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Nephrotic syndrome

MedGen UID:
10308
Concept ID:
C0027726
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: Nephrotic Syndrome; Nephrotic Syndromes; Syndrome, Nephrotic
SNOMED CT: NS - Nephrotic syndrome (52254009); Nephrosis (52254009); Nephrotic syndrome (52254009)
 
HPO: HP:0000100
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0005377

Definition

Nephrotic syndrome is a collection of findings resulting from glomerular dysfunction with an increase in glomerular capillary wall permeability associated with pronounced proteinuria. Nephrotic syndrome refers to the constellation of clinical findings that result from severe renal loss of protein, with Proteinuria and hypoalbuminemia, edema, and hyperlipidemia. [from HPO]

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • CROGVNephrotic syndrome

Conditions with this feature

Nail-patella syndrome
MedGen UID:
10257
Concept ID:
C0027341
Disease or Syndrome
Nail-patella syndrome (NPS) (previously referred to as Fong's disease), encompasses the classic clinical tetrad of changes in the nails, knees, and elbows, and the presence of iliac horns. Nail changes are the most constant feature of NPS. Nails may be absent, hypoplastic, or dystrophic; ridged longitudinally or horizontally; pitted; discolored; separated into two halves by a longitudinal cleft or ridge of skin; and thin or (less often) thickened. The patellae may be small, irregularly shaped, or absent. Elbow abnormalities may include limitation of extension, pronation, and supination; cubitus valgus; and antecubital pterygia. Iliac horns are bilateral, conical, bony processes that project posteriorly and laterally from the central part of the iliac bones of the pelvis. Renal involvement, first manifest as proteinuria with or without hematuria, occurs in 30%-50% of affected individuals; end-stage renal disease occurs up to 15% of affected individuals. Primary open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension occur at increased frequency and at a younger age than in the general population.
Familial Mediterranean fever
MedGen UID:
45811
Concept ID:
C0031069
Disease or Syndrome
Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is divided into two phenotypes: type 1 and type 2. FMF type 1 is characterized by recurrent short episodes of inflammation and serositis including fever, peritonitis, synovitis, pleuritis, and, rarely, pericarditis and meningitis. The symptoms and severity vary among affected individuals, sometimes even among members of the same family. Amyloidosis, which can lead to renal failure, is the most severe complication, if untreated. FMF type 2 is characterized by amyloidosis as the first clinical manifestation of FMF in an otherwise asymptomatic individual.
Dysmorphic sialidosis with renal involvement
MedGen UID:
82778
Concept ID:
C0268232
Congenital Abnormality
Familial visceral amyloidosis, Ostertag type
MedGen UID:
82799
Concept ID:
C0268389
Disease or Syndrome
A group of rare renal diseases, characterized by amyloid fibril deposition of apolipoprotein A-I or A-II (AApoAI or AApoAII amyloidosis), lysozyme (ALys amyloidosis) or fibrinogen A-alpha chain (AFib amyloidosis) in one or several organs. Renal involvement leading to chronic renal disease and renal failure is a common sign. Additional manifestations depend on the organ involved and the type of amyloid fibrils deposited.
PMM2-congenital disorder of glycosylation
MedGen UID:
138111
Concept ID:
C0349653
Disease or Syndrome
PMM2-CDG, the most common of a group of disorders of abnormal glycosylation of N-linked oligosaccharides, is divided into three clinical stages: infantile multisystem, late-infantile and childhood ataxia–intellectual disability, and adult stable disability. The clinical manifestations and course are highly variable, ranging from infants who die in the first year of life to mildly affected adults. Clinical findings tend to be similar in sibs. In the infantile multisystem presentation, infants show axial hypotonia, hyporeflexia, esotropia, and developmental delay. Feeding problems, vomiting, faltering growth, and developmental delay are frequently seen. Subcutaneous fat may be excessive over the buttocks and suprapubic region. Two distinct clinical courses are observed: (1) a nonfatal neurologic course with faltering growth, strabismus, developmental delay, cerebellar hypoplasia, and hepatopathy in infancy followed by neuropathy and retinitis pigmentosa in the first or second decade; and (2) a more severe neurologic-multivisceral course with approximately 20% mortality in the first year of life. The late-infantile and childhood ataxia–intellectual disability stage, which begins between ages three and ten years, is characterized by hypotonia, ataxia, severely delayed language and motor development, inability to walk, and IQ of 40 to 70; other findings include seizures, stroke-like episodes or transient unilateral loss of function, coagulopathy, retinitis pigmentosa, joint contractures, and skeletal deformities. In the adult stable disability stage, intellectual ability is stable; peripheral neuropathy is variable, progressive retinitis pigmentosa and myopia are seen, thoracic and spinal deformities with osteoporosis worsen, and premature aging is observed; females may lack secondary sexual development and males may exhibit decreased testicular volume. Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and coagulopathy may occur. The risk for deep venous thrombosis is increased.
Glomerulopathy with fibronectin deposits 1
MedGen UID:
98017
Concept ID:
C0403557
Disease or Syndrome
Glomerulopathy with fibronectin deposits (GFND) is a genetically heterogeneous autosomal dominant disorder characterized clinically by proteinuria, microscopic hematuria, and hypertension that leads to end-stage renal failure in the second to fifth decade of life. Pathologic examination shows enlarged glomeruli with mesangial and subendothelial fibrillary deposits that show strong immunoreactivity to fibronectin (FN1; 135600) (Castelletti et al., 2008). Genetic Heterogeneity of Glomerulopathy with Fibronectin Deposits The GFND1 locus maps to chromosome 1q32. See also GFND2 (601894), which is caused by mutation in the FN1 gene (135600) on chromosome 2q35.
Action myoclonus-renal failure syndrome
MedGen UID:
155629
Concept ID:
C0751779
Disease or Syndrome
The action myoclonus-renal failure syndrome, also known as progressive myclonic epilepsy-4 with or without renal failure (EPM4), is an autosomal recessive progressive myoclonic epilepsy associated with renal failure. Cognitive function is preserved (Badhwar et al., 2004). Some patients do not develop renal failure (Dibbens et al., 2009). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of progressive myoclonic epilepsy, see EPM1A (254800).
Schimke immuno-osseous dysplasia
MedGen UID:
164078
Concept ID:
C0877024
Congenital Abnormality
Schimke immunoosseous dysplasia (SIOD) is characterized by spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia (SED) resulting in short stature, nephropathy, and T-cell deficiency. Radiographic manifestations of SED include ovoid and mildly flattened vertebral bodies, small ilia with shallow dysplastic acetabular fossae, and small deformed capital femoral epiphyses. Nearly all affected individuals have progressive steroid-resistant nephropathy, usually developing within five years of the diagnosis of growth failure and terminating with end-stage renal disease. The majority of tested individuals have T-cell deficiency and an associated risk for opportunistic infection, a common cause of death. SIOD involves a spectrum that ranges from an infantile or severe early-onset form with a greater risk of death during childhood to a juvenile or milder later-onset form with likely survival into adulthood if renal disease is appropriately treated.
Drash syndrome
MedGen UID:
181980
Concept ID:
C0950121
Disease or Syndrome
WT1 disorder is characterized by congenital/infantile or childhood onset of steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS), a progressive glomerulopathy that does not respond to standard steroid therapy. Additional common findings can include disorders of testicular development (with or without abnormalities of the external genitalia and/or müllerian structures) and Wilms tumor. Less common findings are congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) and gonadoblastoma. While various combinations of renal and other findings associated with a WT1 pathogenic variant were designated as certain syndromes in the past, those designations are now recognized to be part of a phenotypic continuum and are no longer clinically helpful.
Frasier syndrome
MedGen UID:
215533
Concept ID:
C0950122
Disease or Syndrome
WT1 disorder is characterized by congenital/infantile or childhood onset of steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS), a progressive glomerulopathy that does not respond to standard steroid therapy. Additional common findings can include disorders of testicular development (with or without abnormalities of the external genitalia and/or müllerian structures) and Wilms tumor. Less common findings are congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) and gonadoblastoma. While various combinations of renal and other findings associated with a WT1 pathogenic variant were designated as certain syndromes in the past, those designations are now recognized to be part of a phenotypic continuum and are no longer clinically helpful.
Sialic acid storage disease, severe infantile type
MedGen UID:
203367
Concept ID:
C1096902
Disease or Syndrome
Free sialic acid storage disorders (FSASDs) are a spectrum of neurodegenerative disorders resulting from increased lysosomal storage of free sialic acid. Historically, FSASD was divided into separate allelic disorders: Salla disease, intermediate severe Salla disease, and infantile free sialic acid storage disease (ISSD). The mildest type was Salla disease, characterized by normal appearance and absence of neurologic findings at birth, followed by slowly progressive neurologic deterioration resulting in mild-to-moderate psychomotor delays, spasticity, athetosis, and epileptic seizures. Salla disease was named for a municipality in Finnish Lapland where a specific founder variant is relatively prevalent. However, the term Salla has been used in the literature to refer to less severe FSASD. More severe FSASD is historically referred to as ISSD, and is characterized by severe developmental delay, coarse facial features, hepatosplenomegaly, and cardiomegaly; death usually occurs in early childhood.
Meretoja syndrome
MedGen UID:
301243
Concept ID:
C1622345
Disease or Syndrome
The Finnish type of systemic amyloidosis is characterized clinically by a unique constellation of features including lattice corneal dystrophy, and cranial neuropathy, bulbar signs, and skin changes. Some patients may develop peripheral neuropathy and renal failure. The disorder is usually inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern; however, homozygotes with a more severe phenotype have also been reported (Meretoja, 1973).
Pierson syndrome
MedGen UID:
373199
Concept ID:
C1836876
Disease or Syndrome
Pierson syndrome (PIERS) is an autosomal recessive disorder comprising congenital nephrotic syndrome with diffuse mesangial sclerosis and distinct ocular abnormalities, including microcoria and hypoplasia of the ciliary and pupillary muscles, as well as other anomalies. Many patients die early, and those who survive tend to show neurodevelopmental delay and visual loss (summary by Zenker et al., 2004). Mutations in the LAMB2 gene also cause nephrotic syndrome type 5 with or without mild ocular anomalies (NPHS5; 614199).
Hypoparathyroidism, deafness, renal disease syndrome
MedGen UID:
374443
Concept ID:
C1840333
Disease or Syndrome
HDR syndrome (HDRS), also known as Barakat syndrome, is a heterogeneous disorder characterized by the triad of Hypoparathyroidism (H), nerve Deafness (D) and/or Renal disease (R). Variable clinical features include hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism, polycystic ovaries, congenital heart disease, retinitis pigmentosa, and cognitive disability (Barakat et al., 2018).
Nephrosis-deafness-urinary tract-digital malformations syndrome
MedGen UID:
340568
Concept ID:
C1850552
Disease or Syndrome
A rare, genetic, multiple congenital anomalies syndrome characterized by urinary tract anomalies, nephrosis, conductive deafness, and digital malformations, including short and bifid distal phalanges of thumbs and big toes. There have been no further descriptions in the literature since 1962.
Nephrotic syndrome, type 3
MedGen UID:
377831
Concept ID:
C1853124
Disease or Syndrome
Nephrotic syndrome, a malfunction of the glomerular filter, is characterized clinically by proteinuria, edema, and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Renal histopathology may show diffuse mesangial sclerosis (DMS) or focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) (Hinkes et al., 2006). Most patients with NPHS3 show diffuse mesangial sclerosis on renal biopsy, which is a pathologic entity characterized by mesangial matrix expansion with no mesangial hypercellularity, hypertrophy of the podocytes, vacuolized podocytes, thickened basement membranes, and diminished patency of the capillary lumen (Gbadegesin et al., 2008). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of nephrotic syndrome and FSGS, see NPHS1 (256300).
Mesangial Sclerosis, Diffuse Renal, with Ocular Abnormalities
MedGen UID:
343307
Concept ID:
C1855282
Disease or Syndrome
Hutterite cerebroosteonephrodysplasia syndrome
MedGen UID:
343466
Concept ID:
C1856054
Disease or Syndrome
Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis 2
MedGen UID:
349053
Concept ID:
C1858915
Disease or Syndrome
Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is a pathologic entity associated clinically with proteinuria, the nephrotic syndrome (NPHS), and progressive loss of renal function. It is a common cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) (review by Meyrier, 2005). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and nephrotic syndrome (NPHS), see FSGS1 (603278).
Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome type 2A
MedGen UID:
349065
Concept ID:
C1858968
Disease or Syndrome
Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS), caused by defective lymphocyte homeostasis, is characterized by the following: Non-malignant lymphoproliferation (lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly with or without hypersplenism) that often improves with age. Autoimmune disease, mostly directed toward blood cells. Lifelong increased risk for both Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. In ALPS-FAS (the most common and best-characterized type of ALPS, associated with heterozygous germline pathogenic variants in FAS), non-malignant lymphoproliferation typically manifests in the first years of life, inexplicably waxes and wanes, and then often decreases without treatment in the second decade of life; in many affected individuals, however, neither splenomegaly nor the overall expansion of lymphocyte subsets in peripheral blood decreases. Although autoimmunity is often not present at the time of diagnosis or at the time of the most extensive lymphoproliferation, autoantibodies can be detected before autoimmune disease manifests clinically. In ALPS-FAS caused by homozygous or compound heterozygous (biallelic) pathogenic variants in FAS, severe lymphoproliferation occurs before, at, or shortly after birth, and usually results in death at an early age. ALPS-sFAS, resulting from somatic FAS pathogenic variants in selected cell populations, notably the alpha/beta double-negative T cells (a/ß-DNT cells), appears to be similar to ALPS-FAS resulting from heterozygous germline pathogenic variants in FAS, although lower incidence of splenectomy and lower lymphocyte counts have been reported in ALPS-sFAS and no cases of lymphoma have yet been published.
Chondroitin-6-sulfaturia, defective cellular immunity, nephrotic syndrome
MedGen UID:
349095
Concept ID:
C1859104
Disease or Syndrome
Glomerulopathy with fibronectin deposits 2
MedGen UID:
356149
Concept ID:
C1866075
Disease or Syndrome
Glomerulopathy with fibronectin deposits is a genetically heterogeneous autosomal dominant disorder characterized clinically by proteinuria, microscopic hematuria, and hypertension that leads to end-stage renal failure in the second to fifth decade of life. Pathologic examination shows enlarged glomeruli with mesangial and subendothelial fibrillary deposits that show strong immunoreactivity to fibronectin (Castelletti et al., 2008). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of GFND, see 137950.
Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, musculocontractural type
MedGen UID:
356497
Concept ID:
C1866294
Disease or Syndrome
Bleeding problems are common in the vascular type of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome and are caused by unpredictable tearing (rupture) of blood vessels and organs. These complications can lead to easy bruising, internal bleeding, a hole in the wall of the intestine (intestinal perforation), or stroke. During pregnancy, women with vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome may experience rupture of the uterus. Additional forms of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome that involve rupture of the blood vessels include the kyphoscoliotic, classical, and classical-like types.\n\nOther types of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome have additional signs and symptoms. The cardiac-valvular type causes severe problems with the valves that control the movement of blood through the heart. People with the kyphoscoliotic type experience severe curvature of the spine that worsens over time and can interfere with breathing by restricting lung expansion. A type of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome called brittle cornea syndrome is characterized by thinness of the clear covering of the eye (the cornea) and other eye abnormalities. The spondylodysplastic type features short stature and skeletal abnormalities such as abnormally curved (bowed) limbs. Abnormalities of muscles, including hypotonia and permanently bent joints (contractures), are among the characteristic signs of the musculocontractural and myopathic forms of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. The periodontal type causes abnormalities of the teeth and gums.\n\nMany people with the Ehlers-Danlos syndromes have soft, velvety skin that is highly stretchy (elastic) and fragile. Affected individuals tend to bruise easily, and some types of the condition also cause abnormal scarring. People with the classical form of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome experience wounds that split open with little bleeding and leave scars that widen over time to create characteristic "cigarette paper" scars. The dermatosparaxis type of the disorder is characterized by loose skin that sags and wrinkles, and extra (redundant) folds of skin may be present.\n\nAn unusually large range of joint movement (hypermobility) occurs in most forms of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, and it is a hallmark feature of the hypermobile type. Infants and children with hypermobility often have weak muscle tone (hypotonia), which can delay the development of motor skills such as sitting, standing, and walking. The loose joints are unstable and prone to dislocation and chronic pain. In the arthrochalasia type of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, infants have hypermobility and dislocations of both hips at birth.\n\nThe various forms of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome have been classified in several different ways. Originally, 11 forms of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome were named using Roman numerals to indicate the types (type I, type II, and so on). In 1997, researchers proposed a simpler classification (the Villefranche nomenclature) that reduced the number of types to six and gave them descriptive names based on their major features. In 2017, the classification was updated to include rare forms of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome that were identified more recently. The 2017 classification describes 13 types of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.\n\nEhlers-Danlos syndrome is a group of disorders that affect connective tissues supporting the skin, bones, blood vessels, and many other organs and tissues. Defects in connective tissues cause the signs and symptoms of these conditions, which range from mildly loose joints to life-threatening complications.
Nephrotic syndrome, type 2
MedGen UID:
358380
Concept ID:
C1868672
Disease or Syndrome
Steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome type 2 is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized clinically by childhood onset of proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia, hyperlipidemia, and edema. Kidney biopsies show nonspecific histologic changes such as minimal change, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), and diffuse mesangial proliferation. The disorder is resistant to steroid treatment and progresses to end-stage renal failure in the first or second decades (summary by Fuchshuber et al., 1996). Some patients show later onset of the disorder (Tsukaguchi et al., 2002). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of nephrotic syndrome and FSGS, see NPHS1 (256300).
Combined immunodeficiency due to STIM1 deficiency
MedGen UID:
440575
Concept ID:
C2748557
Disease or Syndrome
Immunodeficiency-10 (IMD10) is an autosomal recessive primary immunodeficiency characterized by onset of recurrent infections in childhood due to defective T- and NK-cell function, although the severity is variable. Affected individuals may also have hypotonia, hypohidrosis, or dental enamel hypoplasia consistent with amelogenesis imperfecta (summary by Parry et al., 2016).
Forsythe-wakeling syndrome
MedGen UID:
462209
Concept ID:
C3150859
Disease or Syndrome
Complement component 3 deficiency
MedGen UID:
462421
Concept ID:
C3151071
Disease or Syndrome
C3 glomerulopathy (C3G) is a complex ultra-rare complement-mediated renal disease caused by uncontrolled activation of the complement alternative pathway (AP) in the fluid phase (as opposed to cell surface) that is rarely inherited in a simple mendelian fashion. C3G affects individuals of all ages, with a median age at diagnosis of 23 years. Individuals with C3G typically present with hematuria, proteinuria, hematuria and proteinuria, acute nephritic syndrome or nephrotic syndrome, and low levels of the complement component C3. Spontaneous remission of C3G is uncommon, and about half of affected individuals develop end-stage renal disease (ESRD) within ten years of diagnosis, occasionally developing the late comorbidity of impaired visual acuity.
Lipodystrophy, partial, acquired, with low complement component c3, with or without glomerulonephritis
MedGen UID:
462697
Concept ID:
C3151347
Disease or Syndrome
Acquired partial lipodystrophy (APLD) is characterized clinically by the gradual onset of bilaterally symmetrical loss of subcutaneous fat from the face, neck, upper extremities, thorax, and abdomen, in the 'cephalocaudal' sequence, sparing the lower extremities. A large group of patients (83%) with acquired partial lipodystrophy have low serum levels of complement component C3 due to the presence of C3 nephritic factor, an IgG antibody that causes continuous activation of the alternative complement pathway and consumption of serum C3. About 22% of patients with this acquired complement defect develop membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis. Some individuals may also show an increased risk of infection (Misra et al., 2004). Acquired partial lipodystrophy is not inherited in a classic mendelian pattern; it rather represents a phenotype with a complex etiology. Affected individuals may have genetic susceptibility factors that require the additional presence of environmental factors or acquired disorders to be expressed (summary by Hegele et al., 2006). Most cases are sporadic, family history is negative, and females are more often affected than males (ratio, 4:1) (summary by Misra et al., 2004). See 608709 for a subtype of APLD not associated with low complement C3 or renal disease.
Nephrotic syndrome, type 4
MedGen UID:
462918
Concept ID:
C3151568
Disease or Syndrome
WT1 disorder is characterized by congenital/infantile or childhood onset of steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS), a progressive glomerulopathy that does not respond to standard steroid therapy. Additional common findings can include disorders of testicular development (with or without abnormalities of the external genitalia and/or müllerian structures) and Wilms tumor. Less common findings are congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) and gonadoblastoma. While various combinations of renal and other findings associated with a WT1 pathogenic variant were designated as certain syndromes in the past, those designations are now recognized to be part of a phenotypic continuum and are no longer clinically helpful.
Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis 6
MedGen UID:
481535
Concept ID:
C3279905
Disease or Syndrome
Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis-6 is an autosomal recessive childhood-onset kidney disorder manifest clinically by the nephrotic syndrome, which is characterized by proteinuria, hematuria, hypoalbuminemia, and progressive renal failure. It is a disease of the glomerular podocyte (summary by Mele et al., 2011). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and nephrotic syndrome, see FSGS1 (603278).
Nephrotic syndrome, type 6
MedGen UID:
481730
Concept ID:
C3280100
Disease or Syndrome
The nephrotic syndrome refers to a genetically heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia, and edema, resulting in end-stage kidney disease if untreated. Inherited defects in podocyte structure and function have been observed in some children with the steroid-resistant subtype of nephrotic syndrome (summary by Ozaltin et al., 2011). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of nephrotic syndrome, see NPHS1 (256300).
LAMB2-related infantile-onset nephrotic syndrome
MedGen UID:
481743
Concept ID:
C3280113
Disease or Syndrome
Nephrotic syndrome type 5 (NPHS5) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by very early onset of progressive renal failure manifest as proteinuria with consecutive edema starting in utero or within the first 3 months of life. A subset of patients may develop mild ocular anomalies, such as myopia, nystagmus, and strabismus (summary by Hasselbacher et al., 2006). Mutation in the LAMB2 gene can also cause Pierson syndrome (609049), which is characterized by nephrotic syndrome, distinct ocular anomalies, namely microcoria, and neurodevelopmental delay. For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of nephrotic syndrome, see NPHS1 (256300).
Coenzyme Q10 deficiency, primary, 1
MedGen UID:
764868
Concept ID:
C3551954
Disease or Syndrome
Primary coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) deficiency is usually associated with multisystem involvement, including neurologic manifestations such as fatal neonatal encephalopathy with hypotonia; a late-onset slowly progressive multiple-system atrophy-like phenotype (neurodegeneration with autonomic failure and various combinations of parkinsonism and cerebellar ataxia, and pyramidal dysfunction); and dystonia, spasticity, seizures, and intellectual disability. Steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS), the hallmark renal manifestation, is often the initial manifestation either as isolated renal involvement that progresses to end-stage renal disease (ESRD), or associated with encephalopathy (seizures, stroke-like episodes, severe neurologic impairment) resulting in early death. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), retinopathy or optic atrophy, and sensorineural hearing loss can also be seen.
Coenzyme Q10 deficiency, primary, 3
MedGen UID:
766272
Concept ID:
C3553358
Disease or Syndrome
Primary coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) deficiency is usually associated with multisystem involvement, including neurologic manifestations such as fatal neonatal encephalopathy with hypotonia; a late-onset slowly progressive multiple-system atrophy-like phenotype (neurodegeneration with autonomic failure and various combinations of parkinsonism and cerebellar ataxia, and pyramidal dysfunction); and dystonia, spasticity, seizures, and intellectual disability. Steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS), the hallmark renal manifestation, is often the initial manifestation either as isolated renal involvement that progresses to end-stage renal disease (ESRD), or associated with encephalopathy (seizures, stroke-like episodes, severe neurologic impairment) resulting in early death. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), retinopathy or optic atrophy, and sensorineural hearing loss can also be seen.
Immunoglobulin-mediated membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis
MedGen UID:
767244
Concept ID:
C3554330
Disease or Syndrome
C3 glomerulopathy (C3G) is a complex ultra-rare complement-mediated renal disease caused by uncontrolled activation of the complement alternative pathway (AP) in the fluid phase (as opposed to cell surface) that is rarely inherited in a simple mendelian fashion. C3G affects individuals of all ages, with a median age at diagnosis of 23 years. Individuals with C3G typically present with hematuria, proteinuria, hematuria and proteinuria, acute nephritic syndrome or nephrotic syndrome, and low levels of the complement component C3. Spontaneous remission of C3G is uncommon, and about half of affected individuals develop end-stage renal disease (ESRD) within ten years of diagnosis, occasionally developing the late comorbidity of impaired visual acuity.
Nephrotic syndrome, type 8
MedGen UID:
815283
Concept ID:
C3808953
Disease or Syndrome
Any nephrotic syndrome in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the ARHGDIA gene.
Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome, type III caused by mutation in PRKCD
MedGen UID:
816258
Concept ID:
C3809928
Disease or Syndrome
Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome type III is an autosomal recessive disorder of immune dysregulation. The phenotype is variable, but most patients have significant lymphadenopathy associated with variable autoimmune manifestations. Some patients may have recurrent infections. Lymphocyte accumulation results from a combination of impaired apoptosis and excessive proliferation (summary by Oliveira, 2013). For a general description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of ALPS, see 601859.
Lipodystrophy, partial, acquired, susceptibility to
MedGen UID:
854363
Concept ID:
C3887501
Finding
An inherited susceptibility or predisposition to developing aquired partial lipodystrophy.
Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome 7
MedGen UID:
854829
Concept ID:
C3888244
Disease or Syndrome
Most characteristically, Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (AGS) manifests as an early-onset encephalopathy that usually, but not always, results in severe intellectual and physical disability. A subgroup of infants with AGS present at birth with abnormal neurologic findings, hepatosplenomegaly, elevated liver enzymes, and thrombocytopenia, a picture highly suggestive of congenital infection. Otherwise, most affected infants present at variable times after the first few weeks of life, frequently after a period of apparently normal development. Typically, they demonstrate the subacute onset of a severe encephalopathy characterized by extreme irritability, intermittent sterile pyrexias, loss of skills, and slowing of head growth. Over time, as many as 40% develop chilblain skin lesions on the fingers, toes, and ears. It is becoming apparent that atypical, sometimes milder, cases of AGS exist, and thus the true extent of the phenotype associated with pathogenic variants in the AGS-related genes is not yet known.
Nephrotic syndrome, type 10
MedGen UID:
862944
Concept ID:
C4014507
Disease or Syndrome
Any nephrotic syndrome in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the EMP2 gene.
Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis 7
MedGen UID:
863362
Concept ID:
C4014925
Disease or Syndrome
Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis is a form of kidney injury defined by partial sclerosis of some, but not all, glomeruli. It is characterized clinically by significant proteinuria with or without features of nephrotic syndrome. Some patients develop end-stage renal disease (summary by Barua et al., 2014). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and nephrotic syndrome, see FSGS1 (603278).
Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis 8
MedGen UID:
863430
Concept ID:
C4014993
Disease or Syndrome
Any focal segmental glomerulosclerosis in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the ANLN gene.
Nephrotic syndrome, type 11
MedGen UID:
898622
Concept ID:
C4225228
Disease or Syndrome
Nephrotic syndrome type 11 (NPHS11) is an autosomal recessive disorder of the kidney with onset in the first decade of life. The disorder is progressive and usually results in end-stage renal disease necessitating renal transplantation, although some patients may have a slightly milder phenotype (Miyake et al., 2015). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of nephrotic syndrome, see NPHS1 (256300).
Mucopolysaccharidosis-plus syndrome
MedGen UID:
934594
Concept ID:
C4310627
Disease or Syndrome
MPSPS is an autosomal recessive inborn error of metabolism resulting in a multisystem disorder with features of the mucopolysaccharidosis lysosomal storage diseases (see, e.g., 607016). Patients present in infancy or early childhood with respiratory difficulties, cardiac problems, anemia, dysostosis multiplex, renal involvement, coarse facies, and delayed psychomotor development. Most patients die of cardiorespiratory failure in the first years of life (summary by Kondo et al., 2017).
Autoimmune disease, multisystem, infantile-onset, 2
MedGen UID:
934735
Concept ID:
C4310768
Disease or Syndrome
Any autoimmune disease, multisystem, infantile-onset in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the ZAP70 gene.
Pidermolysis bullosa, junctional 7, with interstitial lung disease and nephrotic syndrome
MedGen UID:
1388385
Concept ID:
C4518785
Disease or Syndrome
Junctional epidermolysis bullosa-7 with interstitial lung disease and nephrotic syndrome (JEB7), also known as ILNEB, is an autosomal recessive multiorgan disorder that includes congenital interstitial lung disease, nephrotic syndrome, and epidermolysis bullosa. The respiratory and renal features predominate, and lung involvement accounts for the lethal course of the disease (summary by Has et al., 2012).
Galloway-Mowat syndrome 2, X-linked
MedGen UID:
1625619
Concept ID:
C4538784
Disease or Syndrome
Galloway-Mowat syndrome is a renal-neurologic disease characterized by early-onset nephrotic syndrome associated with microcephaly, gyral abnormalities of the brain, and delayed psychomotor development. Most patients have dysmorphic facial features, often including hypertelorism, ear abnormalities, and micrognathia. Other features, such as arachnodactyly and visual impairment, are more variable. Most patients die in the first years of life (summary by Braun et al., 2017). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of GAMOS, see GAMOS1 (251300).
Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency 33
MedGen UID:
1623699
Concept ID:
C4540209
Disease or Syndrome
COXPD33 is an autosomal recessive multisystem disorder resulting from a defect in mitochondrial energy metabolism. The phenotype is highly variable, ranging from death in infancy to adult-onset progressive external ophthalmoplegia (PEO) and myopathy. A common finding is cardiomyopathy and increased serum lactate (summary by Feichtinger et al., 2017). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency, see COXPD1 (609060).
Galloway-Mowat syndrome 3
MedGen UID:
1627611
Concept ID:
C4540266
Disease or Syndrome
Galloway-Mowat syndrome is a renal-neurologic disease characterized by early-onset nephrotic syndrome associated with microcephaly, gyral abnormalities of the brain, and delayed psychomotor development. Most patients have dysmorphic facial features, often including hypertelorism, ear abnormalities, and micrognathia. Other features, such as arachnodactyly and visual impairment, are more variable. Most patients die in the first years of life (summary by Braun et al., 2017). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of GAMOS, see GAMOS1 (251300).
Galloway-Mowat syndrome 4
MedGen UID:
1613511
Concept ID:
C4540270
Disease or Syndrome
Galloway-Mowat syndrome is a renal-neurologic disease characterized by early-onset nephrotic syndrome associated with microcephaly, gyral abnormalities, and delayed psychomotor development. Most patients have dysmorphic facial features, often including hypertelorism, ear abnormalities, and micrognathia. Other features, such as arachnodactyly and visual impairment, are more variable. Most patients die in the first years of life (summary by Braun et al., 2017). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of GAMOS, see GAMOS1 (251300).
Nephrotic syndrome 16
MedGen UID:
1622427
Concept ID:
C4540453
Disease or Syndrome
Nephrotic syndrome 14
MedGen UID:
1617660
Concept ID:
C4540559
Disease or Syndrome
Sphingosine phosphate lyase insufficiency syndrome (SPLIS) is characterized by varying combinations of steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (ranging from nonimmune fetal hydrops to adolescent onset), primary adrenal insufficiency (with or without mineralocorticoid deficiency), testicular insufficiency, hypothyroidism, ichthyosis, lymphopenia/immunodeficiency, and neurologic abnormalities that can include developmental delay, regression / progressive neurologic involvement, cranial nerve deficits, and peripheral motor and sensory neuropathy.
Galloway-Mowat syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1634188
Concept ID:
C4551772
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal dominant Alport syndrome
MedGen UID:
1648326
Concept ID:
C4746547
Disease or Syndrome
In Alport syndrome (AS) a spectrum of phenotypes ranging from progressive renal disease with extrarenal abnormalities to isolated hematuria with a non-progressive or very slowly progressive course is observed. Approximately two thirds of AS is X-linked (XLAS); approximately 15% is autosomal recessive (ARAS), and approximately 20% is autosomal dominant (ADAS). In the absence of treatment, renal disease progresses from microscopic hematuria (microhematuria) to proteinuria, progressive renal insufficiency, and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in all males with XLAS, and in all males and females with ARAS. Progressive sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) is usually present by late childhood or early adolescence. Ocular findings include anterior lenticonus (which is virtually pathognomonic), maculopathy (whitish or yellowish flecks or granulations in the perimacular region), corneal endothelial vesicles (posterior polymorphous dystrophy), and recurrent corneal erosion. In individuals with ADAS, ESRD is frequently delayed until later adulthood, SNHL is relatively late in onset, and ocular involvement is rare.
Autosomal recessive Alport syndrome
MedGen UID:
1648334
Concept ID:
C4746745
Disease or Syndrome
In Alport syndrome (AS) a spectrum of phenotypes ranging from progressive renal disease with extrarenal abnormalities to isolated hematuria with a non-progressive or very slowly progressive course is observed. Approximately two thirds of AS is X-linked (XLAS); approximately 15% is autosomal recessive (ARAS), and approximately 20% is autosomal dominant (ADAS). In the absence of treatment, renal disease progresses from microscopic hematuria (microhematuria) to proteinuria, progressive renal insufficiency, and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in all males with XLAS, and in all males and females with ARAS. Progressive sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) is usually present by late childhood or early adolescence. Ocular findings include anterior lenticonus (which is virtually pathognomonic), maculopathy (whitish or yellowish flecks or granulations in the perimacular region), corneal endothelial vesicles (posterior polymorphous dystrophy), and recurrent corneal erosion. In individuals with ADAS, ESRD is frequently delayed until later adulthood, SNHL is relatively late in onset, and ocular involvement is rare.
X-linked Alport syndrome
MedGen UID:
1648433
Concept ID:
C4746986
Disease or Syndrome
In Alport syndrome (AS) a spectrum of phenotypes ranging from progressive renal disease with extrarenal abnormalities to isolated hematuria with a non-progressive or very slowly progressive course is observed. Approximately two thirds of AS is X-linked (XLAS); approximately 15% is autosomal recessive (ARAS), and approximately 20% is autosomal dominant (ADAS). In the absence of treatment, renal disease progresses from microscopic hematuria (microhematuria) to proteinuria, progressive renal insufficiency, and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in all males with XLAS, and in all males and females with ARAS. Progressive sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) is usually present by late childhood or early adolescence. Ocular findings include anterior lenticonus (which is virtually pathognomonic), maculopathy (whitish or yellowish flecks or granulations in the perimacular region), corneal endothelial vesicles (posterior polymorphous dystrophy), and recurrent corneal erosion. In individuals with ADAS, ESRD is frequently delayed until later adulthood, SNHL is relatively late in onset, and ocular involvement is rare.
Galloway-Mowat syndrome 6
MedGen UID:
1674560
Concept ID:
C5193043
Disease or Syndrome
Galloway-Mowat syndrome is a phenotypically heterogeneous disorder characterized by neurodevelopmental defects combined with renal-glomerular disease manifest as nephrotic syndrome and proteinuria. Most patients with GAMOS6 also have growth deficiency with variable microcephaly, and the renal disease may be age-dependent. Additional variable endocrine abnormalities have also been reported (summary by Braun et al., 2018). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of GAMOS, see GAMOS1 (251300).
Galloway-Mowat syndrome 7
MedGen UID:
1679283
Concept ID:
C5193044
Disease or Syndrome
Galloway-Mowat syndrome-7 (GAMOS7) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by developmental delay, microcephaly, and early-onset nephrotic syndrome (summary by Rosti et al., 2017). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of GAMOS, see GAMOS1 (251300).
Galloway-Mowat syndrome 8
MedGen UID:
1675829
Concept ID:
C5193045
Disease or Syndrome
Galloway-Mowat syndrome-8 is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by impaired psychomotor development, poor overall growth with microcephaly, and early-onset progressive nephrotic syndrome associated with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis on renal biopsy. Some patients may have seizures, and some may die in childhood (summary by Fujita et al., 2018). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of GAMOS, see GAMOS1 (251300).
Granulomatous disease, chronic, autosomal recessive, 5
MedGen UID:
1710326
Concept ID:
C5394542
Disease or Syndrome
Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a primary immunodeficiency disorder of phagocytes (neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages, and eosinophils) resulting from impaired killing of bacteria and fungi. CGD is characterized by severe recurrent bacterial and fungal infections and dysregulated inflammatory responses resulting in granuloma formation and other inflammatory disorders such as colitis. Infections typically involve the lung (pneumonia), lymph nodes (lymphadenitis), liver (abscess), bone (osteomyelitis), and skin (abscesses or cellulitis). Granulomas typically involve the genitourinary system (bladder) and gastrointestinal tract (often the pylorus initially, and later the esophagus, jejunum, ileum, cecum, rectum, and perirectal area). Some males with X-linked CGD have McLeod neuroacanthocytosis syndrome as the result of a contiguous gene deletion. While CGD may present anytime from infancy to late adulthood, the vast majority of affected individuals are diagnosed before age five years. Use of antimicrobial prophylaxis and therapy has greatly improved overall survival.
Autoinflammation, immune dysregulation, and eosinophilia
MedGen UID:
1750270
Concept ID:
C5436572
Disease or Syndrome
Autoinflammation, immune dysregulation, and eosinophilia (AIIDE) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by onset of severe atopic dermatitis and chronic gastrointestinal inflammation, mainly involving the colon, in infancy or early childhood. Affected individuals tend to have asthma and food or environmental allergies, as well as poor overall growth with short stature. Severe liver involvement has also been reported (Takeichi et al., 2021). Laboratory studies show increased eosinophils with normal or increased IgE levels, as well as evidence of a hyperactive immune state, including increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein. Treatment with JAK inhibitors, such as ruxolitinib and tofacitinib, results in dramatic clinical improvement (summary by Gruber et al., 2020).
Nephrotic syndrome, type 22
MedGen UID:
1745920
Concept ID:
C5436909
Disease or Syndrome
Nephrotic syndrome type 22 (NPHS22) is an autosomal recessive renal disease characterized by onset of progressive kidney dysfunction in infancy. Affected individuals usually present with edema associated with hypoproteinemia, proteinuria, and microscopic hematuria. Renal biopsy shows effacement of the podocyte foot processes, glomerulosclerosis, and thickening of the glomerular basement membrane. The disease is steroid-resistant and progressive, resulting in end-stage renal disease usually necessitating kidney transplant (Majmundar et al., 2021). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of nephrotic syndrome, see NPHS1 (256300).
Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and neurodevelopmental syndrome
MedGen UID:
1794148
Concept ID:
C5561938
Disease or Syndrome
Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and neurodevelopmental syndrome (FSGSNEDS) is characterized by global developmental delay and renal dysfunction manifest as proteinuria and nephrotic syndrome apparent from infancy or early childhood. Some patients present with renal disease, whereas others present with developmental delay and develop renal disease later in childhood. Renal biopsy shows focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), but the course of the disease is variable: some patients have transient proteinuria and others require renal transplant. Neurodevelopmental features are also variable, with some patients having only mildly impaired intellectual development, and others having a severe developmental disorder associated with early-onset refractory seizures or epileptic encephalopathy. Additional features, including feeding difficulties, poor overall growth, and nonspecific dysmorphic facial features, are commonly observed (summary by Assoum et al., 2018 and Weng et al., 2021).
Immunodeficiency 91 and hyperinflammation
MedGen UID:
1794283
Concept ID:
C5562073
Disease or Syndrome
Immunodeficiency-91 and hyperinflammation (IMD91) is an autosomal recessive complex immunologic disorder characterized by both immunodeficiency and recurrent infections, often to viruses or mycobacteria, as well as by hyperinflammation with systemic involvement. Affected individuals present in infancy with variable features, including fever, infection, thrombocytopenia, renal or hepatic dysfunction, recurrent infections, or seizures. Most patients eventually develop hepatic or renal failure, compromised neurologic function, lymphadenopathy or hepatosplenomegaly, and multiorgan failure resulting in death. More variable features may include intermittent monocytosis, features of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), and serologic evidence of hyperinflammation. The disorder is thought to result from dysregulation of the interferon response to viral stimulation in the innate immune system (summary by Le Voyer et al., 2021; Vavassori et al., 2021).
Nephrotic syndrome, IIa 26
MedGen UID:
1823994
Concept ID:
C5774221
Disease or Syndrome
Nephrotic syndrome type 26 (NPHS26) is an autosomal recessive renal disorder characterized by onset of proteinuria in the first months or years of life. Other features may include edema and hypoalbuminemia. Renal biopsy shows focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), diffuse mesangial sclerosis (DMS), abnormalities of the glomerular basement membrane, and effacement of podocyte foot processes. There is variability in disease progression and response to treatment: some patients respond to steroids, whereas others show steroid resistance and progression to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) (Braun et al., 2019; Taniguchi et al., 2021). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of nephrotic syndrome, see NPHS1 (256300).
Cataracts, hearing impairment, nephrotic syndrome, and enterocolitis 1
MedGen UID:
1840207
Concept ID:
C5829571
Disease or Syndrome
Cataracts, hearing impairment, nephrotic syndrome, and enterocolitis-1 (CHINE1) is an X-linked syndromic disorder that is phenotypically more severe in males than females. Affected males present with the full constellation of symptoms in early infancy, resulting in death in early childhood. Affected females develop early-onset hearing impairment, often with early-onset cataracts, but only rarely have nephrotic syndrome or proteinuria; they do not have enterocolitis. The variable manifestations in females may be influenced by skewed X-inactivation. Telomeres are shortened, but classic mucocutaneous features of DKCX are not typically observed. CHINE1 is due to a ribosomal pseudouridylation defect (Balogh et al., 2020). See also CHINE2 (620425), caused by mutation in the NOP10 gene (606471).
Cataracts, hearing impairment, nephrotic syndrome, and enterocolitis 2
MedGen UID:
1841226
Concept ID:
C5830590
Disease or Syndrome
Cataracts, hearing impairment, nephrotic syndrome, and enterocolitis-2 (CHINE2) is an autosomal recessive syndromic disorder characterized by onset of this constellation of features in infancy, resulting in death in early childhood. Telomeres are shortened, but classic mucocutaneous features of DKCB1 are not typically observed. CHINE2 is due to a ribosomal pseudouridylation defect (Balogh et al., 2020). See also CHINE1 (301108), caused by mutation in the DKC1 gene (300126).

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Trautmann A, Boyer O, Hodson E, Bagga A, Gipson DS, Samuel S, Wetzels J, Alhasan K, Banerjee S, Bhimma R, Bonilla-Felix M, Cano F, Christian M, Hahn D, Kang HG, Nakanishi K, Safouh H, Trachtman H, Xu H, Cook W, Vivarelli M, Haffner D; International Pediatric Nephrology Association
Pediatr Nephrol 2023 Mar;38(3):877-919. Epub 2022 Oct 21 doi: 10.1007/s00467-022-05739-3. PMID: 36269406Free PMC Article
Rovin BH, Adler SG, Barratt J, Bridoux F, Burdge KA, Chan TM, Cook HT, Fervenza FC, Gibson KL, Glassock RJ, Jayne DRW, Jha V, Liew A, Liu ZH, Mejía-Vilet JM, Nester CM, Radhakrishnan J, Rave EM, Reich HN, Ronco P, Sanders JF, Sethi S, Suzuki Y, Tang SCW, Tesar V, Vivarelli M, Wetzels JFM, Lytvyn L, Craig JC, Tunnicliffe DJ, Howell M, Tonelli MA, Cheung M, Earley A, Floege J
Kidney Int 2021 Oct;100(4):753-779. doi: 10.1016/j.kint.2021.05.015. PMID: 34556300
Downie ML, Gallibois C, Parekh RS, Noone DG
Paediatr Int Child Health 2017 Nov;37(4):248-258. Epub 2017 Sep 15 doi: 10.1080/20469047.2017.1374003. PMID: 28914167

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Claudio P, Gabriella M
J Nephrol 2023 Nov;36(8):2179-2190. Epub 2023 Jul 19 doi: 10.1007/s40620-023-01697-7. PMID: 37466816
Politano SA, Colbert GB, Hamiduzzaman N
Prim Care 2020 Dec;47(4):597-613. Epub 2020 Sep 26 doi: 10.1016/j.pop.2020.08.002. PMID: 33121631
Wang CS, Greenbaum LA
Pediatr Clin North Am 2019 Feb;66(1):73-85. doi: 10.1016/j.pcl.2018.08.006. PMID: 30454752
Noone DG, Iijima K, Parekh R
Lancet 2018 Jul 7;392(10141):61-74. Epub 2018 Jun 14 doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(18)30536-1. PMID: 29910038
Kerlin BA, Ayoob R, Smoyer WE
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2012 Mar;7(3):513-20. Epub 2012 Feb 16 doi: 10.2215/CJN.10131011. PMID: 22344511Free PMC Article

Diagnosis

Vivarelli M, Gibson K, Sinha A, Boyer O
Lancet 2023 Sep 2;402(10404):809-824. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(23)01051-6. PMID: 37659779
Zabala Ramirez MJ, Stein EJ, Jain K
Med Clin North Am 2023 Jul;107(4):727-737. Epub 2023 Apr 8 doi: 10.1016/j.mcna.2023.03.006. PMID: 37258010
Politano SA, Colbert GB, Hamiduzzaman N
Prim Care 2020 Dec;47(4):597-613. Epub 2020 Sep 26 doi: 10.1016/j.pop.2020.08.002. PMID: 33121631
Wang CS, Greenbaum LA
Pediatr Clin North Am 2019 Feb;66(1):73-85. doi: 10.1016/j.pcl.2018.08.006. PMID: 30454752
Downie ML, Gallibois C, Parekh RS, Noone DG
Paediatr Int Child Health 2017 Nov;37(4):248-258. Epub 2017 Sep 15 doi: 10.1080/20469047.2017.1374003. PMID: 28914167

Therapy

Xu Y, Yang Q, Fu C, Han E, Gao Y
BMJ Open 2023 Jan 18;13(1):e064220. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2022-064220. PMID: 36657752Free PMC Article
Hedin E, Bijelić V, Barrowman N, Geier P
Pediatr Nephrol 2022 Aug;37(8):1747-1757. Epub 2022 Mar 3 doi: 10.1007/s00467-021-05358-4. PMID: 35239032
Hodson EM, Sinha A, Cooper TE
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2022 Feb 28;2(2):CD003233. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD003233.pub3. PMID: 35224732Free PMC Article
Iijima K, Sako M, Oba M, Tanaka S, Hamada R, Sakai T, Ohwada Y, Ninchoji T, Yamamura T, Machida H, Shima Y, Tanaka R, Kaito H, Araki Y, Morohashi T, Kumagai N, Gotoh Y, Ikezumi Y, Kubota T, Kamei K, Fujita N, Ohtsuka Y, Okamoto T, Yamada T, Tanaka E, Shimizu M, Horinochi T, Konishi A, Omori T, Nakanishi K, Ishikura K, Ito S, Nakamura H, Nozu K; Japanese Study Group of Kidney Disease in Children
J Am Soc Nephrol 2022 Feb;33(2):401-419. Epub 2021 Dec 8 doi: 10.1681/ASN.2021050643. PMID: 34880074Free PMC Article
Estrada CC, Maldonado A, Mallipattu SK
J Am Soc Nephrol 2019 Feb;30(2):187-200. Epub 2019 Jan 14 doi: 10.1681/ASN.2018080853. PMID: 30642877Free PMC Article

Prognosis

Tian Y, Liu J, Zhao Y, Jiang N, Liu X, Zhao G, Wang X
BMC Med 2023 Jun 7;21(1):208. doi: 10.1186/s12916-023-02907-6. PMID: 37286970Free PMC Article
Zhao M, Veeranki SP, Magnussen CG, Xi B
BMJ 2020 Jul 1;370:m2031. doi: 10.1136/bmj.m2031. PMID: 32611588Free PMC Article
Keri KC, Blumenthal S, Kulkarni V, Beck L, Chongkrairatanakul T
Postgrad Med J 2019 Jan;95(1119):23-31. Epub 2019 Jan 25 doi: 10.1136/postgradmedj-2018-135729. PMID: 30683678
Olowu WA, Ademola A, Ajite AB, Saad YM
Paediatr Int Child Health 2017 Nov;37(4):259-268. Epub 2017 Sep 26 doi: 10.1080/20469047.2017.1374002. PMID: 28949280
Schwimmer JA, Markowitz GS, Valeri A, Appel GB
Semin Nephrol 2003 Mar;23(2):209-18. doi: 10.1053/snep.2003.50019. PMID: 12704581

Clinical prediction guides

Vivarelli M, Gibson K, Sinha A, Boyer O
Lancet 2023 Sep 2;402(10404):809-824. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(23)01051-6. PMID: 37659779
Campbell RE, Thurman JM
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2022 Dec;17(12):1823-1834. Epub 2022 Oct 5 doi: 10.2215/CJN.07180622. PMID: 36198505Free PMC Article
Warejko JK, Tan W, Daga A, Schapiro D, Lawson JA, Shril S, Lovric S, Ashraf S, Rao J, Hermle T, Jobst-Schwan T, Widmeier E, Majmundar AJ, Schneider R, Gee HY, Schmidt JM, Vivante A, van der Ven AT, Ityel H, Chen J, Sadowski CE, Kohl S, Pabst WL, Nakayama M, Somers MJG, Rodig NM, Daouk G, Baum M, Stein DR, Ferguson MA, Traum AZ, Soliman NA, Kari JA, El Desoky S, Fathy H, Zenker M, Bakkaloglu SA, Müller D, Noyan A, Ozaltin F, Cadnapaphornchai MA, Hashmi S, Hopcian J, Kopp JB, Benador N, Bockenhauer D, Bogdanovic R, Stajić N, Chernin G, Ettenger R, Fehrenbach H, Kemper M, Munarriz RL, Podracka L, Büscher R, Serdaroglu E, Tasic V, Mane S, Lifton RP, Braun DA, Hildebrandt F
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2018 Jan 6;13(1):53-62. Epub 2017 Nov 10 doi: 10.2215/CJN.04120417. PMID: 29127259Free PMC Article
Gatta A, Verardo A, Bolognesi M
Intern Emerg Med 2012 Oct;7 Suppl 3:S193-9. doi: 10.1007/s11739-012-0802-0. PMID: 23073857
Sinha A, Bagga A
Indian J Pediatr 2012 Aug;79(8):1045-55. Epub 2012 May 30 doi: 10.1007/s12098-012-0776-y. PMID: 22644544

Recent systematic reviews

Trautmann A, Boyer O, Hodson E, Bagga A, Gipson DS, Samuel S, Wetzels J, Alhasan K, Banerjee S, Bhimma R, Bonilla-Felix M, Cano F, Christian M, Hahn D, Kang HG, Nakanishi K, Safouh H, Trachtman H, Xu H, Cook W, Vivarelli M, Haffner D; International Pediatric Nephrology Association
Pediatr Nephrol 2023 Mar;38(3):877-919. Epub 2022 Oct 21 doi: 10.1007/s00467-022-05739-3. PMID: 36269406Free PMC Article
Hedin E, Bijelić V, Barrowman N, Geier P
Pediatr Nephrol 2022 Aug;37(8):1747-1757. Epub 2022 Mar 3 doi: 10.1007/s00467-021-05358-4. PMID: 35239032
Hodson EM, Sinha A, Cooper TE
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2022 Feb 28;2(2):CD003233. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD003233.pub3. PMID: 35224732Free PMC Article
Gertz MA, Dispenzieri A
JAMA 2020 Jul 7;324(1):79-89. doi: 10.1001/jama.2020.5493. PMID: 32633805
Kaegi C, Wuest B, Schreiner J, Steiner UC, Vultaggio A, Matucci A, Crowley C, Boyman O
Front Immunol 2019;10:1990. Epub 2019 Sep 6 doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2019.01990. PMID: 31555262Free PMC Article

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