired intellectual development, large fleshy ears, underdeveloped genitalia, gynecomastia, truncal obesity, tapering fingers, and shortening of the fourth and fifth toes. Heterozygous females may have a milder similar clinical phenotype, which can include hypothyroidism; however, many carrier females appear unaffected (summary by Crawford et al., 2006).
Deletion of long arm of chromosome 18
MedGen UID:
96605
Concept ID:
C0432443
Disease or Syndrome
Monosomy 18q is a partial deletion of the long arm of chromosome 18 characterized by highly variable phenotype, most commonly including hypotonia, developmental delay, short stature, growth hormone deficiency, hearing loss and external ear anomalies, intellectual disability, palatal defects, dysmorphic facial features, skeletal anomalies (foot deformities, tapering fingers, scoliosis) and mood disorders.
Microphthalmia with limb anomalies
MedGen UID:
154638
Concept ID:
C0599973
Disease or Syndrome
Ophthalmo-acromelic syndrome is a condition that results in malformations of the eyes, hands, and feet. The features of this condition are present from birth. The eyes are often absent or severely underdeveloped (anophthalmia), or they may be abnormally small (microphthalmia). Usually both eyes are similarly affected in this condition, but if only one eye is small or missing, the other eye may have a defect such as a gap or split in its structures (coloboma).\n\nThe most common hand and foot malformation seen in ophthalmo-acromelic syndrome is missing fingers or toes (oligodactyly). Other frequent malformations include fingers or toes that are fused together (syndactyly) or extra fingers or toes (polydactyly). These skeletal malformations are often described as acromelic, meaning that they occur in the bones that are away from the center of the body. Additional skeletal abnormalities involving the long bones of the arms and legs or the spinal bones (vertebrae) can also occur. Affected individuals may have distinctive facial features, an opening in the lip (cleft lip) with or without an opening in the roof of the mouth (cleft palate), or intellectual disability.
Curry-Jones syndrome
MedGen UID:
167083
Concept ID:
C0795915
Disease or Syndrome
Curry-Jones syndrome (CRJS) is a multisystem disorder characterized by patchy skin lesions, polysyndactyly, diverse cerebral malformations, unicoronal craniosynostosis, iris colobomas, microphthalmia, and intestinal malrotation with myofibromas or hamartomas (summary by Twigg et al., 2016).
3MC syndrome 3
MedGen UID:
208657
Concept ID:
C0796032
Disease or Syndrome
The term '3MC syndrome' encompasses 4 rare autosomal recessive disorders that were previously designated the Carnevale, Mingarelli, Malpuech, and Michels syndromes, respectively. The main features of these syndromes are facial dysmorphism that includes hypertelorism, blepharophimosis, blepharoptosis, and highly arched eyebrows, which are present in 70 to 95% of cases. Cleft lip and palate, postnatal growth deficiency, cognitive impairment, and hearing loss are also consistent findings, occurring in 40 to 68% of cases. Craniosynostosis, radioulnar synostosis, and genital and vesicorenal anomalies occur in 20 to 30% of cases. Rare features include anterior chamber defects, cardiac anomalies, caudal appendage, umbilical hernia (omphalocele), and diastasis recti (summary by Rooryck et al., 2011). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of 3MC syndrome, see 3MC1 (257920).
Marden-Walker syndrome
MedGen UID:
163206
Concept ID:
C0796033
Disease or Syndrome
Marden-Walker syndrome (MWKS) is characterized by psychomotor retardation, a mask-like face with blepharophimosis, micrognathia and a high-arched or cleft palate, low-set ears, kyphoscoliosis, and joint contractures. Other features may include Dandy-Walker malformation with hydrocephalus and vertebral abnormalities (summary by Schrander-Stumpel et al., 1993). There are 2 distal arthrogryposis syndromes with features overlapping those of Marden-Walker syndrome that are also caused by heterozygous mutation in PIEZO2: distal arthrogryposis type 3 (DA3, or Gordon syndrome; 114300) and distal arthrogryposis type 5 (DA5; 108145), which are distinguished by the presence of cleft palate and ocular abnormalities, respectively. McMillin et al. (2014) suggested that the 3 disorders may represent variable expressivity of the same condition.
3MC syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
167100
Concept ID:
C0796059
Disease or Syndrome
The term '3MC syndrome' encompasses 4 rare autosomal recessive disorders that were previously designated the Carnevale, Mingarelli, Malpuech, and Michels syndromes, respectively. The main features of these syndromes are facial dysmorphism that includes hypertelorism, blepharophimosis, blepharoptosis, and highly arched eyebrows, which are present in 70 to 95% of cases. Cleft lip and palate, postnatal growth deficiency, cognitive impairment, and hearing loss are also consistent findings, occurring in 40 to 68% of cases. Craniosynostosis, radioulnar synostosis, and genital and vesicorenal anomalies occur in 20 to 30% of cases. Rare features include anterior chamber defects, cardiac anomalies, caudal appendage, umbilical hernia (omphalocele), and diastasis recti (summary by Rooryck et al., 2011). Genetic Heterogeneity of 3MC Syndrome Also see 3MC syndrome-2 (3MC2; 265050), caused by mutation in the COLEC11 gene (612502), and 3MC syndrome-3 (3MC3; 248340), caused by mutation in the COLEC1 gene (607620).
Myhre syndrome
MedGen UID:
167103
Concept ID:
C0796081
Disease or Syndrome
Myhre syndrome is a connective tissue disorder with multisystem involvement, progressive and proliferative fibrosis that may occur spontaneously or following trauma or surgery, mild-to-moderate intellectual disability, and in some instances, autistic-like behaviors. Organ systems primarily involved include: cardiovascular (congenital heart defects, long- and short-segment stenosis of the aorta and peripheral arteries, pericardial effusion, constrictive pericarditis, restrictive cardiomyopathy, and hypertension); respiratory (choanal stenosis, laryngotracheal narrowing, obstructive airway disease, or restrictive pulmonary disease), gastrointestinal (pyloric stenosis, duodenal strictures, severe constipation); and skin (thickened particularly on the hands and extensor surfaces). Additional findings include distinctive craniofacial features and skeletal involvement (intrauterine growth restriction, short stature, limited joint range of motion). To date, 55 individuals with molecularly confirmed Myhre syndrome have been reported.
Blepharophimosis - intellectual disability syndrome, Ohdo type
MedGen UID:
162905
Concept ID:
C0796094
Disease or Syndrome
A rare multiple congenital malformation syndrome with characteristics of blepharophimosis, ptosis, dental hypoplasia, hearing impairment and intellectual disability. Abnormal ears, microcephaly, and growth retardation have been reported occasionally. Male patients may show cryptorchidism and scrotal hypoplasia. Most reported cases are sporadic, except the original cases of Ohdo who described two affected sisters and a first cousin, suggesting autosomal recessive inheritance. Autosomal dominant, X-linked- and mitochondrial inheritance have also been suggested.
Toriello-Carey syndrome
MedGen UID:
163225
Concept ID:
C0796184
Disease or Syndrome
Toriello-Carey syndrome is a multiple congenital anomaly disorder with variable systemic manifestations, most commonly including mental retardation, agenesis of the corpus callosum, postnatal growth delay, cardiac defects, usually septal defects, distal limb defects, and urogenital anomalies in affected males. Patients have facial dysmorphic features, micrognathia, including full cheeks, hypertelorism, flattened nasal bridge, anteverted nares, and short neck. Not all features are found in all patients and some patients may have additional features such as anal anomalies or hernias (summary by Toriello et al., 2003). In a review of the Toriello-Carey syndrome, Toriello et al. (2016) stated that while corpus callosum abnormalities and micrognathia with highly arched or cleft palate are seen in most patients, other manifestations are widely variable. They noted that etiologic heterogeneity has been observed in reported patients, with at least 20% of patients having chromosome anomalies, and that no good candidate genes have been identified by exome sequencing. The authors commented that this condition might not be a unitary diagnostic entity. They recommended chromosome microarray for any child suspected of having the condition, followed by standard of care by genetic testing.
3MC syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
167115
Concept ID:
C0796279
Disease or Syndrome
The term '3MC syndrome' encompasses 4 rare autosomal recessive disorders that were previously designated the Carnevale, Mingarelli, Malpuech, and Michels syndromes, respectively. The main features of these syndromes are facial dysmorphism that includes hypertelorism, blepharophimosis, blepharoptosis, and highly arched eyebrows, which are present in 70 to 95% of cases. Cleft lip and palate, postnatal growth deficiency, cognitive impairment, and hearing loss are also consistent findings, occurring in 40 to 68% of cases. Craniosynostosis, radioulnar synostosis, and genital and vesicorenal anomalies occur in 20 to 30% of cases. Rare features include anterior chamber defects, cardiac anomalies, caudal appendage, umbilical hernia (omphalocele), and diastasis recti (summary by Rooryck et al., 2011). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of 3MC syndrome, see 3MC1 (257920).
Acromegaloid facial appearance syndrome
MedGen UID:
167116
Concept ID:
C0796280
Disease or Syndrome
Acromegaloid facial appearance (AFA) syndrome is a multiple congenital anomalies/dysmorphic syndrome with a probable autosomal dominant inheritance, characterized by a progressively coarse acromegaloid-like facial appearance with thickening of the lips and intraoral mucosa, large and doughy hands and, in some cases, developmental delay. AFA syndrome appears to be part of a phenotypic spectrum that includes hypertrichotic osteochondrodysplasia, Cantu type and hypertrichosis-acromegaloid facial appearance syndrome.
Oculodentodigital dysplasia
MedGen UID:
167236
Concept ID:
C0812437
Congenital Abnormality
Oculodentodigital syndrome is characterized by a typical facial appearance and variable involvement of the eyes, dentition, and fingers. Characteristic facial features include a narrow, pinched nose with hypoplastic alae nasi, prominent columella and thin anteverted nares together with a narrow nasal bridge, and prominent epicanthic folds giving the impression of hypertelorism. The teeth are usually small and carious. Typical eye findings include microphthalmia and microcornea. The characteristic digital malformation is complete syndactyly of the fourth and fifth fingers (syndactyly type III) but the third finger may be involved and associated camptodactyly is a common finding (summary by Judisch et al., 1979). Neurologic abnormalities are sometimes associated (Gutmann et al., 1991), and lymphedema has been reported in some patients with ODDD (Brice et al., 2013). See review by De Bock et al. (2013). Genetic Heterogeneity of Oculodentodigital Syndrome An autosomal recessive form of ODDD (257850) is also caused by mutation in the GJA1 gene, but the majority of cases are autosomal dominant.
Fetal akinesia deformation sequence 1
MedGen UID:
220903
Concept ID:
C1276035
Disease or Syndrome
Decreased fetal activity associated with multiple joint contractures, facial anomalies and pulmonary hypoplasia. Ultrasound examination may reveal polyhydramnios, ankylosis, scalp edema, and decreased chest movements (reflecting pulmonary hypoplasia).
Andersen Tawil syndrome
MedGen UID:
327586
Concept ID:
C1563715
Disease or Syndrome
Andersen-Tawil syndrome (ATS) is characterized by a triad of: episodic flaccid muscle weakness (i.e., periodic paralysis); ventricular arrhythmias and prolonged QT interval; and anomalies including low-set ears, widely spaced eyes, small mandible, fifth-digit clinodactyly, syndactyly, short stature, and scoliosis. Affected individuals present in the first or second decade with either cardiac symptoms (palpitations and/or syncope) or weakness that occurs spontaneously following prolonged rest or following rest after exertion. Mild permanent weakness is common. Mild learning difficulties and a distinct neurocognitive phenotype (i.e., deficits in executive function and abstract reasoning) have been described.
MMEP syndrome
MedGen UID:
330469
Concept ID:
C1832440
Disease or Syndrome
A congenital syndromic form of split-hand/foot malformation with features of microcephaly, microphthalmia, ectrodactyly of the lower limbs and prognathism. Intellectual deficit has been reported. MMEP syndrome is considered to be a very rare condition. Disruption of the sorting nexin 3 gene (SNX3; 6q21) has been shown to play a causative role in MMEP.
Matthew-Wood syndrome
MedGen UID:
318679
Concept ID:
C1832661
Disease or Syndrome
Syndromic microphthalmia-9 (MCOPS9), also referred to as pulmonary hypoplasia-diaphragmatic hernia-anophthalmia-cardiac defect, is characterized by bilateral clinical anophthalmia, pulmonary hypoplasia/aplasia, cardiac malformations, and diaphragmatic defects. The phenotype is variable, ranging from isolated clinical anophthalmia or microphthalmia to complex presentations involving the cardiac, pulmonary, diaphragmatic, and renal systems. At its most severe, infants are born without pulmonary structures and die soon after birth (Marcadier et al., 2015).
Van den Ende-Gupta syndrome
MedGen UID:
322127
Concept ID:
C1833136
Disease or Syndrome
Van den Ende-Gupta syndrome (VDEGS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by severe contractual arachnodactyly from birth and distinctive facial dysmorphism, including triangular face, malar hypoplasia, narrow nose, everted lips, and blepharophimosis. Skeletal anomalies include slender ribs, hooked clavicles, and dislocated radial head. There is no neurologic involvement (summary by Patel et al., 2014).
Schilbach-Rott syndrome
MedGen UID:
371716
Concept ID:
C1834038
Disease or Syndrome
Schilbach-Rott syndrome (SBRS) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by hypotelorism, epicanthal folds, cleft palate, dysmorphic facies, and hypospadias in males. The phenotype is variable; mild mental retardation has been reported (summary by Shkalim et al., 2009).
Amyotrophic neuralgia
MedGen UID:
320318
Concept ID:
C1834304
Disease or Syndrome
Hereditary neuralgic amyotrophy (HNA) is an autosomal dominant form of recurrent focal neuropathy characterized clinically by acute, recurrent episodes of brachial plexus neuropathy with muscle weakness and atrophy preceded by severe pain in the affected arm.
Leri pleonosteosis
MedGen UID:
331978
Concept ID:
C1835450
Disease or Syndrome
Leri pleonosteosis is an autosomal dominant skeletal disorder characterized by flexion contractures of the interphalangeal joints, limited movement of multiple joints, and short, broad metacarpals, metatarsals, and phalanges. Additional features may include chronic joint pain, short stature, bony overgrowths, spinal cord compression, scleroderma-like skin changes, and blepharophimosis. The clinical features overlap with several other musculoskeletal conditions, including Myhre syndrome (MYHRS; 139210) and geleophysic dysplasia (GPHYSD1; 231050) (summary by Banka et al., 2015).
Choanal atresia-hearing loss-cardiac defects-craniofacial dysmorphism syndrome
MedGen UID:
325265
Concept ID:
C1837822
Disease or Syndrome
TXNL4A-related craniofacial disorders comprise a range of phenotypes that includes: isolated choanal atresia; choanal atresia with minor anomalies; and Burn-McKeown syndrome (BMKS), which is characterized by typical craniofacial features (bilateral choanal atresia/stenosis, short palpebral fissures, coloboma of the lower eyelids, prominent nasal bridge with widely spaced eyes, short philtrum, thin vermilion of the upper lip, and prominent ears). Hearing loss is common and cardiac defects and short stature have been reported. Intellectual disability is rare.
8q22.1 microdeletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
334165
Concept ID:
C1842464
Disease or Syndrome
Nablus mask-like facial syndrome (NMLFS) is a rare entity defined by distinctive facial features, including blepharophimosis, tight-appearing glistening facial skin, an abnormal hair pattern with an upswept frontal hairline, sparse arched eyebrows, flat and broad nose, long philtrum, distinctive ears, and a happy demeanor (summary by Jain et al., 2010).
Chromosome 1p36 deletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
334629
Concept ID:
C1842870
Disease or Syndrome
The constitutional deletion of chromosome 1p36 results in a syndrome with multiple congenital anomalies and mental retardation (Shapira et al., 1997). Monosomy 1p36 is the most common terminal deletion syndrome in humans, occurring in 1 in 5,000 births (Shaffer and Lupski, 2000; Heilstedt et al., 2003). See also neurodevelopmental disorder with or without anomalies of the brain, eye, or heart (NEDBEH; 616975), which shows overlapping features and is caused by heterozygous mutation in the RERE gene (605226) on proximal chromosome 1p36. See also Radio-Tartaglia syndrome (RATARS; 619312), caused by mutation in the SPEN gene (613484) on chromosome 1p36, which shows overlapping features.
Intellectual disability, X-linked 92
MedGen UID:
335109
Concept ID:
C1845144
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Syndromic X-linked intellectual disability Shashi type
MedGen UID:
335348
Concept ID:
C1846145
Disease or Syndrome
The Shashi type of X-linked syndromic intellectual developmental disorder (MRXSSH) is characterized by moderately impaired intellectual development and distinctive craniofacial skeletal structure and dysmorphism (Shashi et al., 2015).
Oculofaciocardiodental syndrome
MedGen UID:
337547
Concept ID:
C1846265
Disease or Syndrome
Oculofaciocardiodental (OFCD) syndrome is a condition that affects the development of the eyes (oculo-), facial features (facio-), heart (cardio-) and teeth (dental). This condition occurs only in females.\n\nThe eye abnormalities associated with OFCD syndrome can affect one or both eyes. Many people with this condition are born with eyeballs that are abnormally small (microphthalmia). Other eye problems can include clouding of the lens (cataract) and a higher risk of glaucoma, an eye disease that increases the pressure in the eye. These abnormalities can lead to vision loss or blindness.\n\nPeople with OFCD syndrome often have a long, narrow face with distinctive facial features, including deep-set eyes and a broad nasal tip that is divided by a cleft. Some affected people have an opening in the roof of the mouth called a cleft palate.\n\nHeart defects are another common feature of OFCD syndrome. Babies with this condition may be born with a hole between two chambers of the heart (an atrial or ventricular septal defect) or a leak in one of the valves that controls blood flow through the heart (mitral valve prolapse).\n\nTeeth with very large roots (radiculomegaly) are characteristic of OFCD syndrome. Additional dental abnormalities can include delayed loss of primary (baby) teeth, missing or abnormally small teeth, misaligned teeth, and defective tooth enamel.
Intellectual disability-obesity-prognathism-eye and skin anomalies syndrome
MedGen UID:
376145
Concept ID:
C1847522
Disease or Syndrome
A rare genetic syndromic intellectual disability disorder with characteristics of mild to profound intellectual disability, delayed speech, obesity, ocular anomalies (blepharophimosis, blepharoptosis, hyperopic astigmatism, decreased visual acuity, strabismus, abducens nerve palsy, and/or accommodative esotropia), and dermal manifestations, such as chronic atopic dermatitis. Associated craniofacial dysmorphism includes macrocephaly, maxillary hypoplasia, mandibular prognathism and crowding of teeth.
Waardenburg syndrome type 1
MedGen UID:
376211
Concept ID:
C1847800
Disease or Syndrome
Waardenburg syndrome type I (WS1) is an auditory-pigmentary disorder comprising congenital sensorineural hearing loss and pigmentary disturbances of the iris, hair, and skin along with dystopia canthorum (lateral displacement of the inner canthi). The hearing loss in WS1, observed in approximately 60% of affected individuals, is congenital, typically non-progressive, either unilateral or bilateral, and sensorineural. Most commonly, hearing loss in WS1 is bilateral and profound (>100 dB). The majority of individuals with WS1 have either a white forelock or early graying of the scalp hair before age 30 years. The classic white forelock observed in approximately 45% of individuals is the most common hair pigmentation anomaly seen in WS1. Affected individuals may have complete heterochromia iridium, partial/segmental heterochromia, or hypoplastic or brilliant blue irides. Congenital leukoderma is frequently seen on the face, trunk, or limbs.
Fetal akinesia syndrome, X-linked
MedGen UID:
341166
Concept ID:
C1848171
Disease or Syndrome
Whistling face syndrome, recessive form
MedGen UID:
376364
Concept ID:
C1848470
Disease or Syndrome
Whistling face syndrome is characterized by an atypical facial appearance with anomalies of the hands and feet. Most cases show autosomal dominant inheritance: see distal arthrogryposis 2A (DA2A; 193700). There are rare reports of presumably autosomal recessive inheritance (summary by Altunhan et al., 2010).
Rapadilino syndrome
MedGen UID:
336602
Concept ID:
C1849453
Disease or Syndrome
RAPADILINO syndrome is a rare condition that involves many parts of the body. Bone development is especially affected, causing many of the characteristic features of the condition.\n\nMost affected individuals have underdevelopment or absence of the bones in the forearms and the thumbs, which are known as radial ray malformations. The kneecaps (patellae) can also be underdeveloped or absent. Other features include an opening in the roof of the mouth (cleft palate) or a high arched palate; a long, slender nose; and dislocated joints.\n\nMany infants with RAPADILINO syndrome have difficulty feeding and experience diarrhea and vomiting. The combination of impaired bone development and feeding problems leads to slow growth and short stature in affected individuals.\n\nSome individuals with RAPADILINO syndrome have harmless light brown patches of skin that resemble a skin finding known as café-au-lait spots. In addition, people with RAPADILINO syndrome have a slightly increased risk of developing a type of bone cancer known as osteosarcoma or a blood-related cancer called lymphoma. In individuals with RAPADILINO syndrome, osteosarcoma most often develops during childhood or adolescence, and lymphoma typically develops in young adulthood.\n\nThe condition name is an acronym for the characteristic features of the disorder: RA for radial ray malformations, PA for patella and palate abnormalities, DI for diarrhea and dislocated joints, LI for limb abnormalities and little size, and NO for slender nose and normal intelligence.\n\nThe varied signs and symptoms of RAPADILINO syndrome overlap with features of other disorders, namely Baller-Gerold syndrome and Rothmund-Thomson syndrome. These syndromes are also characterized by radial ray defects, skeletal abnormalities, and slow growth. All of these conditions can be caused by mutations in the same gene. Based on these similarities, researchers are investigating whether Baller-Gerold syndrome, Rothmund-Thomson syndrome, and RAPADILINO syndrome are separate disorders or part of a single syndrome with overlapping signs and symptoms.
Bartsocas-Papas syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
337894
Concept ID:
C1849718
Disease or Syndrome
Bartsocas-Papas syndrome-1 (BPS1) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by multiple popliteal pterygia, ankyloblepharon, filiform bands between the jaws, cleft lip and palate, and syndactyly. Early lethality is common, although survival into childhood and beyond has been reported (summary by Mitchell et al., 2012). Genetic Heterogeneity of Bartsocas-Papas Syndrome Bartsocas-Papas syndrome-2 (BPS2) is caused by mutation in the CHUK gene (600664). A less severe form of popliteal pterygium syndrome (PPS; 119500) is caused by mutation in the IRF6 gene (607199).
Pelviscapular dysplasia
MedGen UID:
342400
Concept ID:
C1850040
Disease or Syndrome
Syndrome with characteristics of pelviscapular dysplasia with epiphyseal abnormalities, congenital dwarfism and facial dysmorphism. The facial dysmorphism has manifestations of frontal bossing, hypertelorism, narrow palpebral fissures, deep-set eyes, strabismus, low-set posteriorly rotated and malformed ears, dysplasia of conchae, a small chin, a short neck with redundant skin folds, and a low hairline. Intelligence may vary from normal to moderately impaired. Radiographic features comprise aplasia of the body of the scapula, hypoplasia of the iliac bone, humeroradial synostosis, dislocation of the femoral heads, and moderate brachydactyly. Mutations in the TBX15 gene have been identified as potentially causative. Pelviscapular dysplasia is phenotypically similar to pelvis-shoulder dysplasia.
Autosomal recessive omodysplasia
MedGen UID:
340513
Concept ID:
C1850318
Disease or Syndrome
Omodysplasia-1 (OMOD1) is a rare autosomal recessive skeletal dysplasia characterized by severe congenital micromelia with shortening and distal tapering of the humeri and femora to give a club-like appearance. Typical facial features include a prominent forehead, frontal bossing, short nose with a depressed broad bridge, short columella, anteverted nostrils, long philtrum, and small chin. Variable findings are cryptorchidism, hernias, congenital heart defects, and cognitive delay (Elcioglu et al., 2004; Albano et al., 2007). Genetic Heterogeneity of Omodysplasia Also see omodysplasia-2 (OMOD2; 164745), an autosomal dominant form of the disorder in which abnormalities are limited to the upper limbs. The facial changes and typical growth defect of the distal humerus with complex deformity of the elbows appear to be similar in both entities (Baxova et al., 1994).
Bailey-Bloch congenital myopathy
MedGen UID:
340586
Concept ID:
C1850625
Disease or Syndrome
STAC3 disorder is characterized by congenital myopathy, musculoskeletal involvement of the trunk and extremities, feeding difficulties, and delayed motor milestones. Most affected individuals have weakness with myopathic facies, scoliosis, kyphosis or kyphoscoliosis, and contractures. Other common findings are ptosis, abnormalities of the palate (including cleft palate), and short stature. Risk for malignant hyperthermia susceptibility and restrictive lung disease are increased. Intellect is typically normal. Originally described in individuals from the Lumbee Native American tribe (an admixture of Cheraw Indian, English, and African American ancestry) in the state of North Carolina and reported as Native American myopathy, STAC3 disorder has now been identified in numerous other populations worldwide.
Ectrodactyly, ectodermal dysplasia, and cleft lip-palate syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
343663
Concept ID:
C1851841
Disease or Syndrome
An EEC syndrome characterized by autosomal dominant inheritance that has material basis in variation in the chromosome region 7q11.2-q21.3.
Cerebrooculofacioskeletal syndrome 4
MedGen UID:
342798
Concept ID:
C1853100
Disease or Syndrome
Cerebrooculofacioskeletal syndrome-4 (COFS4) is a severe autosomal recessive disorder characterized by growth retardation, dysmorphic facial features, arthrogryposis, and neurologic abnormalities. Cellular studies show a defect in both transcription-coupled and global genome nucleotide excision repair (TC-NER and GG-NER) (summary by Jaspers et al., 2007 and Kashiyama et al., 2013). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of cerebrooculofacioskeletal syndrome, see 214150.
MOGS-congenital disorder of glycosylation
MedGen UID:
342954
Concept ID:
C1853736
Disease or Syndrome
A form of congenital disorders of N-linked glycosylation characterized by generalized hypotonia, craniofacial dysmorphism (prominent occiput, short palpebral fissures, long eyelashes, broad nose, high arched palate, retrognathia), hypoplastic genitalia, seizures, feeding difficulties, hypoventilation, severe hypogammaglobulinemia with generalized edema and increased resistance to particular viral infections (particularly to enveloped viruses). The disease is caused by loss-of-function mutations in the gene MOGS (2p13.1).
Frontoocular syndrome
MedGen UID:
344278
Concept ID:
C1854405
Disease or Syndrome
Wiedemann-Steiner syndrome
MedGen UID:
340266
Concept ID:
C1854630
Disease or Syndrome
Wiedemann-Steiner syndrome (WSS) is characterized by developmental delay, intellectual disability, and characteristic facial features, with or without additional congenital anomalies. The facial features include thick eyebrows with lateral flare, vertically narrow and downslanted palpebral fissures, widely spaced eyes, long eyelashes, wide nasal bridge, broad nasal tip, thin vermilion of the upper lip, and thick scalp hair. About 60% of affected individuals have hypertrichosis cubiti ("hairy elbows"), which was once thought to be pathognomic for the syndrome, with a majority having hypertrichosis of other body parts. Other clinical features include feeding difficulties, prenatal and postnatal growth restriction, epilepsy, ophthalmologic anomalies, congenital heart defects, hand anomalies (such as brachydactyly and clinodactyly), hypotonia, vertebral anomalies (especially fusion anomalies of the cervical spine), renal and uterine anomalies, immune dysfunction, brain malformations, and dental anomalies.
Oculocerebrofacial syndrome, Kaufman type
MedGen UID:
343403
Concept ID:
C1855663
Disease or Syndrome
Kaufman oculocerebrofacial syndrome (KOS) is characterized by developmental delay, severe intellectual disability, and distinctive craniofacial features. Most affected children have prenatal-onset microcephaly, hypotonia, and growth deficiency. Feeding issues, ocular abnormalities, hearing impairment, and respiratory tract abnormalities are common. Ocular abnormalities can include structural abnormalities (microcornea or microphthalmia, coloboma, optic nerve hypoplasia), refractive errors (myopia ± astigmatism, hyperopia), strabismus, and entropion. Both conductive and sensorineural hearing loss have been reported as well as mixed conductive-sensorineural hearing loss of variable severity. Breathing problems can lead to prolonged hospitalization after birth in more than half of individuals. Less common findings include ectodermal abnormalities, cardiac manifestations, urogenital abnormalities, seizures, and skeletal abnormalities.
Blepharophimosis - intellectual disability syndrome, Verloes type
MedGen UID:
347661
Concept ID:
C1858538
Disease or Syndrome
Blepharophimosis-intellectual disability syndrome, Verloes type is a rare, genetic multiple congenital anomalies/dysmorphic syndrome characterized by congenital microcephaly, severe epilepsy with hypsarrhythmia, adducted thumbs, abnormal genitalia, and normal thyroid function. Hypotonia, moderate to severe psychomotor delay, and characteristic facial dysmorphism (including round face with prominent cheeks, blepharophimosis, large, bulbous nose with wide alae nasi, posteriorly rotated ears with dysplastic conchae, narrow mouth, cleft palate, and mild micrognathia) are additional characteristic features.
Ectrodactyly, ectodermal dysplasia, and cleft lip-palate syndrome 3
MedGen UID:
347666
Concept ID:
C1858562
Disease or Syndrome
The TP63-related disorders comprise six overlapping phenotypes: Ankyloblepharon-ectodermal defects-cleft lip/palate (AEC) syndrome (which includes Rapp-Hodgkin syndrome). Acro-dermo-ungual-lacrimal-tooth (ADULT) syndrome. Ectrodactyly, ectodermal dysplasia, cleft lip/palate syndrome 3 (EEC3). Limb-mammary syndrome. Split-hand/foot malformation type 4 (SHFM4). Isolated cleft lip/cleft palate (orofacial cleft 8). Individuals typically have varying combinations of ectodermal dysplasia (hypohidrosis, nail dysplasia, sparse hair, tooth abnormalities), cleft lip/palate, split-hand/foot malformation/syndactyly, lacrimal duct obstruction, hypopigmentation, hypoplastic breasts and/or nipples, and hypospadias. Findings associated with a single phenotype include ankyloblepharon filiforme adnatum (tissue strands that completely or partially fuse the upper and lower eyelids), skin erosions especially on the scalp associated with areas of scarring, and alopecia, trismus, and excessive freckling.
Blepharophimosis-ptosis-esotropia-syndactyly-short stature syndrome
MedGen UID:
347880
Concept ID:
C1859432
Disease or Syndrome
A rare syndrome characterised by the association of blepharophimosis and ptosis, V-esotropia, and weakness of extraocular and frontal muscles with syndactyly of the toes, short stature, prognathism, and hypertrophy and fusion of the eyebrows.
Arterial tortuosity syndrome
MedGen UID:
347942
Concept ID:
C1859726
Disease or Syndrome
Arterial tortuosity syndrome (ATS) is characterized by widespread elongation and tortuosity of the aorta and mid-sized arteries as well as focal stenosis of segments of the pulmonary arteries and/or aorta combined with findings of a generalized connective tissue disorder, which may include soft or doughy hyperextensible skin, joint hypermobility, inguinal hernia, and diaphragmatic hernia. Skeletal findings include pectus excavatum or carinatum, arachnodactyly, scoliosis, knee/elbow contractures, and camptodactyly. The cardiovascular system is the major source of morbidity and mortality with increased risk at any age for aneurysm formation and dissection both at the aortic root and throughout the arterial tree, and for ischemic vascular events involving cerebrovascular circulation (resulting in non-hemorrhagic stroke) and the abdominal arteries (resulting in infarctions of abdominal organs).
Camptomelic dysplasia
MedGen UID:
354620
Concept ID:
C1861922
Disease or Syndrome
Campomelic dysplasia (CD) is a skeletal dysplasia characterized by distinctive facies, Pierre Robin sequence with cleft palate, shortening and bowing of long bones, and clubfeet. Other findings include laryngotracheomalacia with respiratory compromise and ambiguous genitalia or normal female external genitalia in most individuals with a 46,XY karyotype. Many affected infants die in the neonatal period; additional findings identified in long-term survivors include short stature, cervical spine instability with cord compression, progressive scoliosis, and hearing impairment.
Arthrogryposis- oculomotor limitation-electroretinal anomalies syndrome
MedGen UID:
350678
Concept ID:
C1862472
Disease or Syndrome
Distal arthrogryposis type 5 is distinguished from other forms of DA by the presence of ocular abnormalities, typically ptosis, ophthalmoplegia, and/or strabismus, in addition to contractures of the skeletal muscles. Some cases have been reported to have pulmonary hypertension as a result of restrictive lung disease (summary by Bamshad et al., 2009). There are 2 syndromes with features overlapping those of DA5 that are also caused by heterozygous mutation in PIEZO2: distal arthrogryposis type 3 (DA3, or Gordon syndrome; 114300) and Marden-Walker syndrome (MWKS; 248700), which are distinguished by the presence of cleft palate and mental retardation, respectively. McMillin et al. (2014) suggested that the 3 disorders might represent variable expressivity of the same condition. For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of distal arthrogryposis, see DA1A (108120). Genetic Heterogeneity of Distal Arthrogryposis 5 A subtype of DA5 due to mutation in the ECEL1 gene (605896) on chromosome 2q36 has been designated DA5D (615065). See NOMENCLATURE.
Blepharophimosis - intellectual disability syndrome, SBBYS type
MedGen UID:
350209
Concept ID:
C1863557
Disease or Syndrome
KAT6B disorders include genitopatellar syndrome (GPS) and Say-Barber-Biesecker-Young-Simpson variant of Ohdo syndrome (SBBYSS) which are part of a broad phenotypic spectrum with variable expressivity; individuals presenting with a phenotype intermediate between GPS and SBBYSS have been reported. Both phenotypes are characterized by some degree of global developmental delay / intellectual disability; hypotonia; genital abnormalities; and skeletal abnormalities including patellar hypoplasia/agenesis, flexion contractures of the knees and/or hips, and anomalies of the digits, spine, and/or ribs. Congenital heart defects, small bowel malrotation, feeding difficulties, slow growth, cleft palate, hearing loss, and dental anomalies have been observed in individuals with either phenotype.
Koolen-de Vries syndrome
MedGen UID:
355853
Concept ID:
C1864871
Disease or Syndrome
Koolen-de Vries syndrome (KdVS) is characterized by developmental delay / intellectual disability, neonatal/childhood hypotonia, dysmorphisms, congenital malformations, and behavioral features. Psychomotor developmental delay is noted in all individuals from an early age. The majority of individuals with KdVS function in the mild-to-moderate range of intellectual disability. Other findings include speech and language delay (100%), epilepsy (~33%), congenital heart defects (25%-50%), renal and urologic anomalies (25%-50%), and cryptorchidism (71% of males). Behavior in most is described as friendly, amiable, and cooperative.
Brachyphalangy, polydactyly, and tibial aplasia/hypoplasia
MedGen UID:
355340
Concept ID:
C1864965
Disease or Syndrome
Pierpont syndrome
MedGen UID:
356049
Concept ID:
C1865644
Disease or Syndrome
Pierpont syndrome (PRPTS) is a multiple congenital anomaly syndrome associated with learning disability. Key features include distinctive facial characteristics, especially when smiling, plantar fat pads, and other limb anomalies (summary by Burkitt Wright et al., 2011).
Tricho-oculo-dermo-vertebral syndrome
MedGen UID:
355714
Concept ID:
C1866427
Disease or Syndrome
Flat face-microstomia-ear anomaly syndrome
MedGen UID:
356655
Concept ID:
C1866962
Disease or Syndrome
A rare genetic multiple congenital anomalies/dysmorphic syndrome with characteristics of dysmorphic facial features including high forehead, elongated and flattened midface, arched and sparse eyebrows, short palpebral fissures, telecanthus, long nose with hypoplastic nostrils, long philtrum, high and narrow palate and microstomia with downturned corners. Ears are characteristically malformed, large, low-set and posteriorly rotated and nasal speech is associated.
Scalp-ear-nipple syndrome
MedGen UID:
357183
Concept ID:
C1867020
Disease or Syndrome
Scalp-ear-nipple syndrome is characterized by aplasia cutis congenita of the scalp, breast anomalies that range from hypothelia or athelia to amastia, and minor anomalies of the external ears. Less frequent clinical characteristics include nail dystrophy, dental anomalies, cutaneous syndactyly of the digits, and renal malformations. Penetrance appears to be high, although there is substantial variable expressivity within families (Marneros et al., 2013).
Craniofacial dysplasia - osteopenia syndrome
MedGen UID:
370148
Concept ID:
C1970027
Disease or Syndrome
A rare genetic developmental defect during embryogenesis disorder with characteristics of craniofacial dysmorphism (including brachycephaly, prominent forehead, sparse lateral eyebrows, severe hypertelorism, upslanting palpebral fissures, epicanthal folds, protruding ears, broad nasal bridge, pointed nasal tip, flat philtrum, anteverted nostrils, large mouth, thin upper vermilion border, highly arched palate and mild micrognathia) associated with osteopenia leading to repeated long bone fractures, severe myopia, mild to moderate sensorineural or mixed hearing loss, enamel hypoplasia, sloping shoulders and mild intellectual disability. There is evidence the disease can be caused by homozygous mutation in the IRX5 gene on chromosome 16q11.2.
Intellectual disability, autosomal recessive 5
MedGen UID:
370849
Concept ID:
C1970199
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Any autosomal recessive non-syndromic intellectual disability in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the NSUN2 gene.
Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia, Cantu type
MedGen UID:
435975
Concept ID:
C2673649
Disease or Syndrome
An extremely rare type of spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia described in about 5 patients to date with clinical signs including short stature, peculiar facies with blepharophimosis, upward slanted eyes, abundant eyebrows and eyelashes, coarse voice, and short hands and feet.
Chromosome 15q26-qter deletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
390804
Concept ID:
C2675463
Disease or Syndrome
Distal monosomy 15q is a rare chromosomal anomaly syndrome characterized by pre- and postnatal growth restriction, developmental delay, variable degrees of intellectual disability, hand and foot anomalies (e.g. brachy-/clinodactyly, talipes equinovarus, nail hypoplasia, proximally placed digits) and mild craniofacial dysmorphism (incl. microcephaly, triangular face, broad nasal bridge, micrognathia). Neonatal lymphedema, heart malformations, aplasia cutis congenita, aortic root dilatation, and autistic spectrum disorder have also been reported.
Chromosome 2p16.1-p15 deletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
390902
Concept ID:
C2675875
Disease or Syndrome
Chromosome 2p16.1-p15 deletion syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by delayed psychomotor development, intellectual disability, and variable but distinctive dysmorphic features, including microcephaly, bitemporal narrowing, smooth and long philtrum, hypertelorism, downslanting palpebral fissures, broad nasal root, thin upper lip, and high palate. Many patients have behavioral disorders, including autistic features, as well as structural brain abnormalities, such as pachygyria or hypoplastic corpus callosum. Those with deletions including the BCL11A gene (606557) also have persistence of fetal hemoglobin (HbF), which is asymptomatic and does not affected hematologic parameters or susceptibility to infection (summary by Funnell et al., 2015). Point mutation in the BCL11A gene causes intellectual developmental disorder with persistence of fetal hemoglobin (617101), which shows overlapping features. See also fetal hemoglobin quantitative trait locus-5 (HBFQTL5; 142335).
Hunter-Macdonald syndrome
MedGen UID:
383181
Concept ID:
C2677745
Disease or Syndrome
X-linked intellectual disability-craniofacioskeletal syndrome
MedGen UID:
394716
Concept ID:
C2678036
Disease or Syndrome
X-linked intellectual disability-craniofacioskeletal syndrome is a rare, hereditary, syndromic intellectual disability characterized by craniofacial and skeletal abnormalities in association with mild intellectual disability in females and early postnatal lethality in males. In addition to mild cognitive impairment, females present with microcephaly, short stature, skeletal features and extra temporal lobe gyrus. In males, intrauterine growth impairment, cardiac and urogenital anomalies have been reported.
Intellectual disability, X-linked syndromic, Turner type
MedGen UID:
394425
Concept ID:
C2678046
Disease or Syndrome
Turner-type X-linked syndromic intellectual developmental disorder (MRXST) is a neurodevelopmental disorder with a highly variable phenotype. Some affected families show X-linked recessive inheritance, with only males being affected and carrier females having no abnormal findings. In other affected families, males are severely affected, and female mutation carriers show milder cognitive abnormalities or dysmorphic features. In addition, there are female patients with de novo mutations who show the full phenotype, despite skewed X-chromosome inactivation. Affected individuals show global developmental delay from infancy, with variably impaired intellectual development and poor or absent speech, often with delayed walking. Dysmorphic features are common and can include macrocephaly, microcephaly, deep-set eyes, hypotelorism, small palpebral fissures, dysplastic, large, or low-set ears, long face, bitemporal narrowing, high-arched palate, thin upper lip, and scoliosis or mild distal skeletal anomalies, such as brachydactyly or tapered fingers. Males tend to have cryptorchidism. Other features, such as hypotonia, seizures, and delayed bone age, are more variable (summary by Moortgat et al., 2018).
Chromosome 3q29 microduplication syndrome
MedGen UID:
440897
Concept ID:
C2749873
Disease or Syndrome
3q29 microduplication syndrome (also known as 3q29 duplication syndrome) is a condition that results from the copying (duplication) of a small piece of chromosome 3 in each cell. The duplication occurs on the long (q) arm of the chromosome at a position designated q29.\n\nThe features associated with 3q29 microduplication syndrome vary widely. Some individuals with this chromosomal change have very mild or no related signs and symptoms, and the duplication is discovered because they undergo genetic testing only after a family member is diagnosed. Other people with a 3q29 microduplication have delayed development (particularly speech delay) and intellectual disability or learning difficulties. Although most affected individuals have no major birth defects, eye abnormalities, heart defects, and an unusually small head (microcephaly) can occur. 3q29 microduplication syndrome may increase the likelihood of being overweight or having obesity, although it is hard to determine whether these weight issues are caused by the duplication.
Chromosome 5p13 duplication syndrome
MedGen UID:
416385
Concept ID:
C2750805
Disease or Syndrome
A rare partial autosomal trisomy/tetrasomy characterized by global developmental delay, intellectual disability, autistic behavior, muscular hypotonia, macrocephaly and facial dysmorphism (frontal bossing, short palpebral fissures, low set, dysplastic ears, short or shallow philtrum, high arched or narrow palate, micrognathia). Other associated clinical features include sleep disturbances, seizures, aplasia/hypoplasia of the corpus callosum, skeletal abnormalities (large hands and feet, long fingers and toes, talipes).
Zechi-Ceide syndrome
MedGen UID:
416693
Concept ID:
C2752047
Disease or Syndrome
A rare genetic multiple congenital anomalies/dysmorphic syndrome with characteristics of occipital atretic cephalocele associated with a specific facial dysmorphism (consisting of prominent forehead, narrow palpebral fissures, midface deficiency, narrow, malformed ears, broad nose and nasal root, grooved nasal tip and columella, laterally angulated, hypoplastic nares, short philtrum, thin upper lip, clift lip/palate, severe oligodontia, prominent chin) and large feet with sandal gap. Intellectual disability, developmental delay and hypoplastic finger and toenails have also been reported.
Ring chromosome 14
MedGen UID:
419284
Concept ID:
C2930916
Disease or Syndrome
Ring chromosome 14 syndrome is a condition characterized by seizures and intellectual disability. Recurrent seizures (epilepsy) develop in infancy or early childhood. In many cases, the seizures are resistant to treatment with anti-epileptic drugs. Most people with ring chromosome 14 syndrome also have some degree of intellectual disability or learning problems. Development may be delayed, particularly the development of speech and of motor skills such as sitting, standing, and walking.\n\nAdditional features of ring chromosome 14 syndrome can include slow growth and short stature, a small head (microcephaly), puffy hands and/or feet caused by a buildup of fluid (lymphedema), and subtle differences in facial features. Some affected individuals have problems with their immune system that lead to recurrent infections, especially involving the respiratory system. Abnormalities of the retina, the specialized tissue at the back of the eye that detects light and color, have also been reported in some people with this condition. These changes typically do not affect vision. Major birth defects are rarely seen with ring chromosome 14 syndrome.
Gollop syndrome
MedGen UID:
444125
Concept ID:
C2931720
Disease or Syndrome
The features of frontofacionasal dysplasia include blepharophimosis, lower lid lagophthalmos, primary telecanthus, S-shaped palpebral fissures, facial hypoplasia, eyelid coloboma, widow's peak, cranium bifidum occultum, frontal lipoma, nasal hypoplasia, deformed nostrils, bifid nose, and cleft of lip, premaxilla, palate, and uvula (White et al., 1991). Also see frontonasal dysplasia (136760).
Chromosome 2q37 deletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
419169
Concept ID:
C2931817
Disease or Syndrome
Patients with chromosome 2q37 deletion syndrome show highly variable clinical manifestations likely resulting from different deletion sizes and deletions of different genes. Variable clinical features included brachydactyly type E (BDE), affecting the metacarpals and metatarsals (in about 50% of patients), short stature, mild to moderate intellectual disability, behavioral abnormalities, and dysmorphic facial features. However, many individuals with deletions do not show cognitive deficits (summary by Villavicencio-Lorini et al., 2013, Wheeler et al., 2014, Jean-Marcais et al., 2015).
Frontonasal dysplasia with alopecia and genital anomaly
MedGen UID:
462053
Concept ID:
C3150703
Disease or Syndrome
Frontonasal dysplasia-2 (FND2) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by variable degrees of alopecia, skull defects, hypertelorism, depressed nasal bridge and ridge with notched alae nasi, and abnormal central nervous system findings (summary by Kariminejad et al., 2014).
Chromosome 14q11-q22 deletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
462057
Concept ID:
C3150707
Disease or Syndrome
14q11.2 microdeletion syndrome is a recently described syndrome characterized by developmental delay, hypotonia and facial dysmorphism.
Cranioectodermal dysplasia 2
MedGen UID:
462224
Concept ID:
C3150874
Disease or Syndrome
Cranioectodermal dysplasia (CED) is a ciliopathy with skeletal involvement (narrow thorax, shortened proximal limbs, syndactyly, polydactyly, brachydactyly), ectodermal features (widely spaced hypoplastic teeth, hypodontia, sparse hair, skin laxity, abnormal nails), joint laxity, growth deficiency, and characteristic facial features (frontal bossing, low-set simple ears, high forehead, telecanthus, epicanthal folds, full cheeks, everted lower lip). Most affected children develop nephronophthisis that often leads to end-stage kidney disease in infancy or childhood, a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Hepatic fibrosis and retinal dystrophy are also observed. Dolichocephaly, often secondary to sagittal craniosynostosis, is a primary manifestation that distinguishes CED from most other ciliopathies. Brain malformations and developmental delay may also occur.
Seckel syndrome 5
MedGen UID:
462537
Concept ID:
C3151187
Disease or Syndrome
Seckel syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by proportionate short stature, severe microcephaly, mental retardation, and a typical 'bird-head' facial appearance (summary by Kalay et al., 2011). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Seckel syndrome, see 210600.
Fanconi anemia complementation group D2
MedGen UID:
463627
Concept ID:
C3160738
Disease or Syndrome
Fanconi anemia (FA) is characterized by physical abnormalities, bone marrow failure, and increased risk for malignancy. Physical abnormalities, present in approximately 75% of affected individuals, include one or more of the following: short stature, abnormal skin pigmentation, skeletal malformations of the upper and/or lower limbs, microcephaly, and ophthalmic and genitourinary tract anomalies. Progressive bone marrow failure with pancytopenia typically presents in the first decade, often initially with thrombocytopenia or leukopenia. The incidence of acute myeloid leukemia is 13% by age 50 years. Solid tumors – particularly of the head and neck, skin, and genitourinary tract – are more common in individuals with FA.
Chromosome 15q11.2 deletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
467404
Concept ID:
C3180937
Disease or Syndrome
A heterozygous deletion of chromosome 15q11.2 may increase the susceptibility to neuropsychiatric or neurodevelopmental problems, including delayed psychomotor development, speech delay, autism spectrum disorder, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and possibly seizures (summary by Doornbos et al., 2009 and Burnside et al., 2011). See also chromosome 15q11.2 duplication syndrome (608636).
Mosaic variegated aneuploidy syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
481473
Concept ID:
C3279843
Disease or Syndrome
Mosaic variegated aneuploidy syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by poor growth and variable phenotypic manifestations, such as facial dysmorphism and congenital heart defects, associated with mosaic aneuploidies resulting from defects in cell division (summary by Snape et al., 2011). See also MVA1 (257300), caused by mutation in the BUB1B gene (602860) on chromosome 15q15.
Warburg micro syndrome 3
MedGen UID:
481833
Concept ID:
C3280203
Disease or Syndrome
RAB18 deficiency is the molecular deficit underlying both Warburg micro syndrome (characterized by eye, nervous system, and endocrine abnormalities) and Martsolf syndrome (characterized by similar – but milder – findings). To date Warburg micro syndrome comprises >96% of reported individuals with genetically defined RAB18 deficiency. The hallmark ophthalmologic findings are bilateral congenital cataracts, usually accompanied by microphthalmia, microcornea (diameter <10), and small atonic pupils. Poor vision despite early cataract surgery likely results from progressive optic atrophy and cortical visual impairment. Individuals with Warburg micro syndrome have severe to profound intellectual disability (ID); those with Martsolf syndrome have mild to moderate ID. Some individuals with RAB18 deficiency also have epilepsy. In Warburg micro syndrome, a progressive ascending spastic paraplegia typically begins with spastic diplegia and contractures during the first year, followed by upper-limb involvement leading to spastic quadriplegia after about age five years, often eventually causing breathing difficulties. In Martsolf syndrome infantile hypotonia is followed primarily by slowly progressive lower-limb spasticity. Hypogonadism – when present – manifests in both syndromes, in males as micropenis and/or cryptorchidism and in females as hypoplastic labia minora, clitoral hypoplasia, and small introitus.
Chromosome 16q22 deletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
482782
Concept ID:
C3281152
Disease or Syndrome
The interstitial 16q22 deletion syndrome is a multiple congenital anomaly disorder associated with failure to thrive in infancy, poor growth, delayed psychomotor development, hypotonia, and dysmorphic features, including large anterior fontanel, high forehead, diastasis of the cranial sutures, broad nasal bridge, hypertelorism, low-set abnormal ears, and short neck. The phenotypic features and deletion sizes are variable, but deletion of 16q22 appears to be critical for manifestations of the syndrome (summary by Fujiwara et al., 1992).
Fanconi anemia complementation group P
MedGen UID:
854020
Concept ID:
C3469542
Disease or Syndrome
Fanconi anemia (FA) is characterized by physical abnormalities, bone marrow failure, and increased risk for malignancy. Physical abnormalities, present in approximately 75% of affected individuals, include one or more of the following: short stature, abnormal skin pigmentation, skeletal malformations of the upper and/or lower limbs, microcephaly, and ophthalmic and genitourinary tract anomalies. Progressive bone marrow failure with pancytopenia typically presents in the first decade, often initially with thrombocytopenia or leukopenia. The incidence of acute myeloid leukemia is 13% by age 50 years. Solid tumors – particularly of the head and neck, skin, and genitourinary tract – are more common in individuals with FA.
Severe intellectual disability-poor language-strabismus-grimacing face-long fingers syndrome
MedGen UID:
767362
Concept ID:
C3554448
Disease or Syndrome
GAND syndrome is a neurodevelopmental syndrome characterized by global developmental delay apparent from infancy, with motor delay and moderate to severely impaired intellectual development. Most patients have poor speech acquisition, especially expressive language development, and may manifest signs of speech apraxia. Affected individuals have hypotonia and feeding difficulties in infancy, as well as common dysmorphic features, such as macrocephaly, frontal bossing, hypertelorism, deep-set eyes, posteriorly rotated ears, and elongated wide nose with prominent nasal tip. More variable features may include seizures, cardiac abnormalities, and nonspecific findings on brain imaging (summary by Shieh et al., 2020).
Blepharophimosis - intellectual disability syndrome, MKB type
MedGen UID:
785805
Concept ID:
C3698541
Disease or Syndrome
MED12-related disorders include the phenotypes of FG syndrome type 1 (FGS1), Lujan syndrome (LS), X-linked Ohdo syndrome (XLOS), Hardikar syndrome (HS), and nonspecific intellectual disability (NSID). FGS1 and LS share the clinical findings of cognitive impairment, hypotonia, and abnormalities of the corpus callosum. FGS1 is further characterized by absolute or relative macrocephaly, tall forehead, downslanted palpebral fissures, small and simple ears, constipation and/or anal anomalies, broad thumbs and halluces, and characteristic behavior. LS is further characterized by large head, tall thin body habitus, long thin face, prominent nasal bridge, high narrow palate, and short philtrum. Carrier females in families with FGS1 and LS are typically unaffected. XLOS is characterized by intellectual disability, blepharophimosis, and facial coarsening. HS has been described in females with cleft lip and/or cleft palate, biliary and liver anomalies, intestinal malrotation, pigmentary retinopathy, and coarctation of the aorta. Developmental and cognitive concerns have not been reported in females with HS. Pathogenic variants in MED12 have been reported in an increasing number of males and females with NSID, with affected individuals often having clinical features identified in other MED12-related disorders.
Van Maldergem syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
816205
Concept ID:
C3809875
Disease or Syndrome
Van Maldergem syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by intellectual disability, typical craniofacial features, auditory malformations resulting in hearing loss, and skeletal and limb malformations. Some patients have renal hypoplasia. Brain MRI typically shows periventricular nodular heterotopia (summary by Cappello et al., 2013). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Van Maldergem syndrome, see 601390.
Tatton-Brown-Rahman overgrowth syndrome
MedGen UID:
862982
Concept ID:
C4014545
Disease or Syndrome
Tatton-Brown-Rahman syndrome (TBRS) is an overgrowth / intellectual disability syndrome characterized by length/height and/or head circumference =2 SD above the mean for age and sex, obesity / increased weight, intellectual disability that ranges from mild to severe, joint hypermobility, hypotonia, behavioral/psychiatric issues, kyphoscoliosis, and seizures. Individuals with TBRS have subtle dysmorphic features, including a round face with coarse features, thick horizontal low-set eyebrows, narrow (as measured vertically) palpebral fissures, and prominent upper central incisors. The facial gestalt is most easily recognizable in the teenage years. TBRS may be associated with an increased risk of developing acute myeloid leukemia. There are less clear associations with aortic root dilatation and increased risk of other hematologic and solid tumors.
Hennekam lymphangiectasia-lymphedema syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
863376
Concept ID:
C4014939
Disease or Syndrome
Hennekam lymphangiectasia-lymphedema syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by generalized lymphatic dysplasia affecting various organs, including the intestinal tract, pericardium, and limbs. Additional features of the disorder include facial dysmorphism and cognitive impairment (summary by Alders et al., 2014). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Hennekam lymphangiectasia-lymphedema syndrome, see HKLLS1 (235510).
Skin creases, congenital symmetric circumferential, 2
MedGen UID:
902880
Concept ID:
C4225225
Congenital Abnormality
Congenital symmetric circumferential skin creases is characterized by the folding of excess skin, which leads to ringed creases, primarily of the limbs. Affected individuals also exhibit intellectual disability, cleft palate, and dysmorphic features (summary by Isrie et al., 2015). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of congenital symmetric circumferential skin creases, see CSCSC1 (156610).
Intellectual developmental disorder with dysmorphic facies and ptosis
MedGen UID:
934584
Concept ID:
C4310617
Disease or Syndrome
Intellectual developmental disorder with dysmorphic facies and ptosis (IDDDFP) is an autosomal dominant neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by delayed psychomotor development, intellectual disability, delayed language, and dysmorphic facial features, most notably ptosis/blepharophimosis. Additional features may include poor growth, hypotonia, and seizures (summary by Mattioli et al., 2017). See also chromosome 3p deletion syndrome (613792).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with or without anomalies of the brain, eye, or heart
MedGen UID:
934739
Concept ID:
C4310772
Disease or Syndrome
RERE-related disorders are characterized by neurodevelopmental problems with or without structural anomalies of the eyes, heart, kidneys, and genitourinary tract and mild sensorineural hearing loss. Hypotonia and feeding problems are common among affected individuals. Developmental delay and intellectual disability range from mild to profound. Behavior problems may include attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, self-injurious behavior, and autism spectrum disorder. A variety of eye anomalies (coloboma, optic nerve anomalies, microphthalmia, and/or Peter's anomaly) and vision issues (myopia, anisometropia, astigmatism, exotropia, esotropia) have been reported. Congenital heart defects, most commonly septal defects, have also been described. Genitourinary abnormalities include vesicoureteral reflux, and cryptorchidism and hypospadias in males. Sensorineural hearing loss can be unilateral or bilateral.
Chromosome 19q13.11 deletion syndrome, distal
MedGen UID:
935015
Concept ID:
C4311048
Disease or Syndrome
Distal chromosome 19q13.11 deletion syndrome is an autosomal dominant neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by poor overall growth, slender habitus, microcephaly, delayed development, intellectual disability with poor or absent speech, and feeding difficulties. Additional features include dysmorphic facies, signs of ectodermal dysplasia, hand and foot anomalies, and genitourinary anomalies, particularly in males (summary by Chowdhury et al., 2014).
Congenital heart defects, dysmorphic facial features, and intellectual developmental disorder
MedGen UID:
1385307
Concept ID:
C4479246
Disease or Syndrome
CDK13-related disorder, reported in 43 individuals to date, is characterized in all individuals by developmental delay / intellectual disability (DD/ID); nearly all individuals older than age one year display impaired verbal language skills (either absent or restricted speech). Other common findings are recognizable facial features in some individuals, behavioral problems (autism spectrum disorder or autistic traits/stereotypies, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder), feeding difficulties in infancy, structural cardiac defects, and seizures.
Autosomal recessive cutis laxa type 2C
MedGen UID:
1385755
Concept ID:
C4479387
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive cutis laxa type IIC (ARCL2C) is characterized by generalized skin wrinkling with sparse subcutaneous fat and dysmorphic progeroid facial features. Most patients also exhibit severe hypotonia as well as cardiovascular involvement (summary by Van Damme et al., 2017). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal recessive cutis laxa, see ARCL1A (219100).
Autosomal recessive cutis laxa type 2D
MedGen UID:
1376619
Concept ID:
C4479409
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive cutis laxa type IID (ARCL2D) is characterized by generalized skin wrinkling with sparse subcutaneous fat and dysmorphic progeroid facial features. Most patients also exhibit severe hypotonia as well as cardiovascular and neurologic involvement (summary by Van Damme et al., 2017). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal recessive cutis laxa, see ARCL1A (219100).
Seckel syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1637056
Concept ID:
C4551474
Disease or Syndrome
Seckel syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by intrauterine growth retardation, dwarfism, microcephaly with mental retardation, and a characteristic 'bird-headed' facial appearance (Shanske et al., 1997). Genetic Heterogeneity of Seckel Syndrome Other forms of Seckel syndrome include SCKL2 (606744), caused by mutation in the RBBP8 gene (604124) on chromosome 18q11; SCKL4 (613676), caused by mutation in the CENPJ gene (609279) on chromosome 13q12; SCKL5 (613823), caused by mutation in the CEP152 gene (613529) on chromosome 15q21; SCKL6 (614728), caused by mutation in the CEP63 gene (614724) on chromosome 3q22; SCKL7 (614851), caused by mutation in the NIN gene (608684) on chromosome 14q22; SCKL8 (615807), caused by mutation in the DNA2 gene (601810) on chromosome 10q21; SCKL9 (616777), caused by mutation in the TRAIP gene (605958) on chromosome 3p21; SCKL10 (617253), caused by mutation in the NSMCE2 gene (617246) on chromosome 8q24; and SCKL11 (620767), caused by mutation in the CEP295 gene (617728) on chromosome 11q21. The report of a Seckel syndrome locus on chromosome 14q, designated SCKL3, by Kilinc et al. (2003) was found to be in error; see History section.
Schwartz-Jampel syndrome type 1
MedGen UID:
1647990
Concept ID:
C4551479
Disease or Syndrome
Schwartz-Jampel syndrome type 1 (SJS1) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by muscle stiffness (myotonia) and chondrodysplasia. Affected individuals usually present in childhood with permanent muscle stiffness or bone deformities. Common clinical features include mask-like facies (narrow palpebral fissures, blepharospasm, and pursed lips); permanent muscle stiffness with continuous skeletal muscle activity recorded on electromyography; dwarfism; pectus carinatum; kyphoscoliosis; bowing of long bones; and epiphyseal, metaphyseal, and hip dysplasia. The disorder is slowly progressive but does not appear to alter life span (summary by Stum et al., 2006).
Multiple benign circumferential skin creases on limbs 1
MedGen UID:
1631916
Concept ID:
C4551592
Disease or Syndrome
Feingold syndrome type 1
MedGen UID:
1637716
Concept ID:
C4551774
Disease or Syndrome
Feingold syndrome 1 (referred to as FS1 in this GeneReview) is characterized by digital anomalies (shortening of the 2nd and 5th middle phalanx of the hand, clinodactyly of the 5th finger, syndactyly of toes 2-3 and/or 4-5, thumb hypoplasia), microcephaly, facial dysmorphism (short palpebral fissures and micrognathia), gastrointestinal atresias (primarily esophageal and/or duodenal), and mild-to-moderate learning disability.
Van Maldergem syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1644627
Concept ID:
C4551950
Disease or Syndrome
Van Maldergem syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by intellectual disability, typical craniofacial features, auditory malformations resulting in hearing loss, and skeletal and limb malformations. Some patients have renal hypoplasia. Brain MRI typically shows periventricular nodular heterotopia (summary by Cappello et al., 2013). Genetic Heterogeneity of Van Maldergem Syndrome See also VMLDS2 (615546), caused by mutation in the FAT4 gene (612411) on chromosome 4q28.
Meier-Gorlin syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1641240
Concept ID:
C4552001
Disease or Syndrome
The Meier-Gorlin syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by severe intrauterine and postnatal growth retardation, microcephaly, bilateral microtia, and aplasia or hypoplasia of the patellae (summary by Shalev and Hall, 2003). While almost all cases have primordial dwarfism with substantial prenatal and postnatal growth retardation, not all cases have microcephaly, and microtia and absent/hypoplastic patella are absent in some. Despite the presence of microcephaly, intellect is usually normal (Bicknell et al., 2011). Genetic Heterogeneity of Meier-Gorlin Syndrome Most forms of Meier-Gorlin syndrome are autosomal recessive disorders, including Meier-Gorlin syndrome-1; Meier-Gorlin syndrome-2 (613800), caused by mutation in the ORC4 gene (603056) on chromosome 2q23; Meier-Gorlin syndrome-3 (613803), caused by mutation in the ORC6 gene (607213) on chromosome 16q11; Meier-Gorlin syndrome-4 (613804), caused by mutation in the CDT1 gene (605525) on chromosome 16q24; Meier-Gorlin syndrome-5 (613805), caused by mutation in the CDC6 gene (602627) on chromosome 17q21; Meier-Gorlin syndrome-7 (617063), caused by mutation in the CDC45L gene (603465) on chromosome 22q11; and Meier-Gorlin syndrome-8 (617564), caused by mutation in the MCM5 gene (602696) on chromosome 22q12. An autosomal dominant form of the disorder, Meier-Gorlin syndrome-6 (616835), is caused by mutation in the GMNN gene (602842) on chromosome 6p22.
Fanconi anemia, complementation group S
MedGen UID:
1632414
Concept ID:
C4554406
Disease or Syndrome
Fanconi anemia (FA) is characterized by physical abnormalities, bone marrow failure, and increased risk for malignancy. Physical abnormalities, present in approximately 75% of affected individuals, include one or more of the following: short stature, abnormal skin pigmentation, skeletal malformations of the upper and/or lower limbs, microcephaly, and ophthalmic and genitourinary tract anomalies. Progressive bone marrow failure with pancytopenia typically presents in the first decade, often initially with thrombocytopenia or leukopenia. The incidence of acute myeloid leukemia is 13% by age 50 years. Solid tumors – particularly of the head and neck, skin, and genitourinary tract – are more common in individuals with FA.
3p- syndrome
MedGen UID:
1643555
Concept ID:
C4706503
Disease or Syndrome
Characteristic features of the distal 3p- syndrome include low birth weight, microcephaly, trigonocephaly, hypotonia, psychomotor and growth retardation, ptosis, telecanthus, downslanting palpebral fissures, and micrognathia. Postaxial polydactyly, renal anomalies, cleft palate, congenital heart defects (especially atrioventricular septal defects), preauricular pits, sacral dimple, and gastrointestinal anomalies are variable features. Although intellectual deficits are almost invariably associated with cytogenetically visible 3p deletions, rare patients with a 3p26-p25 deletion and normal intelligence or only mild abnormalities have been described (summary by Shuib et al., 2009).
Intellectual disability, autosomal dominant 57
MedGen UID:
1648280
Concept ID:
C4748003
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
MRD57 is an autosomal dominant neurodevelopmental disorder with a highly variable phenotype. Most affected individuals have delayed psychomotor development apparent in infancy or early childhood, language delay, and behavioral abnormalities. Additional features may include hypotonia, feeding problems, gastrointestinal issues, and dysmorphic facial features (summary by Reijnders et al., 2018).
Cardiac, facial, and digital anomalies with developmental delay
MedGen UID:
1648330
Concept ID:
C4748484
Disease or Syndrome
CAFDADD is a multisystemic developmental disorder with variable cardiac and digital anomalies and facial dysmorphism. Some patients may have seizures and ocular/aural abnormalities (Tokita et al., 2018).
Macrocephaly, acquired, with impaired intellectual development
MedGen UID:
1648471
Concept ID:
C4748993
Disease or Syndrome
Warburg-cinotti syndrome
MedGen UID:
1677486
Concept ID:
C5193019
Disease or Syndrome
Warburg-Cinotti syndrome (WRCN) is characterized by progressive corneal neovascularization, keloid formation, chronic skin ulcers, wasting of subcutaneous tissue, flexion contractures of the fingers, and acroosteolysis (Xu et al., 2018).
Menke-Hennekam syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1675629
Concept ID:
C5193034
Disease or Syndrome
Menke-Hennekam syndrome-1 (MKHK1) is a congenital disorder characterized by variable impairment of intellectual development and facial dysmorphisms. Feeding difficulties, autistic behavior, recurrent upper airway infections, hearing impairment, short stature, and microcephaly are also frequently seen. Although mutations in the same gene cause Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome-1 (RSTS1; 180849), patients with MKHK1 do not resemble the striking phenotype of RSTS1. Genetic Heterogeneity of Menke-Hennekam Syndrome Menke-Hennekam syndrome-2 (MKHK2; 618333) is caused by heterozygous mutation in exons 30 or 31 of the EP300 gene (602700). Mutation elsewhere in that gene results in RSTS2 (613684).
Menke-Hennekam syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
1676668
Concept ID:
C5193035
Disease or Syndrome
Menke-Hennekam syndrome-2 (MKHK2) is a congenital disorder characterized by variable impairment of intellectual development and facial dysmorphisms. Feeding difficulties, autistic behavior, recurrent upper airway infections, and hearing impairment are also frequently seen. Although mutations in the same gene cause Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome-2 (RSTS2; 613684), patients with MKHK1 do not resemble the striking phenotype of RSTS2. For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Menke-Hennekam syndrome, see MKHK1 (618332).
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 84
MedGen UID:
1720141
Concept ID:
C5394081
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-84 (DEE84) is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by onset of refractory seizures in the first months or years of life. Affected individuals have severely impaired global development with impaired intellectual development, absent speech, and inability to walk. Other features include axial hypotonia, peripheral spasticity, feeding difficulties that sometimes necessitate tube feeding, and mild dysmorphic facial features. Brain imaging may show nonspecific findings such as cerebral/cerebellar atrophy and/or hypomyelination. The severity of the disorder is variable (summary by Hengel et al., 2020). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Myopathy, epilepsy, and progressive cerebral atrophy
MedGen UID:
1759100
Concept ID:
C5436652
Disease or Syndrome
Myopathy, epilepsy, and progressive cerebral atrophy (MEPCA) is a severe autosomal recessive disorder with onset in utero or at birth. Affected individuals have hypotonia with respiratory or feeding difficulties apparent from birth and often associated with contractures of the large joints. There is little spontaneous movement: skeletal muscle biopsy and electrophysiologic studies are consistent with a myopathy or myasthenic disorder. Patients also develop refractory seizures with burst-suppression pattern or hypsarrhythmia on EEG. Brain imaging shows progressive cerebral atrophy and myelination defects. All patients reported to date died within the first year of life (summary by Schorling et al., 2017).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with alopecia and brain abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1775930
Concept ID:
C5436741
Disease or Syndrome
Bachmann-Bupp syndrome (BABS) is characterized by a distinctive type of alopecia, global developmental delay in the moderate to severe range, hypotonia, nonspecific dysmorphic features, behavioral abnormalities (autism spectrum disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder) and feeding difficulties. Hair is typically present at birth but may be sparse and of an unexpected color with subsequent loss of hair in large clumps within the first few weeks of life. Rare findings may include seizures with onset in later childhood and conductive hearing loss.
Arthrogryposis, distal, type 1C
MedGen UID:
1722257
Concept ID:
C5436834
Disease or Syndrome
Distal arthrogryposis type 1C (DA1C) is characterized by multiple congenital contractures, scoliosis, and short stature. Contractures involving the proximal joints appear to be more common in MYLPF-associated DA than in other forms of DA, and segmental amyoplasia has been observed (Chong et al., 2020).
Blepharophimosis-impaired intellectual development syndrome
MedGen UID:
1779966
Concept ID:
C5443984
Disease or Syndrome
Blepharophimosis-impaired intellectual development syndrome (BIS) is a congenital disorder characterized by a distinct facial appearance with blepharophimosis and global development delay. Affected individuals have delayed motor skills, sometimes with inability to walk, and impaired intellectual development with poor or absent speech; some patients show behavioral abnormalities. There are recognizable facial features, including epicanthal folds, sparse eyebrows, broad nasal bridge, short nose with downturned tip, and open mouth with thin upper lip. Other more variable features include distal skeletal anomalies, feeding difficulties with poor growth, respiratory infections, and hypotonia with peripheral spasticity (summary by Cappuccio et al., 2020).
Restrictive dermopathy 1
MedGen UID:
1812447
Concept ID:
C5676878
Disease or Syndrome
A restrictive dermopathy that has material basis in homozygous or compound heterozygous mutation in the ZMPSTE24 gene on chromosome 1p34.
Paternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 14
MedGen UID:
1843450
Concept ID:
C5680251
Disease or Syndrome
Kagami-Ogata syndrome (KOS) is a rare imprinting disorder characterized prenatally by polyhydramnios, macrosomia, and placentomegaly. After birth, infants often have respiratory distress, feeding difficulties, and postnatal growth retardation. Thoracic abnormalities include small bell-shaped thorax, 'coat-hanger' ribs, narrow chest wall, and cardiac anomalies. Abdominal wall defects include omphalocele, diastasis recti, and inguinal hernias. Hepatoblastoma is present in some patients. Dysmorphic facial features include frontal bossing, depressed nasal bridge, hairy forehead, anteverted nares, micrognathia, and a short neck. Developmental findings include hypotonia, speech and/or motor delays, and normal to mildly impaired intellectual development (summary by Prasasya et al., 2020).
Primordial dwarfism-immunodeficiency-lipodystrophy syndrome
MedGen UID:
1823971
Concept ID:
C5774198
Disease or Syndrome
Primordial dwarfism-immunodeficiency-lipodystrophy syndrome (PDIL) is characterized by pre- and postnatal growth restriction, with extreme microcephaly, short stature, and absence of subcutaneous fat. There is also significant hematologic/immune dysfunction, with hypo- or agammaglobulinemia, as well as lymphopenia, anemia, and thrombocytopenia, and most affected individuals succumb to infection in early childhood (Parry et al., 2020).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with craniofacial dysmorphism and skeletal defects
MedGen UID:
1824008
Concept ID:
C5774235
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with craniofacial dysmorphism and skeletal defects (NEDCDS) is characterized by global developmental delay, severely impaired intellectual development with poor or absent speech, characteristic facial features, and variable skeletal abnormalities. Additional features include feeding difficulties, inability to walk or walking with an abnormal gait, and cerebellar or other abnormalities on brain imaging (Reichert et al., 2020).

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Zajicek M, Volodarsky-Perel A, Shai D, Dick-Necula D, Raanani H, Gruber N, Karplus G, Kassif E, Weisz B, Meirow D
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Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Klaniewska M, Bolanowska-Tyszko A, Latos-Bielenska A, Jezela-Stanek A, Szczaluba K, Krajewska-Walasek M, Ciara E, Pelc M, Jurkiewicz D, Stawinski P, Zubkiewicz-Kucharska A, Rydzanicz M, Ploski R, Smigiel R
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Garon L, Kokta V, Coulombe J
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Therapy

Bergamasco MI, Vanyai HK, Garnham AL, Geoghegan ND, Vogel AP, Eccles S, Rogers KL, Smyth GK, Blewitt ME, Hannan AJ, Thomas T, Voss AK
J Clin Invest 2024 Apr 1;134(7) doi: 10.1172/JCI167672. PMID: 38557491Free PMC Article
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Prognosis

Klaniewska M, Bolanowska-Tyszko A, Latos-Bielenska A, Jezela-Stanek A, Szczaluba K, Krajewska-Walasek M, Ciara E, Pelc M, Jurkiewicz D, Stawinski P, Zubkiewicz-Kucharska A, Rydzanicz M, Ploski R, Smigiel R
Mol Genet Genomic Med 2023 Dec;11(12):e2265. Epub 2023 Sep 1 doi: 10.1002/mgg3.2265. PMID: 37658610Free PMC Article
Zajicek M, Volodarsky-Perel A, Shai D, Dick-Necula D, Raanani H, Gruber N, Karplus G, Kassif E, Weisz B, Meirow D
Reprod Biomed Online 2023 Jul;47(1):102-109. Epub 2023 Mar 12 doi: 10.1016/j.rbmo.2023.03.004. PMID: 37120360
Wang P, Wu P, Wang J, Zeng Y, Jiang Y, Wang Y, Li S, Xiao X, Zhang Q
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