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Movement disorder

MedGen UID:
10113
Concept ID:
C0026650
Disease or Syndrome
Synonym: Abnormality of movement
SNOMED CT: Movement disorder (60342002)
 
HPO: HP:0100022
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0005395

Definition

An abnormality of movement with a neurological basis characterized by changes in coordination and speed of voluntary movements. [from HPO]

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • CROGVMovement disorder

Conditions with this feature

TELO2-related intellectual disability-neurodevelopmental disorder
MedGen UID:
934745
Concept ID:
C4310778
Disease or Syndrome
A rare genetic multiple congenital anomalies/dysmorphic syndrome with characteristics of global developmental delay and intellectual disability, infantile hypotonia, microcephaly, movement disorder and impaired balance. Variable manifestations include hearing loss, cortical visual impairment, abnormalities of fingers and/or toes, congenital cardiac anomalies, kyphoscoliosis, dysmorphic facial features, abnormal sleep pattern and seizures.
Basilicata-Akhtar syndrome
MedGen UID:
1684820
Concept ID:
C5231394
Disease or Syndrome
Basilicata-Akhtar syndrome (MRXSBA) is characterized by global developmental delay apparent from infancy, feeding difficulties, hypotonia, and poor or absent speech. Most patients are able to walk, although they may have an unsteady gait or spasticity. Additional findings include dysmorphic facial features and mild distal skeletal anomalies. Males and females are similarly affected (summary by Basilicata et al., 2018).
Neurodegeneration, childhood-onset, with hypotonia, respiratory insufficiency, and brain imaging abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1781967
Concept ID:
C5543020
Disease or Syndrome
Childhood-onset neurodegeneration with hypotonia, respiratory insufficiency, and brain imaging abnormalities (CONRIBA) is characterized by severe global developmental delay apparent in infancy or early childhood. Affected individuals have hypotonia with impaired motor development, respiratory insufficiency, and feeding difficulties requiring intervention. Intellectual and speech development is also delayed, and most have visual defects, including cortical visual blindness, nystagmus, and esotropia. The disorder is progressive, as manifest by developmental regression consistent with neurodegeneration. Although overt seizures are not observed, some patients may have episodic hypertonia or apnea, and EEG may show nonspecific abnormalities. Brain imaging shows unique diffusion restriction signal abnormalities affecting the brainstem, cerebellum, and corticospinal tracts. Early death may occur (summary by Polovitskaya et al., 2020).
Developmental delay, impaired speech, and behavioral abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1794167
Concept ID:
C5561957
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental delay, impaired speech, and behavioral abnormalities (DDISBA) is characterized by global developmental delay apparent from early childhood. Intellectual disability can range from mild to severe. Additional variable features may include dysmorphic facial features, seizures, hypotonia, motor abnormalities such as Tourette syndrome or dystonia, and hearing loss (summary by Cousin et al., 2021).
Congenital disorder of deglycosylation 1
MedGen UID:
989503
Concept ID:
CN306977
Disease or Syndrome
Individuals with NGLY1-related congenital disorder of deglycosylation (NGLY1-CDDG) typically display a clinical tetrad of developmental delay / intellectual disability in the mild to profound range, hypo- or alacrima, elevated liver transaminases that may spontaneously resolve in childhood, and a complex hyperkinetic movement disorder that can include choreiform, athetoid, dystonic, myoclonic, action tremor, and dysmetric movements. About half of affected individuals will develop clinical seizures. Other findings may include obstructive and/or central sleep apnea, oral motor defects that affect feeding ability, auditory neuropathy, constipation, scoliosis, and peripheral neuropathy.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Stoker TB, Mason SL, Greenland JC, Holden ST, Santini H, Barker RA
Pract Neurol 2022 Feb;22(1):32-41. Epub 2021 Aug 19 doi: 10.1136/practneurol-2021-003074. PMID: 34413240
Tater P, Pandey S
Neurol India 2021 Mar-Apr;69(2):272-283. doi: 10.4103/0028-3886.314574. PMID: 33904435
Postuma RB, Berg D, Stern M, Poewe W, Olanow CW, Oertel W, Obeso J, Marek K, Litvan I, Lang AE, Halliday G, Goetz CG, Gasser T, Dubois B, Chan P, Bloem BR, Adler CH, Deuschl G
Mov Disord 2015 Oct;30(12):1591-601. doi: 10.1002/mds.26424. PMID: 26474316

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Lange LM, Gonzalez-Latapi P, Rajalingam R, Tijssen MAJ, Ebrahimi-Fakhari D, Gabbert C, Ganos C, Ghosh R, Kumar KR, Lang AE, Rossi M, van der Veen S, van de Warrenburg B, Warner T, Lohmann K, Klein C, Marras C; on behalf of the Task Force on Genetic Nomenclature in Movement Disorders
Mov Disord 2022 May;37(5):905-935. Epub 2022 Apr 28 doi: 10.1002/mds.28982. PMID: 35481685
Seppi K, Ray Chaudhuri K, Coelho M, Fox SH, Katzenschlager R, Perez Lloret S, Weintraub D, Sampaio C; the collaborators of the Parkinson's Disease Update on Non-Motor Symptoms Study Group on behalf of the Movement Disorders Society Evidence-Based Medicine Committee
Mov Disord 2019 Feb;34(2):180-198. Epub 2019 Jan 17 doi: 10.1002/mds.27602. PMID: 30653247Free PMC Article
Balint B, Vincent A, Meinck HM, Irani SR, Bhatia KP
Brain 2018 Jan 1;141(1):13-36. doi: 10.1093/brain/awx189. PMID: 29053777Free PMC Article
Klasser GD, Rei N, Lavigne GJ
J Can Dent Assoc 2015;81:f2. PMID: 25633110
Litvan I, Goldman JG, Tröster AI, Schmand BA, Weintraub D, Petersen RC, Mollenhauer B, Adler CH, Marder K, Williams-Gray CH, Aarsland D, Kulisevsky J, Rodriguez-Oroz MC, Burn DJ, Barker RA, Emre M
Mov Disord 2012 Mar;27(3):349-56. Epub 2012 Jan 24 doi: 10.1002/mds.24893. PMID: 22275317Free PMC Article

Diagnosis

Stephen CD
Continuum (Minneap Minn) 2022 Oct 1;28(5):1435-1475. doi: 10.1212/CON.0000000000001159. PMID: 36222773Free PMC Article
Mulligan C, Bronstein JM
Neurol Clin 2020 May;38(2):417-432. Epub 2020 Feb 28 doi: 10.1016/j.ncl.2020.01.005. PMID: 32279718
Gilmour GS, Nielsen G, Teodoro T, Yogarajah M, Coebergh JA, Dilley MD, Martino D, Edwards MJ
J Neurol 2020 Jul;267(7):2164-2172. Epub 2020 Mar 19 doi: 10.1007/s00415-020-09772-w. PMID: 32193596Free PMC Article
Bhatia KP, Bain P, Bajaj N, Elble RJ, Hallett M, Louis ED, Raethjen J, Stamelou M, Testa CM, Deuschl G; Tremor Task Force of the International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society
Mov Disord 2018 Jan;33(1):75-87. Epub 2017 Nov 30 doi: 10.1002/mds.27121. PMID: 29193359Free PMC Article
Postuma RB, Berg D, Stern M, Poewe W, Olanow CW, Oertel W, Obeso J, Marek K, Litvan I, Lang AE, Halliday G, Goetz CG, Gasser T, Dubois B, Chan P, Bloem BR, Adler CH, Deuschl G
Mov Disord 2015 Oct;30(12):1591-601. doi: 10.1002/mds.26424. PMID: 26474316

Therapy

Lynch DR, Chin MP, Boesch S, Delatycki MB, Giunti P, Goldsberry A, Hoyle JC, Mariotti C, Mathews KD, Nachbauer W, O'Grady M, Perlman S, Subramony SH, Wilmot G, Zesiewicz T, Meyer CJ
Mov Disord 2023 Feb;38(2):313-320. Epub 2022 Nov 29 doi: 10.1002/mds.29286. PMID: 36444905
Stoker TB, Mason SL, Greenland JC, Holden ST, Santini H, Barker RA
Pract Neurol 2022 Feb;22(1):32-41. Epub 2021 Aug 19 doi: 10.1136/practneurol-2021-003074. PMID: 34413240
Kwok JYY, Kwan JCY, Auyeung M, Mok VCT, Lau CKY, Choi KC, Chan HYL
JAMA Neurol 2019 Jul 1;76(7):755-763. doi: 10.1001/jamaneurol.2019.0534. PMID: 30958514Free PMC Article
Seppi K, Ray Chaudhuri K, Coelho M, Fox SH, Katzenschlager R, Perez Lloret S, Weintraub D, Sampaio C; the collaborators of the Parkinson's Disease Update on Non-Motor Symptoms Study Group on behalf of the Movement Disorders Society Evidence-Based Medicine Committee
Mov Disord 2019 Feb;34(2):180-198. Epub 2019 Jan 17 doi: 10.1002/mds.27602. PMID: 30653247Free PMC Article
Fox SH, Katzenschlager R, Lim SY, Barton B, de Bie RMA, Seppi K, Coelho M, Sampaio C; Movement Disorder Society Evidence-Based Medicine Committee
Mov Disord 2018 Aug;33(8):1248-1266. Epub 2018 Mar 23 doi: 10.1002/mds.27372. PMID: 29570866

Prognosis

Medina A, Mahjoub Y, Shaver L, Pringsheim T
Mov Disord 2022 Dec;37(12):2327-2335. Epub 2022 Sep 26 doi: 10.1002/mds.29228. PMID: 36161673Free PMC Article
Mahlknecht P, Foltynie T, Limousin P, Poewe W
Mov Disord 2022 Aug;37(8):1581-1592. Epub 2022 May 12 doi: 10.1002/mds.29052. PMID: 35560443Free PMC Article
Global Burden of Disease 2019 Cancer Collaboration, Kocarnik JM, Compton K, Dean FE, Fu W, Gaw BL, Harvey JD, Henrikson HJ, Lu D, Pennini A, Xu R, Ababneh E, Abbasi-Kangevari M, Abbastabar H, Abd-Elsalam SM, Abdoli A, Abedi A, Abidi H, Abolhassani H, Adedeji IA, Adnani QES, Advani SM, Afzal MS, Aghaali M, Ahinkorah BO, Ahmad S, Ahmad T, Ahmadi A, Ahmadi S, Ahmed Rashid T, Ahmed Salih Y, Akalu GT, Aklilu A, Akram T, Akunna CJ, Al Hamad H, Alahdab F, Al-Aly Z, Ali S, Alimohamadi Y, Alipour V, Aljunid SM, Alkhayyat M, Almasi-Hashiani A, Almasri NA, Al-Maweri SAA, Almustanyir S, Alonso N, Alvis-Guzman N, Amu H, Anbesu EW, Ancuceanu R, Ansari F, Ansari-Moghaddam A, Antwi MH, Anvari D, Anyasodor AE, Aqeel M, Arabloo J, Arab-Zozani M, Aremu O, Ariffin H, Aripov T, Arshad M, Artaman A, Arulappan J, Asemi Z, Asghari Jafarabadi M, Ashraf T, Atorkey P, Aujayeb A, Ausloos M, Awedew AF, Ayala Quintanilla BP, Ayenew T, Azab MA, Azadnajafabad S, Azari Jafari A, Azarian G, Azzam AY, Badiye AD, Bahadory S, Baig AA, Baker JL, Balakrishnan S, Banach M, Bärnighausen TW, Barone-Adesi F, Barra F, Barrow A, Behzadifar M, Belgaumi UI, Bezabhe WMM, Bezabih YM, Bhagat DS, Bhagavathula AS, Bhardwaj N, Bhardwaj P, Bhaskar S, Bhattacharyya K, Bhojaraja VS, Bibi S, Bijani A, Biondi A, Bisignano C, Bjørge T, Bleyer A, Blyuss O, Bolarinwa OA, Bolla SR, Braithwaite D, Brar A, Brenner H, Bustamante-Teixeira MT, Butt NS, Butt ZA, Caetano Dos Santos FL, Cao Y, Carreras G, Catalá-López F, Cembranel F, Cerin E, Cernigliaro A, Chakinala RC, Chattu SK, Chattu VK, Chaturvedi P, Chimed-Ochir O, Cho DY, Christopher DJ, Chu DT, Chung MT, Conde J, Cortés S, Cortesi PA, Costa VM, Cunha AR, Dadras O, Dagnew AB, Dahlawi SMA, Dai X, Dandona L, Dandona R, Darwesh AM, das Neves J, De la Hoz FP, Demis AB, Denova-Gutiérrez E, Dhamnetiya D, Dhimal ML, Dhimal M, Dianatinasab M, Diaz D, Djalalinia S, Do HP, Doaei S, Dorostkar F, Dos Santos Figueiredo FW, Driscoll TR, Ebrahimi H, Eftekharzadeh S, El Tantawi M, El-Abid H, Elbarazi I, Elhabashy HR, Elhadi M, El-Jaafary SI, Eshrati B, Eskandarieh S, Esmaeilzadeh F, Etemadi A, Ezzikouri S, Faisaluddin M, Faraon EJA, Fares J, Farzadfar F, Feroze AH, Ferrero S, Ferro Desideri L, Filip I, Fischer F, Fisher JL, Foroutan M, Fukumoto T, Gaal PA, Gad MM, Gadanya MA, Gallus S, Gaspar Fonseca M, Getachew Obsa A, Ghafourifard M, Ghashghaee A, Ghith N, Gholamalizadeh M, Gilani SA, Ginindza TG, Gizaw ATT, Glasbey JC, Golechha M, Goleij P, Gomez RS, Gopalani SV, Gorini G, Goudarzi H, Grosso G, Gubari MIM, Guerra MR, Guha A, Gunasekera DS, Gupta B, Gupta VB, Gupta VK, Gutiérrez RA, Hafezi-Nejad N, Haider MR, Haj-Mirzaian A, Halwani R, Hamadeh RR, Hameed S, Hamidi S, Hanif A, Haque S, Harlianto NI, Haro JM, Hasaballah AI, Hassanipour S, Hay RJ, Hay SI, Hayat K, Heidari G, Heidari M, Herrera-Serna BY, Herteliu C, Hezam K, Holla R, Hossain MM, Hossain MBH, Hosseini MS, Hosseini M, Hosseinzadeh M, Hostiuc M, Hostiuc S, Househ M, Hsairi M, Huang J, Hugo FN, Hussain R, Hussein NR, Hwang BF, Iavicoli I, Ibitoye SE, Ida F, Ikuta KS, Ilesanmi OS, Ilic IM, Ilic MD, Irham LM, Islam JY, Islam RM, Islam SMS, Ismail NE, Isola G, Iwagami M, Jacob L, Jain V, Jakovljevic MB, Javaheri T, Jayaram S, Jazayeri SB, Jha RP, Jonas JB, Joo T, Joseph N, Joukar F, Jürisson M, Kabir A, Kahrizi D, Kalankesh LR, Kalhor R, Kaliyadan F, Kalkonde Y, Kamath A, Kameran Al-Salihi N, Kandel H, Kapoor N, Karch A, Kasa AS, Katikireddi SV, Kauppila JH, Kavetskyy T, Kebede SA, Keshavarz P, Keykhaei M, Khader YS, Khalilov R, Khan G, Khan M, Khan MN, Khan MAB, Khang YH, Khater AM, Khayamzadeh M, Kim GR, Kim YJ, Kisa A, Kisa S, Kissimova-Skarbek K, Kopec JA, Koteeswaran R, Koul PA, Koulmane Laxminarayana SL, Koyanagi A, Kucuk Bicer B, Kugbey N, Kumar GA, Kumar N, Kumar N, Kurmi OP, Kutluk T, La Vecchia C, Lami FH, Landires I, Lauriola P, Lee SW, Lee SWH, Lee WC, Lee YH, Leigh J, Leong E, Li J, Li MC, Liu X, Loureiro JA, Lunevicius R, Magdy Abd El Razek M, Majeed A, Makki A, Male S, Malik AA, Mansournia MA, Martini S, Masoumi SZ, Mathur P, McKee M, Mehrotra R, Mendoza W, Menezes RG, Mengesha EW, Mesregah MK, Mestrovic T, Miao Jonasson J, Miazgowski B, Miazgowski T, Michalek IM, Miller TR, Mirzaei H, Mirzaei HR, Misra S, Mithra P, Moghadaszadeh M, Mohammad KA, Mohammad Y, Mohammadi M, Mohammadi SM, Mohammadian-Hafshejani A, Mohammed S, Moka N, Mokdad AH, Molokhia M, Monasta L, Moni MA, Moosavi MA, Moradi Y, Moraga P, Morgado-da-Costa J, Morrison SD, Mosapour A, Mubarik S, Mwanri L, Nagarajan AJ, Nagaraju SP, Nagata C, Naimzada MD, Nangia V, Naqvi AA, Narasimha Swamy S, Ndejjo R, Nduaguba SO, Negoi I, Negru SM, Neupane Kandel S, Nguyen CT, Nguyen HLT, Niazi RK, Nnaji CA, Noor NM, Nuñez-Samudio V, Nzoputam CI, Oancea B, Ochir C, Odukoya OO, Ogbo FA, Olagunju AT, Olakunde BO, Omar E, Omar Bali A, Omonisi AEE, Ong S, Onwujekwe OE, Orru H, Ortega-Altamirano DV, Otstavnov N, Otstavnov SS, Owolabi MO, P A M, Padubidri JR, Pakshir K, Pana A, Panagiotakos D, Panda-Jonas S, Pardhan S, Park EC, Park EK, Pashazadeh Kan F, Patel HK, Patel JR, Pati S, Pattanshetty SM, Paudel U, Pereira DM, Pereira RB, Perianayagam A, Pillay JD, Pirouzpanah S, Pishgar F, Podder I, Postma MJ, Pourjafar H, Prashant A, Preotescu L, Rabiee M, Rabiee N, Radfar A, Radhakrishnan RA, Radhakrishnan V, Rafiee A, Rahim F, Rahimzadeh S, Rahman M, Rahman MA, Rahmani AM, Rajai N, Rajesh A, Rakovac I, Ram P, Ramezanzadeh K, Ranabhat K, Ranasinghe P, Rao CR, Rao SJ, Rawassizadeh R, Razeghinia MS, Renzaho AMN, Rezaei N, Rezaei N, Rezapour A, Roberts TJ, Rodriguez JAB, Rohloff P, Romoli M, Ronfani L, Roshandel G, Rwegerera GM, S M, Sabour S, Saddik B, Saeed U, Sahebkar A, Sahoo H, Salehi S, Salem MR, Salimzadeh H, Samaei M, Samy AM, Sanabria J, Sankararaman S, Santric-Milicevic MM, Sardiwalla Y, Sarveazad A, Sathian B, Sawhney M, Saylan M, Schneider IJC, Sekerija M, Seylani A, Shafaat O, Shaghaghi Z, Shaikh MA, Shamsoddin E, Shannawaz M, Sharma R, Sheikh A, Sheikhbahaei S, Shetty A, Shetty JK, Shetty PH, Shibuya K, Shirkoohi R, Shivakumar KM, Shivarov V, Siabani S, Siddappa Malleshappa SK, Silva DAS, Singh JA, Sintayehu Y, Skryabin VY, Skryabina AA, Soeberg MJ, Sofi-Mahmudi A, Sotoudeh H, Steiropoulos P, Straif K, Subedi R, Sufiyan MB, Sultan I, Sultana S, Sur D, Szerencsés V, Szócska M, Tabarés-Seisdedos R, Tabuchi T, Tadbiri H, Taherkhani A, Takahashi K, Talaat IM, Tan KK, Tat VY, Tedla BAA, Tefera YG, Tehrani-Banihashemi A, Temsah MH, Tesfay FH, Tessema GA, Thapar R, Thavamani A, Thoguluva Chandrasekar V, Thomas N, Tohidinik HR, Touvier M, Tovani-Palone MR, Traini E, Tran BX, Tran KB, Tran MTN, Tripathy JP, Tusa BS, Ullah I, Ullah S, Umapathi KK, Unnikrishnan B, Upadhyay E, Vacante M, Vaezi M, Valadan Tahbaz S, Velazquez DZ, Veroux M, Violante FS, Vlassov V, Vo B, Volovici V, Vu GT, Waheed Y, Wamai RG, Ward P, Wen YF, Westerman R, Winkler AS, Yadav L, Yahyazadeh Jabbari SH, Yang L, Yaya S, Yazie TSY, Yeshaw Y, Yonemoto N, Younis MZ, Yousefi Z, Yu C, Yuce D, Yunusa I, Zadnik V, Zare F, Zastrozhin MS, Zastrozhina A, Zhang J, Zhong C, Zhou L, Zhu C, Ziapour A, Zimmermann IR, Fitzmaurice C, Murray CJL, Force LM
JAMA Oncol 2022 Mar 1;8(3):420-444. doi: 10.1001/jamaoncol.2021.6987. PMID: 34967848Free PMC Article
Balestrino R, Schapira AHV
Eur J Neurol 2020 Jan;27(1):27-42. Epub 2019 Nov 27 doi: 10.1111/ene.14108. PMID: 31631455
Ramig L, Halpern A, Spielman J, Fox C, Freeman K
Mov Disord 2018 Nov;33(11):1777-1791. Epub 2018 Sep 28 doi: 10.1002/mds.27460. PMID: 30264896Free PMC Article

Clinical prediction guides

Yacoubian TA, Fang YD, Gerstenecker A, Amara A, Stover N, Ruffrage L, Collette C, Kennedy R, Zhang Y, Hong H, Qin H, McConathy J, Benveniste EN, Standaert DG
Mov Disord 2023 May;38(5):743-754. Epub 2023 Feb 28 doi: 10.1002/mds.29363. PMID: 36853618
Landelle C, Dahlberg LS, Lungu O, Misic B, De Leener B, Doyon J
Mov Disord 2023 Apr;38(4):636-645. Epub 2023 Feb 21 doi: 10.1002/mds.29354. PMID: 36802374
Bloem BR, Marinus J, Almeida Q, Dibble L, Nieuwboer A, Post B, Ruzicka E, Goetz C, Stebbins G, Martinez-Martin P, Schrag A; Movement Disorders Society Rating Scales Committee
Mov Disord 2016 Sep;31(9):1342-55. Epub 2016 Mar 4 doi: 10.1002/mds.26572. PMID: 26945525
Goetz CG, Tilley BC, Shaftman SR, Stebbins GT, Fahn S, Martinez-Martin P, Poewe W, Sampaio C, Stern MB, Dodel R, Dubois B, Holloway R, Jankovic J, Kulisevsky J, Lang AE, Lees A, Leurgans S, LeWitt PA, Nyenhuis D, Olanow CW, Rascol O, Schrag A, Teresi JA, van Hilten JJ, LaPelle N; Movement Disorder Society UPDRS Revision Task Force
Mov Disord 2008 Nov 15;23(15):2129-70. doi: 10.1002/mds.22340. PMID: 19025984
Movement Disorder Society Task Force on Rating Scales for Parkinson's Disease
Mov Disord 2003 Jul;18(7):738-50. doi: 10.1002/mds.10473. PMID: 12815652

Recent systematic reviews

Medina A, Mahjoub Y, Shaver L, Pringsheim T
Mov Disord 2022 Dec;37(12):2327-2335. Epub 2022 Sep 26 doi: 10.1002/mds.29228. PMID: 36161673Free PMC Article
Wenning GK, Stankovic I, Vignatelli L, Fanciulli A, Calandra-Buonaura G, Seppi K, Palma JA, Meissner WG, Krismer F, Berg D, Cortelli P, Freeman R, Halliday G, Höglinger G, Lang A, Ling H, Litvan I, Low P, Miki Y, Panicker J, Pellecchia MT, Quinn N, Sakakibara R, Stamelou M, Tolosa E, Tsuji S, Warner T, Poewe W, Kaufmann H
Mov Disord 2022 Jun;37(6):1131-1148. Epub 2022 Apr 21 doi: 10.1002/mds.29005. PMID: 35445419Free PMC Article
Global Burden of Disease 2019 Cancer Collaboration, Kocarnik JM, Compton K, Dean FE, Fu W, Gaw BL, Harvey JD, Henrikson HJ, Lu D, Pennini A, Xu R, Ababneh E, Abbasi-Kangevari M, Abbastabar H, Abd-Elsalam SM, Abdoli A, Abedi A, Abidi H, Abolhassani H, Adedeji IA, Adnani QES, Advani SM, Afzal MS, Aghaali M, Ahinkorah BO, Ahmad S, Ahmad T, Ahmadi A, Ahmadi S, Ahmed Rashid T, Ahmed Salih Y, Akalu GT, Aklilu A, Akram T, Akunna CJ, Al Hamad H, Alahdab F, Al-Aly Z, Ali S, Alimohamadi Y, Alipour V, Aljunid SM, Alkhayyat M, Almasi-Hashiani A, Almasri NA, Al-Maweri SAA, Almustanyir S, Alonso N, Alvis-Guzman N, Amu H, Anbesu EW, Ancuceanu R, Ansari F, Ansari-Moghaddam A, Antwi MH, Anvari D, Anyasodor AE, Aqeel M, Arabloo J, Arab-Zozani M, Aremu O, Ariffin H, Aripov T, Arshad M, Artaman A, Arulappan J, Asemi Z, Asghari Jafarabadi M, Ashraf T, Atorkey P, Aujayeb A, Ausloos M, Awedew AF, Ayala Quintanilla BP, Ayenew T, Azab MA, Azadnajafabad S, Azari Jafari A, Azarian G, Azzam AY, Badiye AD, Bahadory S, Baig AA, Baker JL, Balakrishnan S, Banach M, Bärnighausen TW, Barone-Adesi F, Barra F, Barrow A, Behzadifar M, Belgaumi UI, Bezabhe WMM, Bezabih YM, Bhagat DS, Bhagavathula AS, Bhardwaj N, Bhardwaj P, Bhaskar S, Bhattacharyya K, Bhojaraja VS, Bibi S, Bijani A, Biondi A, Bisignano C, Bjørge T, Bleyer A, Blyuss O, Bolarinwa OA, Bolla SR, Braithwaite D, Brar A, Brenner H, Bustamante-Teixeira MT, Butt NS, Butt ZA, Caetano Dos Santos FL, Cao Y, Carreras G, Catalá-López F, Cembranel F, Cerin E, Cernigliaro A, Chakinala RC, Chattu SK, Chattu VK, Chaturvedi P, Chimed-Ochir O, Cho DY, Christopher DJ, Chu DT, Chung MT, Conde J, Cortés S, Cortesi PA, Costa VM, Cunha AR, Dadras O, Dagnew AB, Dahlawi SMA, Dai X, Dandona L, Dandona R, Darwesh AM, das Neves J, De la Hoz FP, Demis AB, Denova-Gutiérrez E, Dhamnetiya D, Dhimal ML, Dhimal M, Dianatinasab M, Diaz D, Djalalinia S, Do HP, Doaei S, Dorostkar F, Dos Santos Figueiredo FW, Driscoll TR, Ebrahimi H, Eftekharzadeh S, El Tantawi M, El-Abid H, Elbarazi I, Elhabashy HR, Elhadi M, El-Jaafary SI, Eshrati B, Eskandarieh S, Esmaeilzadeh F, Etemadi A, Ezzikouri S, Faisaluddin M, Faraon EJA, Fares J, Farzadfar F, Feroze AH, Ferrero S, Ferro Desideri L, Filip I, Fischer F, Fisher JL, Foroutan M, Fukumoto T, Gaal PA, Gad MM, Gadanya MA, Gallus S, Gaspar Fonseca M, Getachew Obsa A, Ghafourifard M, Ghashghaee A, Ghith N, Gholamalizadeh M, Gilani SA, Ginindza TG, Gizaw ATT, Glasbey JC, Golechha M, Goleij P, Gomez RS, Gopalani SV, Gorini G, Goudarzi H, Grosso G, Gubari MIM, Guerra MR, Guha A, Gunasekera DS, Gupta B, Gupta VB, Gupta VK, Gutiérrez RA, Hafezi-Nejad N, Haider MR, Haj-Mirzaian A, Halwani R, Hamadeh RR, Hameed S, Hamidi S, Hanif A, Haque S, Harlianto NI, Haro JM, Hasaballah AI, Hassanipour S, Hay RJ, Hay SI, Hayat K, Heidari G, Heidari M, Herrera-Serna BY, Herteliu C, Hezam K, Holla R, Hossain MM, Hossain MBH, Hosseini MS, Hosseini M, Hosseinzadeh M, Hostiuc M, Hostiuc S, Househ M, Hsairi M, Huang J, Hugo FN, 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